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Cholesterol

Could bananas help with weight loss?

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Banana is a safe addition to a balanced diet, as it contains a range of vital nutrients and is a good source of fiber.

While eating bananas can not lead directly to weight loss, some of these fruits ‘ properties may help a person reduce bloating, control their appetite, and replace processed sugars.

In this article find out more about eating bananas for weight loss. We are also looking into their nutritional and sugar content.

Are bananas good for weight loss?

Bananas fruit
Some of the banana properties can aid in controlling appetite.

Bananas are a great source of fibre. A medium banana contains 3.07 grams (g) of fiber, and for those on a 2,000-calorie diet the recommended daily intake for adults is 25 g.

Research shows a link between increased fiber intakes and lower body weights. This nutrient can also aid in reducing and stabilizing blood sugar levels.

Fiber can help people feel full longer, reducing the total amount of calories they eat. Digesting certain types of fiber takes the body a long time, enabling it to better regulate food intake.

The authors of a study that looked at more than 50 studies suggest that raising the daily fiber intake by 14 g could result in a 10 percent decrease in total energy intake and a weight loss of 2 kilograms (4.41 pounds) over 4 months.

In 100 overweight but otherwise healthy adults, study from China looked at the effect of dietary fiber on appetite. The results showed that an improvement in dietary fiber decreased hunger feelings as well as how many calories were consumed by the participants.

Fiber can also help to lower cholesterol levels and reduce heart disease risks.

Unripe green bananas contain hardy starch. Resistant starch is a protein that isn’t quickly breaking down in the small intestine.

Alternatively, it moves through to the large intestine, ensuring blood sugar levels are not increased. It then ferments in the large intestine, which promotes the development of healthy intestinal bacteria.

Eating more resistant starch will help people lose weight because it functions like dietary fiber. It can popular an individual’s appetite by making them feel fuller for longer.

Research suggests that resistant starch might also lead to enhancing insulin sensitivity. The benefits to gut health it offers will help with constipation and raising the risk of colon cancer.

Some Other benefits

We most often associate bananas with their high potassium content, but they provide many important nutrients for the body.

Potassium

The recommended daily intake of potassium for adult females is 2600 milligrams (mg), and for adult males is 3400 mg. Pregnant women or women who breastfeed need to increase their daily consumption.

A medium banana contains 422 mg of potassium, which is about 12 per cent of the daily intake recommended.

Potassium helps to regulate sodium levels in the body which can minimize blood pressure and help prevent heart disease and stroke. It is also essential for healthy kidneys and can reduce the risk of kidney stones.

Magnesium

Bananas also constitute a good source of magnesium. A medium banana contains 32 mg of magnesium, around 8 per cent of the daily intake recommended.

Magnesium is important for the production of energy, the functioning of the nervous system and for controlling blood pressure and blood sugar levels.

In bananas, flavonoids and magnesium may also help improve insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of resistance to insulins.

Insulin regulates the levels of blood sugar within the body. If the body is unable to efficiently use insulin this can lead to conditions like diabetes.

Energy

Bananas are also a great energy source when exercising. The results of a 2012 study showed that eating a ripe banana during exercise had an effect similar to that of a carbohydrate drink on endurance.

The small study involved 14 male qualified cyclists completing two 75-kilometer cycling time trials, and the researchers did blood tests to show the results before and after the exercise.

The study showed that eating a banana was beneficial for success before and after endurance exercise, but no more so than the carbohydrate drink. Those who eat bananas did have higher levels of dopamine, however. Dopamine is a chemical which is responsible for encouragement and reward feelings in the body.

Nutrition

A person cutting banana
A medium banana is a good source of fiber

A banana’s exact nutritional content varies according to its size. A medium banana has a length of 7–8 inches and contains:

  • energy: 105 kcal
  • protein: 1.29 g
  • fiber: 3.07 g
  • carbohydrates: 27 g
  • fat: 0.39 g
  • potassium: 422 mg
  • magnesium: 31.90 mg
  • phosphorus: 26 mg
  • calcium: 5.90 mg
  • vitamin C: 10.30 mg
  • iron: 0.31 mg
  • folate: 23.60 micrograms (µg)

Bananas also contain small amounts of vitamin A, E, and K.

Ripeness

Foods with 55 or less of a glycemic index (GI) value are low GI foods. All foods can help to stabilize blood sugar levels. Nonetheless, the riper a fruit the higher its GI rating will be.

A ripe 120 g banana has a GI score of 51 and an understated banana has a GI value of 30.

Researchers recruited 45 individuals with high cholesterol or type 2 diabetes in a 2014 study to see whether a daily intake of 1–2 ripe bananas will boost their blood sugar and lipid profiles.

Notwithstanding this fruit’s sugar content, the results showed consuming it regularly was harmless for people with diabetes. In humans with high cholesterol, the addition of banana to the diet also slightly improved blood sugar levels and lipid profiles.

If people are concerned about the sugar content of ripe bananas, eating a less ripe or smaller banana can reduce the intake of sugars.

Summary

While bananas don’t affect weight loss specifically, they have properties that can help a person manage their body weight, such as high fiber content.

Unripe bananas contain resistant starch that can help people feel more full for longer periods of time. This satiety can help weight loss by diminishing the tendency to overeat.

Overall, people who are looking to lose weight should consider how many calories they take when compared to the number of calories they burn.

Bananas are healthy and nutritious as part of a balanced diet and eat in moderation.

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Cholesterol

Cholesterol for hair: Things to know

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Cholesterol is a fatty substance that plays an important role in the skin and hair, among other areas of the body.

Cholesterol is a waxy, fatty chemical found in humans and other animals. This chemical can also be used in exterior treatments for areas including the body and hair.

Cholesterol treatments can help seal the hair and preserve it from damage, as well as giving damaged, overprocessed hair a more natural appearance.

This page examines cholesterol, its possible hair advantages, homemade hair treatments, and certain cholesterol-containing products.

Introduction

natural hair

Cholesterol is used by the body for a variety of internal processes, including the construction of cell walls and the production of hormones. Cholesterol is particularly important to tissues in the skin and hair to maintain these cells healthy, according to 2019 research.

Many people are aware of high cholesterol and its detrimental consequences. Because cholesterol can build up on the walls of blood vessels, it can put a person at risk for heart disease.

Because the body produces all of the cholesterol it requires, it is not required to consume any cholesterol-containing foods. External sources of cholesterol, on the other hand, may have several important applications, including for the hair.

Benefits

Cholesterol is used by the body to construct various parts of hair and skin cells. External and environmental influences affect these patches, which are known as keratinocyte membranes.

Cholesterol is one of three fatty lipids found in hair. Ceramides and 18-methyl eicosanoic acid are two more lipid types found in hair (MEA).

MEA is a lipid that acts as a barrier for the hair and helps to keep the hairs together naturally. To support their functions, some cholesterol products may additionally contain these or similar substances.

Cholesterol therapies can aid by regenerating hair and establishing a protective layer, which can be used for a variety of reasons.

Repairing overworked hair

People who have hair treatments that include heat, dyes, or chemicals on a regular basis may find that their hair is overworked or damaged as a result of these procedures.

According to certain studies, uncontrolled heat can alter the structure of hair cells and cause long-term damage to hair fibers. Certain grooming procedures can harm hair by removing its natural protection, weakening and eroding the hair cuticle, and making it more vulnerable to injury.

Damaged hair might feel dry and coarse and brittle. A cholesterol therapy may aid in hair repair and provide a more natural, healthy appearance.

Making the hair softer

Treatments for cholesterol soften their hair. By creating a protective coating to the hair strands, cholesterol may help mend damaged or overworked hair or soften dry hair types.

Adding moisture to the hair

People with dry hair may discover that cholesterol treatments assist, whether it’s because to overwashing, using too many products, or simply having a dry hair type.

These treatments add more lipids and fats to the hair, making it feel more moisturized.

Adding shine

Hair that has been damaged may appear drab and unhealthy. Cholesterol therapies may aid in the restoration of hair’s natural luster.

Helping the cuticle lie flat

In response to injury, the hair’s cuticle may begin to open or fray, giving the hair a frizzy appearance.

Adding lipids like cholesterol and 18-MEA to the hair can help rebuild the barrier and make the cuticle lay flat, giving it a more natural appearance.

Home made

Making one’s own remedy at home may also be beneficial. One possibility, for example, is to use mayonnaise as a remedy. The following part explains how to apply this treatment at home and how it can improve your hair.

What is the best way to try mayonnaise treatment?

Treatment with mayonnaise may aid in the addition of cholesterol to the hair. Mayonnaise is made with cholesterol-rich egg yolks, vinegar, and other acids to lower the pH.

To try this treatment, follow these steps:

  1. Work the mayonnaise into the hair from the scalp to the ends of the hair.
  2. Cover the hair with a cap, and allow it to sit for 20–30 minutes.
  3. Rinse the hair, then wash it as usual.

If mayonnaise is not available, using eggs alone may have a comparable effect. In the same way that beating two eggs and applying the mixture to the hair helps the cholesterol get into the hair, beating two eggs and applying the mixture to the hair may assist the cholesterol get into the hair.

It’s important to keep in mind that everyone’s hair reacts to treatments differently. The scent of mayonnaise treatments or eggs may also bother some people.

If the hair is overly moisturized, it may cause hygral exhaustion in some people. This happens when the hair cuticles swell and shrink too much as a result of prolonged exposure to water. Hair strands become fragile and eventually break as a result. To counteract this, people should make sure their hair has enough protein.

Cholesterol-containing products

Many commercially available drugs may have similar effects as cholesterol therapies. Individual hair rehydration or deep condition products or treatments may contain identical components.

Cholesterol is only one form of lipid that can be found in a product. Other options include:

  • waxy ceramides
  • 18-MEA
  • plant extracts
  • essential oils

To help promote hair health, products may contain any or all of these lipids and other substances.

Similar compounds can be found in some deep conditioning solutions, including as those used by professional stylists. Other components, such as proteins, may be added to help strengthen the hair.

Homemade vs. products

It may come down to personal preference and what works best for each person’s hair when deciding between a product and a DIY treatment.

Hair types and demands can differ based on genetics. People from Africa, for example, have thicker hair that holds more oil and absorbs less water than Asian or Caucasian people. These people can have an impact on how hair responds to treatment, and many products cater to specific hair types.

Other factors, such as the environment and different hair treatments, could also play a part.

Some people prefer the assurance that comes with a professional product and turn to their favorite brands instead of trying home remedies for cholesterol. For ethical reasons, folks who shun animal products may not wish to use cholesterol hair products.

Treatments for cholesterol are usually less expensive than professional products and deep conditioning treatments. Cholesterol supplements are less expensive, yet they may be just as effective.

Use any product according to the directions on the label. Although many similar goods may not interact, it’s a good idea to test them independently to see what works best in each situation.

Alternative treatments

There are a number of non-cholesterol alternatives available at home. They do, however, contain vitamins and minerals that are important to hair health. The sections that follow go into several alternative treatments in further depth.

Treatment with avocados

Avocados include vitamins A and E as well as a number of minerals that can be used to nourish, moisturize, and strengthen hair.

To attempt this treatment, mash one avocado well with some acidity, such as lemon juice or apple cider vinegar, and apply it to the hair in the same way as the mayonnaise treatment.

Treatment with hot oil

Some people may benefit from hot oil treatments to repair and renew their hair. These are usually specialized items that heat up the oil before applying it to the hair.

People can also prepare their own hot oil treatment at home with common household oils like:

  • coconut oil
  • avocado oil
  • jojoba oil
  • olive oil

Although oil does not contain cholesterol, heated oil treatments may aid in the repair of damaged hair. The heat may be calming while also working to control the look of damage in the hair shaft.

To try this treatment, follow these steps:

  1. Apply the warmed oil to the hair right after washing it.
  2. Put a cap on the hair, and allow it to sit.
  3. Condition the hair as usual, then rinse.

For further conditioning, certain hot oil treatments may suggest leaving it on overnight. When applying a nighttime oil treatment, it’s still a good idea to use a towel or cloth on the pillow, even if you’re wearing a cap. This aids in the prevention of discoloration and damage.

Conclusion

Cholesterol hair treatments can help some people restore moisture and protection to damaged or overworked hair at a reasonable cost.

Finding a proper cholesterol treatment for a person’s hair, on the other hand, may require some trial and error, as well as determining how often they should use the medication.

If you have dry hair, you may benefit more from a cholesterol therapy. If your hair is healthy, you may not need to use this treatment as frequently.

People should utilize these treatments with prudence at all times. Hair can get overhydrated if there is too much moisture in it.

Sources:

  • https://nyscc.org/blog/an-overview-on-hair-porosity/
  • https://www.heartuk.org.uk/low-cholesterol-foods/can-i-eat-eggs
  • https://www.cdc.gov/cholesterol/myths_facts.htm
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/cholesterol-for-hair
  • https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26171923/
  • https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/exd.13993
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413427/
  • https://www.mdpi.com/2079-9284/6/2/31

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Cholesterol

The similarities and differences between NAFL, NAFLD, and NASH

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A person’s liver normally has a little amount of fat in it. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by an accumulation of excess fat in the liver. It is not caused by alcohol consumption.

NAFLD is classified into two types: nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (NASH).

Weight loss is the sole suggested treatment for NAFLD, and there are no drugs available to treat either condition at this time.

Continue reading to learn about the symptoms, causes, and treatments of NAFLD, NAFL, and NASH, as well as the differences between the three.

NAFLD

Radiography liver arteries
Daniela White Images/Getty Images

The liver normally includes a tiny amount of fat, according to the American Liver Foundation (ALF).

Fatty liver, on the other hand, develops when fat accounts for more than 10% of the organ’s weight.

NAFLD is the leading cause of chronic liver disease in the United States, affecting up to 25% of the global population.

Symptoms

NAFLD is characterized as a silent disease because there are usually no symptoms of the condition.

Some people, however, may suffer symptoms such as:

  • mental confusion
  • swelling in the legs and abdomen
  • weakness
  • weight loss
  • nausea
  • abdominal pain
  • fatigue
  • jaundice
  • loss of appetite

Causes

The ALF believes that approximately 100 million people in the United States have NAFLD. However, medical professionals do not fully comprehend what causes the condition. Although study is ongoing, scientists have established that certain health factors may lead to the development of NAFLD. The genetic make-up, food, and digestive system of a person may all have a role.

The following medical issues may increase a person’s risk of developing NAFLD:

While researchers believe that some genes may have a role in the development of this condition, more research is needed.

Aside from the aforementioned concerns, many herbal medicines or dietary supplements can cause liver damage, so anyone who intends to begin taking supplements should always discuss the risks with their doctor.

Treatments

A person’s NAFLD can be controlled or even reversed by leading a healthy lifestyle, which may include eating a nutritious diet or decreasing weight. According to experts, decreasing weight can help reduce fat in the liver as well as inflammation and fibrosis.

Diagnosis

If a doctor suspects a patient has NAFLD, NAFL, or NASH, he or she may order a battery of tests to confirm the diagnosis. These could include:

  • imaging tests
  • a medical history
  • a liver biopsy
  • blood tests

NAFL

NAFL, also known as simple fatty liver, develops when a mostly harmless buildup of fat in the liver. Steatosis is the medical term for this condition.

According to the National Health Service (NHS) of the United Kingdom, most people will only ever develop NAFL and will not be aware of it.

However, NAFL can progress and cause liver damage in some people.

Symptoms

NAFL does not often cause liver inflammation or damage. People may experience pain if their liver is larger than usual due to the extra fat in the organ’s cells. Typically, NAFL does not progress.

Causes

Fatty liver is not always caused by NAFLD. Before concluding that NAFLD is the cause of a person’s fatty liver, doctors may want to rule out other possibilities.

Fatty liver, for example, can be caused by:

  • taking certain medications
  • toxin exposure
  • alcohol-associated liver disease
  • Wilson’s disease or other rare genetic diseases
  • losing weight too quickly

Treatments

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, lifestyle adjustments may be able to prevent or reduce a person’s risk of getting NAFLD.

These are some examples:

  • following a nutritious diet
  • limiting portion sizes
  • regular physical activity
  • maintaining a moderate weight

Losing between 3% and 5% of a person’s body weight will often reduce fat in the liver.

Diagnosis

Because there are no symptoms, doctors frequently find NAFL when conducting medical tests for other reasons. A blood test, for example, will reveal high levels of liver enzymes. Further investigations, such as a comprehensive medical history and physical examinations, may be recommended by healthcare professionals.

NASH

Inflammation and liver damage occur when a person has NASH and high levels of fat in their liver.

Inflammation and liver damage can result in:

Symptoms

Again, NASH normally has no symptoms, but some people may develop cirrhosis as a result.

Cirrhosis symptoms include:

  • spider veins, which are visible blood vessels close to the surface of the skin
  • swelling in the abdomen
  • intense itching
  • being quick to bruise and bleed
  • jaundice, which refers to yellowing of the eyes and skin

If a person has any of the following symptoms, he or she should seek immediate medical attention:

  • vomiting blood
  • dark or black tarry stools
  • fever
  • slurred speech, and mental confusion
  • shortness of breath

Cirrhosis, if left untreated, can cause the liver to fail: Because the liver controls so many other body systems, it can cause a variety of health problems if it is not functioning properly.

Causes

According to the ALF, around 20% of people with NAFLD will acquire NASH. NASH is more common in older people, although it can also affect youngsters.

NASH is also more probable in people who have:

  • insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes
  • high blood pressure
  • excess weight or obesity
  • obstructive sleep apnea
  • body fat concentrated around the waist

Treatments

People should try to shed between 7% and 10% of their body weight to minimize liver inflammation and fibrosis. Experts advise doing this gradually rather than hastily, as decreasing weight too quickly can aggravate liver disease.

Doctors may prescribe drugs to manage NASH problems, which may necessitate minor medical treatments or surgery. People suffering from liver failure or cancer may require a liver transplant.

Diagnosis

Because a liver biopsy is required to determine how far the condition has progressed, it is the only test that can diagnose NASH. Liver biopsies can rule out other illnesses or provide a clearer picture of advanced liver disease or cirrhosis than imaging tests.

Similarities and differences between NAFL and NASH

NAFLNASH
Full nameNonalcoholic fatty liverNonalcoholic steatohepatitis
Excess fat in the liverYesYes
InflammationNoYes
Liver damageNoYes
ReversibleUsuallyDepends on progression
Treatment3–5% body weight loss7–10% body weight loss
Possible complicationsTypically noneFibrosis, cirrhosis, liver cancer, liver failure

Conclusion

NAFL, NAFLD, and NASH are all related in that they are both types of NAFLD.

While NAFL is easily curable and reversible, NASH may progress to the point where all that can be done is avoid additional harm.

The best treatment for all types of nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases is to lose weight slowly and steadily.

Sources:

  • https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/liver-disease/nafld-nash/eating-diet-nutrition
  • https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/liver-disease/nafld-nash/definition-facts
  • https://liverfoundation.org/for-patients/about-the-liver/diseases-of-the-liver/nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-information-center/nash-causes-risk-factors/
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/what-are-the-similarities-and-differences-between-nafl-nafld-and-nash
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5502701/
  • https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease/
  • https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/liver-disease/nafld-nash
  • https://liverfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/NAFLD-Brochure-English.pdf
  • https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/liver-disease/nafld-nash/symptoms-causes
  • https://britishlivertrust.org.uk/information-and-support/liver-health-2/symptoms-of-liver-disease/
  • https://liverfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/ALF-NAFLD-NASH-Infographic.pdf
  • https://www.liverhealthuk.com/post/what-is-the-difference-between-fatty-liver-and-nash

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Cardiovascular / Cardiology

Are ceramides the new cholesterol in the absence of statins?

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ceramides drug
According to a recent study, ceramides play a role in cardiovascular risk.
  • Ceramides are fatty compounds linked to cardiovascular disease, according to researchers.
  • Drugs that limit ceramide production, according to animal studies, might protect not just cardiovascular disease but also diabetes.
  • Statins, which decrease cholesterol levels in the blood to prevent heart disease and stroke, may raise the risk of type 2 diabetes or aggravate it if it already exists.
  • More scientists should examine ceramides, according to a review report, in order to develop a new type of medicine that might complement statins.

In the United States, around 38% of individuals have excessive levels of cholesterol in their blood, putting them at risk for heart disease and stroke.

Taking statins, or cholesterol-lowering medicines, is one strategy to lower blood cholesterol levels.

Despite the fact that the medications have been found to protect against cardiovascular disease in several trials, some evidence shows that they may aggravate type 2 diabetes.

In a review paper published in the journal Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, the authors call for the creation of medications to lower levels of a different type of lipid. Ceramides are the names given to these medications by scientists.

Ceramides are a type of fatty molecule, or lipid, similar to cholesterol, that play an important part in the construction of cell membranes as well as the creation of other lipids.

The authors of the review point out that, independent of cholesterol, there is a robust link between high blood ceramide concentrations and heart disease and diabetes in people.

Some clinics are now measuring ceramide levels to estimate patients’ risk of certain illnesses, according to the authors.

Furthermore, laboratory trials on mice on high-fat diets imply that ceramides are partly to blame for heart disease and diabetes, rather than being unintended consequences of these diseases.

When scientists utilize medications or genetic techniques to lower ceramide production in animals, the animals are less likely to develop cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

Ceramides have also been shown in animal experiments to increase fat accumulation, decrease glucose usage, and lower the efficiency of mitochondria, the cell’s power plants.

These are all symptoms of metabolic syndrome, a condition that includes diabetes, high blood pressure, and diabetes that puts a person at risk for heart disease and stroke.

Dr. Scott Summers, Ph.D., of the University of Utah College of Health in Salt Lake City, says, “Basically, we want to get as many laboratories as possible investigating this critical chemical.”

“Several companies, including one I co-founded (Centaurus Therapeutics), have been trying to develop ceramide-lowering interventions,” Dr. Summers told Medical News Today.

“Thus far, none have entered the clinics, but I think some companies are close,” he added.

Shortcomings of statins

In addition to cholesterol, statins lower the amount of ceramides in the circulation.

The medications, however, have no effect on the body’s ceramide production. Instead, they lower the creation of lipoproteins, the molecules that transport them through the circulation.

“Statins block cholesterol synthesis, which in turn leads to secondary inhibition of lipoprotein production and secretion,” Dr. Summers stated to MNT.

“Statins don’t block ceramide synthesis directly. Rather, they lower circulating ceramides because of the effects on lipoproteins,” he stated “.

So, why go to the bother of creating new ceramide drugs?

According to Dr. Summers, ceramides cause injury in organs such as the liver rather than in the circulation.

“The problem is, ceramides do most of their actions in tissues, not in the blood,” he said.

“As a result, for people on statins, the ceramides likely accumulate in the liver, which is potentially problematic,” he added.

He believes this explains some of the statin’s negative effects, such as an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

“Adding a ceramide-lowering therapy to statin therapy is definitely something that should be investigated,” he stated.

Exercise as a form of therapy

Not everyone agrees that developing a new class of medications to limit ceramide production is necessary.

Dr. Justin Carrard, a sports and exercise medicine expert from the University of Basel in Switzerland, has published a review study on the influence of physical activity on ceramide levels in the journal Metabolites.

Preliminary research suggests that frequent exercise lowers ceramide levels. Furthermore, people who have strong cardiorespiratory fitness had lower levels of numerous forms of ceramide.

Dr. Carrard told MNT, “There is now compelling scientific evidence that ceramides have a future as biomarkers to stratify cardiovascular risks.”

More study is needed, he added, to see if physical exercise might help decrease ceramide levels.

“However, I strongly believe that this will become a new area of global interest in the medical community,” he added.

Dr. Carrard questioned why additional medications were needed when an exercise regimen might accomplish the same results.

He stated, “

“Working in the field of sport and exercise medicine, I am personally convinced that exercise is one of the best drugs we have on the market. Exercise is cheap, safe, accessible to most patients (there is very little contraindication to exercising), and patient-empowering.”

He emphasized that exercise has a positive impact on the entire body. Drugs, on the other hand, target a specific receptor in one or a few organs.

“Consequently, I am not so sure how much we need a ceramide-lowering drug,” he concluded.

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