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Biology / Biochemistry

Does science back up claims about “detox diets”?



People who want to improve their health are turning to “detox diets,” or eating plans designed to “detoxify” the body from toxic substances. Are they, however, beneficial or harmful?

Detox diets are popular, but are they good for health?
Detox diets 

It is very common to promote diet plans as a way to detoxify the body. Dietary restrictions and supplementation with various nutrients and herbs are usually part of these plans.

Despite the fact that detox diets are popular in the wellness world, the majority of them are unnecessary, and some can even be harmful to one’s overall health.

We explain what detox diets are and look at the science to see if they have any health benefits in this Special Feature.

What is the process of detoxification in the human body?

The body uses detoxification to remove potentially harmful substances as part of its ongoing effort to stay healthy.

The detoxification system in the body is intricate, involving multiple organs such as the liver, kidneys, and skin.

Toxins are produced endogenously by normal metabolic processes, but they can also be acquired exogenously through exposure to medications and chemicals in food and the environment.

Detoxification entails metabolic processes known as biotransformation, in which the chemical structure of toxic substances is altered, rendering them inactive. These substances are then excreted by the body.

Age, sex, health conditions, genetics, medications, and diet all play a role in the body’s ability to detoxify.

Because the liver cells are responsible for the majority of the body’s detoxification processes, liver disease can impede detoxification, resulting in the buildup of harmful substances such as ammonia.

What are detox diets?  

Detox diets are promoted as a way to promote optimal toxin elimination, improve overall health, and encourage weight loss, despite the fact that the body can detoxify through biotransformation.

Juice fasting, supplementation, strict vegan diets, liquid diets, fasting, and other purportedly detoxifying methods are commonly used in these programs.

Coffee enemas, in which a person administers coffee through the rectum, are one example of potentially dangerous detox practices.

Self-administered coffee enemas have been linked to serious side effects like rectal burns, electrolyte imbalances, and rectal perforation, according to studies. This practice has the potential to be fatal.

Despite claims from proponents and creators of detox diets that they improve health, most detox programs lack clinical evidence to back up their effectiveness or safety.

Furthermore, detox diet programs, particularly those that encourage the use of herbs and other dietary supplements, can be costly.

Online, you can find a variety of detox diets, including juice and smoothie detoxes as well as plant-based detoxes.

Many detox diets aren’t harmful because they’re only followed for a few days and usually consist of plant-based foods like smoothies and juices.

Detox diets that include long periods of fasting or extreme calorie restriction, the use of herbal supplements, or practices like enemas, on the other hand, can cause dangerous side effects and have long-term health implications.

Is it beneficial to follow a detox diet?

Even though most detox diets are unnecessary, the foods a person chooses to eat still have an impact on the body’s detoxification system.

Harmful substances from the environment build up in the body. Heavy metals, such as mercury, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are examples of these.

POPs are a type of environmental contaminant found in foods, soil, and water. They build up in body fat and have been linked to chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and a higher risk of death in studies.

Despite the fact that the body is capable of detoxification, eating a nutritious diet and limiting exposure to toxic substances in foods and the environment can help support the organs involved in biotransformation and, as a result, promote health.

This does not, however, imply that a person should participate in a detox program. Instead, they should eat a well-balanced diet to help their bodies detoxify.

A diet lacking in protein, for example, will hinder the body’s ability to detoxify because protein is required for the enzymatic reactions that are necessary for the detoxification process.

Unfortunately, most detox diet plans are protein-deficient, which may hinder the body’s ability to properly detoxify.

Another important nutrient that aids in the excretion of toxins through the feces is fiber. It can also help protect the organs involved in detoxification from proinflammatory bacteria by improving gut barrier function.

Fasting may also help to improve the health of the liver, which is the primary site of detoxification, as well as the function of enzymes involved in detoxification, according to some evidence.

Detox diet research

Despite the fact that a healthy diet is critical for the body’s detoxification system, studies on commercial detox diets have yielded mixed results.

The current body of research in this area is lacking, with the majority of studies being poorly designed.

According to a 2015 review, a small number of clinical studies looking into the effects of detox diets found that some programs may improve liver detoxification and lower POP levels in the body. The authors do point out, however, that these studies were flawed and had small sample sizes.

Researchers asked some participants in a 2015 study of 84 women to follow a low-calorie lemon detox diet consisting of lemon juice and syrups for 7 days, while others were asked to follow a low-calorie placebo diet. Both groups lost weight and had lower insulin levels, implying that it was the calorie restriction, not the detox diet, that improved health.

Furthermore, consumers should be cautious of supplements that claim to detoxify the body. These supplements are frequently made up of a combination of nutrients and herbs that may interact with commonly prescribed medications.

A 2019 study of 22 women found no health benefits from taking a detox supplement containing 1,350 milligrams of a proprietary blend of papaya leaf, cascara sagrada bark, slippery elm bark, peppermint leaf, red raspberry leaf, fenugreek seed, ginger root, and senna leaf for four weeks.

Even though research suggests that certain supplements, such as N-acetyl cysteine (NAC)Trusted Source, and certain foods, such as cruciferous vegetables, can help the body’s natural detoxification system, the simplest way to improve overall health and support the organs involved in detoxification is to eat a nutrient-dense diet rich in protein, fruits, and vegetables.

Concerns about the detox diet

Even though some detox programs are safe, detox programs that use extreme methods raise safety concerns.

Long-term fasting, severe calorie restriction, and the use of certain dietary supplements can all result in negative health effects such as nutrient deficiencies, weakness, mood change, dehydration, and more.

Certain people should avoid detox diets because they are more likely to experience negative side effects. These people include:

  • People who suffer from long-term illnesses
  • Anyone who is pregnant or nursing a child or adolescent
  • Those who are underweight
  • People who have eating disorder, or have a history of eating disorders

Before starting a detox diet, it’s a good idea to consult with a doctor, especially if the person is taking any prescription medications.

A well-balanced diet is beneficial to health and the body’s natural detoxification system, but no special detox diet is required.

These programs are usually costly, and they may be deficient in nutrients such as protein, which are necessary for biotransformation.


Despite the popularity of diets that claim to help the body detoxify, scientific evidence for their effectiveness is lacking.

On the other hand, a large body of evidence suggests that eating a well-balanced diet and avoiding alcohol, smoking, and exposure to environmental toxins can benefit overall health, including the body’s detoxification system.

Detox diets, according to current research, are unnecessary and unlikely to have any significant health benefits. In some cases, they may even be harmful.

Biology / Biochemistry

Rotator cuff: What you need to know



The rotator cuff is a group of muscles that aid in the movement of the arm and shoulder. Rotator cuff injuries are fairly prevalent, but there are a number of effective therapies available.

The supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis are the four muscles that make up the rotator cuff.

Arm movement and shoulder rotation are controlled by these muscles working together. They also aid in the retention of the humerus, or upper arm bone, in the scapula, or shoulder blade, socket. The glenoid is the name for this socket.

Rotator cuff injuries are rather prevalent, particularly among the elderly, sports, and people who work in physically demanding jobs. A medical professional can diagnose a rotator cuff injury and provide the best treatment options.

The structure and function of the rotator cuff, as well as typical injuries that affect this muscle group, are discussed in this article.

Meaning and functions

rotator cuff injury

The rotator cuff, which connects the humerus to the scapula, is made up of four muscles and tendons. These muscles and tendons act as a cuff around the shoulder joint, providing stability.

These muscles have their own distinct movements in addition to their collective function. The supraspinatus, for example, abducts the arm away from the body and aids in the movement of the deltoid muscle in the shoulder. The infraspinatus and teres minor help with lateral rotation, whereas the subscapularis helps with medial rotation.

When to contact a doctor

Anyone suffering from prolonged shoulder pain should consult a physician or orthopedic surgeon. These experts can assess the shoulder, identify the cause of pain, and recommend treatment choices to alleviate symptoms and speed healing.


rotator cuff anatomy

Other components, in addition to the muscle groups that make up the rotator cuff, aid in mobility and function.

These muscles are connected by several nerves, which send important signals throughout the rotator cuff. The subscapular nerve, suprascapular nerve, and axillary nerve are among them. Bursae, which are fluid-filled sacs that separate tissues, are also seen in the rotator cuff. These bursae operate as cushions, minimizing friction and protecting various tissues.

Common conditions

The following are some of the most prevalent rotator cuff injuries:


A rotator cuff tear occurs when one of the cuff tendons is torn. This rip can damage one or more tendons, although the supraspinatus tendon is the most often injured.

A partial or full-thickness tear can occur. The tendon is damaged but not entirely severed in a partial tear, also known as an incomplete tear. A full-thickness, or complete, rip completely separates the tendon from the bone and can result in a hole.

Injury and degeneration are the most common causes of rotator cuff tears. An acute tear occurs when a tendon is torn as a result of trauma or an accident. Most tears, on the other hand, are degenerative, meaning that they develop slowly over time. A degenerative tear can occur as a result of repeated stress on the tendon, a reduction in blood flow as people age, or bone spurs.

To detect a whole or partial tendon tear, medical experts may employ imaging techniques such as X-ray, ultrasound, and MRI.


The inflammation of the rotator cuff tendons is known as rotator cuff tendinitis. This condition can affect people of any age, depending on their level of activity.

Tendonitis is a condition that happens when the tendons are irritated or damaged as a result of sports or repetitive overhead movements. Shoulder impingement, commonly known as swimmer’s shoulder, is a condition in which a tendon or bursa presses against the shoulder blade, creating pain. This type of injury is common in people who participate in sports like baseball and tennis, as well as those who work in construction and painting.

A doctor may perform a physical exam and suggest imaging tests to help confirm the diagnosis after asking about the person’s specific symptoms.


The inflammation of a bursa is referred to as bursitis. When a person moves their arm, these lubricating sacs allow the rotator cuff tendons to slide freely. Bursitis can cause when there is too much friction in the shoulder from repetitive movements or injuries.

To diagnose bursitis of the shoulder, a doctor will often perform a physical exam and use imaging studies, similar to other rotator cuff injuries.

Symptoms of injury

The symptoms of rotator cuff damage differ based on the person and the type of injury. The following are some of the most common injury symptoms:

  • a clicking or popping sound when moving the arm
  • weakness in the shoulder
  • pain or swelling in the shoulder
  • difficulty moving the arm

Tips and treatments

Depending on the nature and severity of the rotator cuff injury, treatment methods may differ. A doctor may suggest the following as part of therapy and recovery:

  • sleeping on the unaffected side or on the back
  • taking warm baths or showers to help relax the muscles
  • taking over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or pain medications to minimize swelling and discomfort
  • applying cloth-wrapped ice packs to the affected area
  • resting and avoiding activities that may irritate the shoulder

When a person can use their shoulder comfortably, a doctor may recommend rehabilitation activities to help with healing. These stretches and exercises may also aid in the prevention of future injuries. Other treatment options may be referred by a doctor to a physical therapist or specialist.

A doctor may recommend surgery in more severe circumstances if nonsurgical methods are unlikely to be beneficial.


The rotator cuff is a collection of four muscles in the shoulder that control arm movement and rotation. Rotator cuff injuries are extremely prevalent because the shoulder joint is very flexible and people utilize it regularly for both sport and employment.

Anyone who is experiencing severe or persistent shoulder pain should see a doctor for a diagnosis. Resting, avoiding intense activities, and practicing moderate stretches are common treatments.



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Biology / Biochemistry

Can you treat cataracts with eye drops instead of surgery?



Cataracts, the most common cause of human blindness, may one day be treated with eye drops rather than surgery.

A study headed by the University of California-San Diego (UCSD) published in the journal Nature illustrates how an eye drop solution containing a natural steroid reduced cataracts in dogs.

Our eyes’ lenses are largely made up of crystallin proteins, which serve two purposes: they allow us to alter focus and they maintain the lens clean. Nobody understands how they accomplish this.

Cataracts arise when the delicate structure of the crystallin proteins is disturbed, causing them to clump together and cloud the lens.


The lens is also high in lanosterol, a substance that is a key component of several important hormones in the body. An enzyme called lanosterol synthase produces lanosterol.

The researchers were interested in lanosterol after discovering that children with an inherited type of cataracts shared the same lanosterol synthase-blocking gene mutation.

They reasoned that in normal eyes, whose lenses are loaded with lanosterol, the clumping of cataract-forming proteins is prevented.

Lanosterol decreased clumping in cataract-forming proteins

Starting with lab cells and advancing to animals, the researchers conducted three sets of studies.

First, the researchers discovered that lanosterol reduced the clumping of cataract-forming proteins in human lens cells. They next demonstrated that treating rabbits with lanosterol decreased cataracts and enhanced lens clarity.

Cataracts: Some Quick Facts

  • Risk factors include too much sun, diabetes, tobacco and alcohol.
  • Most cataracts develop later in life
  • Cataracts account for 51% of world blindness

Learn more about cataracts

Finally, they found that the lanosterol solution – in both injection and eye drop form – had the same impact in decreasing protein clumping in live dogs with cataracts as it did in human lens cells and rabbit lenses: cataracts were decreased and lens transparency improved.

The researchers come at the following conclusion:

“Our study identifies lanosterol as a key molecule in the prevention of lens protein aggregation and points to a novel strategy for cataract prevention and treatment.”

It might be a game changer if lanosterol in the form of eye drops proves to be an effective therapy for cataracts in people.

Cataract surgery is now the only technique to treat them. However, this is not a choice offered to everyone. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there exist restrictions in many countries that prohibit people from receiving treatment, hence cataract remains the major cause of blindness.

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Biology / Biochemistry

How can individuals tell if they’re having a seizure?



Seizures are caused by an abnormal surge of electrical activity in the brain. Seizures can be random, but some people have triggers that might cause them. Being aware of possible triggers can assist to reduce the likelihood of experiencing them.

Seizures are sudden, brief changes in movement, behavior, sensation, or states of consciousness caused by aberrant electrical discharges in the brain. Seizure symptoms range depending on which parts of the brain are affected and how severe they are.

Seizures are classified by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) depending on the kind of onset or where they begin in the brain.

Seizures can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain damage, or underlying illnesses. Seizure triggers do not cause seizures, but they can cause them in people who are prone to them.

Stress, fatigue, and the lack of medications are all typical factors. Knowing what might cause seizures and how to avoid them will help you avoid them.

In this post, we will look at some of the most frequent seizure triggers, the distinction between causes and triggers, and how to detect probable triggers.

Common triggers

Epileptic Patient

Some people with epilepsy, especially those who have experienced recurring seizures, may observe that they happen in predictable patterns or in certain people. These variables, often known as seizure triggers, may increase the likelihood of seizures. Some people with epilepsy, on the other hand, may not have any triggers. Seizures can be triggered by a variety of triggers, including:

Missed medications

Anti-epileptic medications must be taken on a regular basis to maintain a constant amount of medication in the body. A person’s risk of seizures increases if they miss a dosage, and seizures become more severe or occur more frequently as a result.

If you don’t take them as directed, you might develop status epilepticus, a long-term seizure that doctors consider a medical emergency.

Sleep deprivation and tiredness

According to a 2020 research, seizures and sleep have a bidirectional link, with seizures causing sleep deprivation and sleep deprivation triggering seizures. During typical sleep-wake cycles, changes in the brain’s electrical and hormonal activity occur, which may contribute to seizures and affect their intensity and length.


Seizures are frequently triggered by stress. However, the actual nature of their relationship remains unknown. Everyone reacts to stress differently, and stress can take many forms. A person may get stressed as a result of big life events or a pile of everyday annoyances.

Stress may have a physical impact on the body, resulting in a loss of sleep, a shift in dietary habits, and the use of alcohol or other substances, all of which can lead to seizures.


Small quantities of alcohol are unlikely to cause seizures. Even for people who do not have epilepsy, consuming an excessive amount of alcohol in a short period of time might trigger a seizure.

When the effects of alcohol on the body start to wear off, alcohol-related seizures become more likely. They can happen anywhere between 6 and 72 hours after drinking. Alcohol can also impair sleep and interfere with medicines, raising the chance of a seizure.

Flashing lights

Flashing lights or contrasting patterns might trigger a seizure in people with photosensitive epilepsy. Photosensitive seizures affect only around 3% of epilepsy people. This variety appears to be more frequent in females and younger people, according to evidence.

Nutrition and deficiencies

If a diabetic suffers from severe hypoglycemia, which can develop as a result of missing meals, their extremely low blood sugar levels might trigger a seizure.

Vitamin and mineral deficits can also cause seizures in certain people. Vitamin B6 deficiency can trigger seizures in newborns, however it is less prevalent in adults. Mineral imbalances, such as calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium, can cause seizures by altering brain cell electrical activity.

Infection and illness

Seizures might be triggered by illness in certain people. This might be caused by the illness’s physical impact on the body, a lack of sleep, bad dietary habits, certain drugs, or dehydration.

Seizures are frequently caused by a viral infection of the central nervous system. Seizures can be triggered by common ailments like sinus infections or a cold in rare cases.


Catamenial epilepsy is a kind of epilepsy in which seizures become worse or more common during specific people of the menstrual cycle. This is extremely uncommon, and research shows that it is caused by variations in progesterone and estrogen levels.


According to a 2017 research, low pressure and excessive humidity might trigger seizures. Although there isn’t conclusive evidence that weather has an influence on seizure risk.

Seizures are more common in the winter, according to a 2018 research. However, according to a survey conducted by the Epilepsy Society, extreme heat can provoke breakthrough episodes in well-controlled seizures and make uncontrolled seizures more severe and intense. This suggests that extremes in temperature might produce physiological changes that lead to seizures.

Certain medications

Seizures may be triggered by several over-the-counter drugs. Antidepressants, stimulants, tramadol, and isoniazid are among the drugs that have been linked to seizures in certain people, according to a 2016 research.

Triggers vs. causes

The cause of epilepsy is unknown in two out of every three people . It can, however, be caused by genetic problems or brain ailments including stroke, traumatic brain damage, infections, or other neurological diseases.

Although a seizure can be triggered by a trigger, seizure triggers are not the same as seizure causes. A stressful circumstance, for example, might provoke a seizure, but the underlying cause of the seizure could be brain structural damage.

Because seizures are unpredictable, it may be difficult to figure out why they happen, and some people mistakenly believe that triggers like exhaustion are to blame. However, it’s more likely that the person was already predisposed, and the trigger just triggered a seizure in someone who was already vulnerable.

Reflex seizures

Seizures are typically unpredictable and can happen at any time. While some people may identify triggers, many people’s triggers are more general, such as stress or exhaustion. Other people, on the other hand, may have reflex seizures, which are seizures that occur on a regular basis as a result of particular and recognizable stimuli or cognitive processes.

Potential stimuli, such as seeing flashing lights or touching hot water, or interior stimuli, such as feeling particular emotions or going through specific mental processes, can all cause reflex seizures. This is quite uncommon.

How to Recognize Triggers

Identification of a person’s particular seizure triggers can be challenging and time-consuming. A seizure diary can be kept to record actions or events that lead up to a seizure. Over time, a pattern may emerge, exposing likely seizure triggers.

A person should try to manage their condition and prevent or decrease exposure to potential triggers while seeking to identify likely triggers. People can attempt the following suggestions:

  • taking medication as their doctor prescribes
  • getting enough and regular sleep
  • lowering stress


Stimuli that can induce a seizure in some people are known as seizure triggers. Individual triggers vary, but common ones include illness, tiredness, alcohol, and a lack of medication.

Triggers are not the same as causes. Seizures are frequently caused by underlying conditions, whereas triggers simply cause seizures in people who are already predisposed to them.

People may find it difficult to identify their own specific triggers, but maintaining a journal of possible triggers and avoiding certain stimuli may help prevent seizures.



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