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GastroIntestinal / Gastroenterology

Everything you need to know about gastritis



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In April 2020, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requested that all forms of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) ranitidine (Zantac) be removed from the U.S. market. They made this recommendation because unacceptable levels of NDMA, a probable carcinogen (or cancer-causing chemical), were present in some ranitidine products. People taking prescription ranitidine should talk with their doctor about safe alternative options before stopping the drug. People taking OTC ranitidine should stop taking the drug and talk with their healthcare provider about alternative options. Instead of taking unused ranitidine products to a drug take-back site, a person should dispose of them according to the product’s instructions or by following the FDA’s guidance.

Gastritis is an inflammation on the lining of the stomach. We may have a variety of triggers. The disease can be an acute or chronic issue that raises the risk of certain problems, such as ulcers in the stomach, bleeding or cancer.

The acute type normally gives rise to visible symptoms which resolve after a few days without treatment. Nevertheless, persistent gastritis can remain unnoticed in the body but may complicate later.

The bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) is one of the major causes of gastritis, and is estimated to be present in 50% of the global population.

The article will discuss the symptoms, causes, and treatments of gastritis, as well as include advice about what to eat when this disorder occurs and what to remove from diets.

Fast facts on gastritis

  • Gastritis can increase the risk of other gastrointestinal conditions, such as stomach ulcers and cancer.
  • People with gastritis typically report sharp, stabbing, or burning pains in the upper-center or upper-left part of the abdomen.
  • The two main types of gastritis are erosive and nonerosive. Erosive gastritis wears down the stomach lining, and nonerosive gastritis causes change to the stomach lining.
  • Smokers and people who regularly use pain medications are at risk of gastritis.
  • People with gastritis should eat celery, apples, and honey. Herbal teas are also safe to drink. Avoid caffeinated beverages, dairy produce, and spicy foods.
  • A range of medications is available to treat gastritis, including antibiotics and antacids.


H. pylori bacteria are a common cause of gastritis.
H. pylori bacteria are a common cause of gastritis.

Gastritis is characterized by a variety of symptoms.

Gastritis sufferers also feel abdominal pain. Pressure is often in the upper-center portion of the abdomen, or in the upper-left part of the abdomen. Pain also radiates to the back.

Other common signs include nausea and bloating. In cases of vomiting gastritis the vomit can appear red, yellow, or green. The vomit will contain blood, too.

Blood bleeding is a sign of more serious gastritis. Some signs of extreme gastritis include shortness of breath, chest pain, severe stomach pain, and bowel movements which are foul-smelling.

Seek urgent medical evaluation if any of the following symptoms occur:

  • vomiting blood
  • bringing up excessive amounts of yellow or green vomit
  • black or bloody bowel movements
  • abdominal pain with fever
  • dizziness and fainting
  • rapid heartbeat
  • excessive sweating
  • shortness of breath

Gastritis may occur without any symptoms at all.


Symptoms of gastritis will sometimes worsen into more serious conditions.

Bleeding from the stomach and ulcers may occur in people with gastritis who are yet to be treated. Chronic gastritis may sometimes increase the risk of developing tumors and stomach growths.

Other forms of gastritis include atrophic autoimmune gastritis and H. Pylori gastritis, can decrease the body’s ability to absorb iron from the blood. This can also affect the absorption of vitamin B12 in autoimmune atrophic gastritis. Both forms of anaemia may develop.

Causes and types

There are different causes and types of gastritis.

Gastritis happens after a weakening of the protective mucus lining of the stomach. Digestive juices can then damage and inflame the walls of the stomach.

There are two main types of gastritis.

  • Erosive gastritis: This form of gastritis is severe, and involves both inflammation and the gradual wearing down of the stomach lining. An example is acute stress gastritis, which follows changes due to critical illness. Erosive gastritis usually has a quick onset, but this may take longer with chronic gastritis.
  • Nonerosive gastritis: The nonerosive form of gastritis involves changes in the stomach lining

The most frequent cause of the gastritis is H. Infection of pylori in the stomach lining. Many types arise however when the immune system mistakenly attacks the lining of the stomach, such as autoimmune atrophic gastritis.

Other forms result from trauma, or damage to the lining of the stomach. Another cause is postgastrectomy gastritis, where the lining of the stomach degenerates after a portion of the stomach is removed.

Why this happens isn’t understood. Gastrectomy is thought to induce increased reflux, vagal nerve reactions or reduction in the number of hormone-triggered acids.

Others types include:

  • Infectious gastritis not caused by H. pylori: Viruses or fungi can cause gastritis in people with immune difficulties or long-term illnesses.
  • Radiation gastritis: Exposure of the abdominal area to radiation can irritate the stomach lining.
  • Eosinophilic gastritis: This form of gastritis can occur due to an allergic reaction. The cause of the allergic reaction is not known.
  • Ménétrier disease: This disorder is rare and involves the development of thick folds and cysts on the stomach wall.

How gastritis spreads isn’t understood at the moment. Contaminated food, water, or cutlery are known to play a part in the transfer of H. Pylori from person till child.

The broad variety of triggers, however, makes this difficult to prove.

Risk factors

Some individuals are at a greater risk of developing gastritis. There are several conditions and factors related to lifestyle that may raise the chances of inflammation in the stomach lining.

Risk factors for gastritis include:

  • bacterial infections, especially H. pylori infection
  • viral, fungal, or parasitic infections
  • smoking
  • caffeine intake
  • excessive alcohol intake
  • cocaine use
  • stress
  • routine use of pain medications, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs)
  • regularly taking medications such as prescription steroids, chemotherapypotassium supplements, and iron
  • being an older adult
  • swallowing corrosives or foreign objects
  • having an autoimmune disorder such as Hashimoto’s disease or type 1 diabetes
  • vitamin B12 deficiency
  • HIV
  • Crohn’s disease
  • bile reflux after undergoing stomach surgery
  • a history of chronic vomiting
  • exposure to radiation, either by radioactive treatment or contamination
  • food allergies

Other infections that can increase the risk of gastritis include tuberculosis and syphilis.

Tests and diagnosis

A gastrologist may examine the stomach lining with an endoscope.
A gastrologist may examine the stomach lining with an endoscope.

Gastritis may be diagnosed using the following:

  • physical examination
  • the medical history of an individual and their current symptoms
  • evaluation for H. pylori by way of blood, breath, or stool testing
  • endoscopy
  • electrocardiogram

For certain cases gastritis is diagnosed with esophagus, liver, and small intestine X-rays. Such X-rays are often referred to as the upper or barium swallow series of gastrointestinals.

Barium is a white, metallic substance that is often swallowed to help show any irregularities before a scan.

A doctor may also request:

  • blood tests
  • urine tests
  • evaluations of kidney and liver function
  • checks for anemia
  • gallbladder and pancreas function tests
  • pregnancy tests
  • stool evaluation

Through using this set of tests a doctor should be able to diagnose gastritis.

When such tests are inconclusive, an upper endoscopy can be performed by a doctor. It includes inserting a small, transparent, luminous viewing tube through the mouth into the abdomen to look at the stomach.


Gastritis dietary options can help control the severity of the symptoms and allow the body to rid itself of H. The genus Pylori.

While such steps alone are unlikely to cure the disease, they may provide important help for the successful treatment of gastritis.

Foods to eat

Probiotic yogurt is safe to eat
Probiotic yogurt is safe to eat during gastritis and can also help to clear out the H. pylori infection.

Both broccoli sprouts and probiotic yogurt have shown useful effects which counteract H. pylori. No conclusive evidence remains, however, that broccoli sprouts consistently hold gastritis at bay.

For a supportive treatment alongside antibiotics, probiotic yogurt has shown great promise but further work is needed to validate this. Some studies have shown that probiotics help flush out infection.

Certain foods which are healthy to eat in a gastritis case include:

  • celery
  • apples
  • berries
  • olive oil
  • honey
  • herbal teas

Rather than looking for foods to resolve the infection, it is best to eat foods that do not further inflame the infection.

Foods to avoid

Some foods and beverages can aggravate the symptoms of gastritis, and should not be eaten while the disease is active. These include:

  • caffeinated drinks
  • regular and decaffeinated coffee
  • mint, green, and black teas
  • orange and grapefruit juices
  • alcohol beverages
  • spicy foods, such as chili powder, hot peppers, nutmeg, and black pepper
  • dairy foods made from whole milk and strong or spicy cheeses
  • tomato products
  • chocolate

When adjusting the diet during a case of gastritis, be sure of the following:

  • Eat 5 to 6 small meals a day, as this can reduce the impact of stomach acids.
  • Hydrate often by frequently consuming water.
  • Add omega-3 supplements to the diet, as they may play a role in resolving gastritis.

There is no single diet intended to treat gastritis. However, adopting lifestyle modifications that can complement a medication regimen will soothe the inflammation. The foods eaten form an important part of the treatment of gastritis.


Gastritis diagnosis is dependent upon a variety of factors. Those include the cause of the disease, and whether it is acute or chronic to current gastritis.

Gastritis care options include a variety of pharmaceutical products, such as:

  • Antibiotic medications: A 10-to-14-day course of antibiotics can directly attack H. pylori. Regimens may include clarithromycin and metronidazole.
  • Proton pump inhibitors: These include omeprazole and lansoprazole. Proton pump inhibitors block the production of acid and aid healing.
  • Histamine (H-2) blockers: Histamine blockers, such as famotidine, can decrease acid production.
  • Antacids: These can neutralize stomach acid.
  • Coating agents: Sucralfate or misoprostol can coat and protect the stomach lining.
  • Anti-nausea medications: This type of medication can reduce sickness symptoms.

The treatment is causal based. For instance, if the gastritis cause isn’t bacterial, antibiotics would have no effect.

The most effective way to handle gastritis is to incorporate these therapies with the prescribed dietary changes.


A person can reduce the risk of developing gastritis by following these steps:

  • Practice good hand-washing hygiene and eat well-cooked food. This reduces the risk of contracting H. pylori.
  • Avoid certain medications, smoking, caffeine, and alcohol.

As some causes are unknown, there is no way to fully prevent gastritis.

Colorectal Cancer

Descending colon: What you need to know



The descending colon is a part of the large intestine. The colon’s left side is the one that descends. It is in charge of keeping the leftovers of digested food until they are eliminated through the rest of the colon and rectum.

The large intestine is involved in nutrient absorption. It also prepares the body’s waste products for removal.

The colon is the section of the large intestine that is the longest. Water and salt are absorbed, and liquid waste is solidified into stool. The ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colons are the four primary parts.

Ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn’s disease, and colorectal cancer are just a few of the disorders that can impact the function of this section of the digestive tract.

We’ll look at the structure of the descending colon, as well as its function and the disorders that can affect it, in this article.

What is it?

Descending colon

The colon is the largest and longest part of the large intestine, and it is divided into four sections:

  • the sigmoid colon
  • the ascending colon
  • the descending colon
  • the transverse colon

The big intestine is a component of the gastrointestinal tract that connects to the small intestine on one end and the anus on the other.

The descending colon connects the transverse colon to the sigmoid colon and is the third primary portion. It begins from the splenic flexure, or bend, and finishes at the sigmoid colon’s junction. It’s called a retroperitoneal organ because it’s located behind the peritoneum. The peritoneum is the tissue that covers most of the abdominal organs and borders the abdominal wall.

The descending colon measures 10–15 cm in length. It’s in the abdomen’s left lumbar area. This area is located in the middle of the abdomen to the left. In this area, the descending colon runs in front of and down the left kidney.


The descending colon’s major function is to store hardened stool that will eventually empty into the rectum and be removed from the body.

The teniae coli, or smooth muscle bands, produce a series of pouches, or haustra, in all four sections of the colon. The colon appears segmented as a result of this.

The gastrocolic reflex is activated when the colon fills with digested food, causing peristalsis, which is a sequence of wave-like muscular contractions that assist move food along the digestive tract. Food can now pass from the descending colon to the rectum.

The colon’s overall function includes:

  • forming and moving stool forward into the rectum for removal
  • producing and absorbing vitamins
  • absorbing water and electrolytes


The function of the descending colon and the colon as a whole may be affected by certain disorders. They may have an effect on the colon’s ability to absorb nutrients and create stool.

The following are some of the most prevalent descending colon health issues:

Crohn’s disease

Another chronic inflammatory disease is Crohn’s disease. It’s an autoimmune condition that can affect any region of the digestive tract, including the colon, from the mouth to the anus.

The skin, joints, bones, eyes, kidneys, and liver are all affected, though the digestive system is the most common. Furthermore, it causes intestinal ulcers, which cause discomfort and pain.

Experts are unsure what causes Crohn’s disease, but they believe it is caused by an aberrant immunological response. Other factors, like as genetics and the environment, could also be at play.

Irritable bowel disease (IBD) includes both UC and Crohn’s disease.

Colonic perforation

A colonic or bowel perforation is a type of gastrointestinal perforation that occurs in the colon.

A cut, tear, or puncture in the colon’s wall can be caused by an injury, but it can also be caused by infection, obstruction, or inflammation.

A colonic perforation causes significant abdominal pain and often necessitates emergency surgery, which may include the removal of a portion of the intestines.


UC is an inflammatory condition that lasts for a long time. It is caused by immune system abnormalities that cause inflammation in the colon.

Ulcers form in the lining of the colon lining as a result of UC. This might cause in stool pain and the urge to stool regularly.

Experts are unsure of the actual cause of UC, however it could be caused by a condition of variables, including:

Colorectal cancer

Cancer that begins in the colon or rectum is known as colorectal cancer. This happens when cancer cells in the colon start to grow out of control.

Colorectal cancers typically begin as polyps on the inner lining of the colon. However, not all polyps become cancerous, and the likelihood of a polyp becoming cancerous varies depending on the type of tumor present.

The size and location of tumors, whether the cancer is recurring, and a person’s overall health will all influence treatment. Among the possibilities are:


Diverticulitis is a condition in which small pouches or sacs called diverticula form and push outward through weak areas in the colon wall, causing inflammation.

These protrusions may not always be problematic, but when they get inflamed, they can cause symptoms like:

They can also cause problems including perforation and bleeding.

The following treatments may be used:

  • using antibiotics
  • in some cases, undergoing surgery
  • increasing one’s dietary fiber intake
  • taking pain relief medication

Tips for a healthy colon

People should eat a well-balanced diet, drink lots of water, and exercise regularly to maintain a healthy colon.

The American Cancer Society provides the following colon health recommendations to help minimize the risk of colorectal cancer:

  • reducing consumption of red and processed meats
  • reaching or maintaining a moderate body weight
  • limiting or avoiding alcohol consumption
  • having a diet that is rich in vegetables, fruit, and whole grains
  • quitting smoking
  • exercising
  • increasing dietary fiber intake


The big intestine includes the descending colon. It joins the transverse and sigmoid colon and is used to hold stool before it is emptied into the rectum.

The colon as a whole is responsible for absorbing nutrients from the diet as well as producing and releasing wastes.

IBD, colonic perforation, and diverticulitis are just a few of the health problems that can affect colon function.

Making healthy lifestyle choices, such as eating a balanced diet, exercising regularly, and limiting or avoiding processed meats and alcohol, can help to preserve intestinal health.



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GastroIntestinal / Gastroenterology

What to know about the rectum



The rectum connects the colon to the anus at the end of the large intestine. It’s the place where a person keeps their stool before excreting it.

The rectum, also known as the intestinum rectum, is a component of the digestive system that sits at the end of the large intestine. It is a connection between the GI tract and the anus. It sits after the sigmoid colon, the last portion of the colon, and is where the body stores excrement before expulsion.

The function and architecture of the rectum, as well as common disorders that may affect it, will be discussed in this article.

What is it?


The rectum is the last section of the large intestine closest to the anus, according to the National Cancer Institute. The large intestine is around 5 feet long in total, with the rectum accounting for about 12–15 centimeters of that length.

The intestines employ the muscular walls of the sigmoid colon to push excrement into the rectum when the digestive process is completed. The rectum is where the body stores excrement until it is time to defecate. When the rectum is full, stretch receptors in the wall sense it and stimulate the need to pass stool through the anus.

When to consult a doctor

If a person is having rectal discomfort or any other symptoms that could signal a problem around the anal area, they should see a doctor. Any rectal condition can have a negative impact on a person’s quality of life, so it’s preferable to address the issue as soon as possible to minimize problems. If a person is over the age of 50, they should talk to their doctor about having frequent rectal cancer screenings.

Rectal anatomy

Rectal anatomy

The large intestine is divided into four sections:

  • Cecum: Also known as the ileocecal junction, this section joins the small and large intestines. The cecum helps absorb water and any remaining salts during the digestion process.
  • Colon: The colon is the longest portion of the large intestine. It also absorbs water and electrolytes.
  • Rectum: The rectum stores feces until a person is ready to have a bowel movement.
  • Anal canal: The anus is the final portion of the large intestine. It helps a person have bowel movements.

Between the sigmoid part of the colon and the anal canal is where the rectum is located. The sacral and anorectal flexures are two primary flexures, or bends, in the rectum. There are also three lateral flexures, referred to as the Houston valves. These bends help sustain the weight of excrement while also preventing a strong and sudden urge to defecate.

The rectal ampulla, which connects the rectum to the anal canal, is located at the end of the rectum. The ampulla’s function is to act as a brief holding area for feces before it is released through the anal canal. When the ampulla fills up, the intrarectal pressure forces the walls of the anal canal to swell and expand, allowing excrement to enter.

Common rectal conditions

The following are some of the conditions that might affect the rectum:


Hemorrhoids are enlarged veins in the rectum and anus that protrude. They don’t always create symptoms, but when they do, patients may have the following symptoms:

  • discomfort, irritation, or itching in the anal area
  • pain in the anal area
  • sensitive lumps
  • bleeding during defecation
  • protrusion of skin during bowel movements


A variety of infections can affect the rectum, causing itching, discomfort, and proctitis, among other unpleasant symptoms.

An individual may contract a sexually transmitted infection (STI) after indulging in anal sex, for example. This can include things like:

Antibiotics can sometimes cause a bacterial infection of the rectum. This is due to the fact that antibiotics can kill the good bacteria that keep pathogens like Clostridioides difficile , away. The germs can then grow out of control and invade the rectum.

Infections of the rectum and rectal tissues can also be caused by the fungus. The following are some examples of fungal diseases:

  • histoplasmosis
  • mucormycosis
  • cryptococcosis
  • candidiasis

Parasites can enter the body and cause disease, especially when cleanliness is poor. Protozoa, which are single-celled organisms, and helminths, which are worms, are the two most common parasitic infections in the bowel. Parasites can cause a variety of issues affecting various parts of the gut, including the rectum.

Anal abscess

A collection of pus in the tissue surrounding the anus or rectum is known as an anal abscess. One usually happens after an illness or an obstruction. A perirectal abscess is a type of rectal abscess that affects roughly 68,000–96,000 persons in the United States each year, according to data. A doctor would usually cut and drain the pus-filled cavity as part of the treatment.


Rectal prolapse occurs when a portion or all of the rectal wall passes through the anal sphincter, the seal that keeps the rectal contents contained. The weakening of the muscles that support the rectum is the most common cause of this illness.

Rectal prolapse can be classified into three categories:

  • External: The entire rectum wall protrudes out of the anus, also known as full-thickness or complete prolapse.
  • Mucosal: Only the mucosa, or anus lining, protrudes through the anus.
  • Internal: Also known as an incomplete prolapse, the rectum folds in on itself but does not protrude out through the anus.


The rectum is vital for managing defecation and maintaining continence because it retains excrement. If a person’s rectum suffers from muscle injury, nerve damage, prolapse, or scarring, it’s possible that the rectum is unable to function properly, causing stool to seep from the anus.

Rectal cancer

Rectal cancer is a disease in which cancer cells grow in the rectum’s tissues. Rectal cancer can cause the following symptoms, which are not always present:

  • bright red blood in stool
  • leaks of diarrhea
  • constipation
  • pain
  • changes in bowel habits

Colon and rectal cancers are the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy are all possible treatment options.

Rectal health advice

People can try to practice proper anal hygiene to assist preserve rectal health and prevent rectal disorders. This can involve things like having regular bowel movements and using safer sex. Furthermore, lifestyle adjustments can aid in improving rectal health and lowering the risk of rectal cancer. These can include the following:

  • avoiding alcohol
  • reaching or maintaining a moderate body weight
  • maintaining a nutritious, balanced diet
  • avoiding smoking
  • exercising regularly


The rectum connects the colon to the anus and is the last segment of the large intestine. It’s the place in the body where stool is kept until a person is ready to poop.

The rectal area can be affected by a variety of disorders. By producing pain, discomfort, and incontinence, any of these can lower quality of life. If a person is having problems with their bowels, they should see a doctor for a diagnosis.



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Crohn's / IBD

Is there a link between IBD and microplastics?



A recent study investigates the relationship between microplastics and IBD.

In a recent small-scale investigation, researchers discovered a link between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and higher levels of microplastics in feces. The results were published in the journal Environmental Science & Technology.

The study, however, does not prove that microplastics cause IBD. More research is needed to confirm the findings and then seek an explanation for the link.

IBD explained

IBD is a broad term that refers to a variety of gastrointestinal disorders marked by inflammation. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are the two most frequent kinds.

Diarrhea, rectal bleeding, weight loss, abdominal pain, and exhaustion are all symptoms of IBD.

Researchers aren’t sure what causes IBD, but they believe it starts when a person who is genetically predisposed to the disease is exposed to a specific trigger. More research is needed to determine how important environmental triggers are.

IBD and microplastics

The researchers wanted to discover if there was a link between microplastics and IBD in this new study. Microplastics are present in people’s bodies throughout their lives, yet the health repercussions are unknown.

“We urgently need to know more about the health consequences of microplastics since they are everywhere—including in our drinking water,” says Dr. Maria Neira, WHO director of Public Health, Environment, and Social Determinants of Health.

“Microplastics in drinking water do not appear to constitute a health danger at current levels, based on the limited knowledge we have.” However, we need to learn more. We must also halt the global surge of plastic pollution.”

The current study’s corresponding author is Dr. Yan Zhang. He works at Nanjing University’s School of Environment’s State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, where he previously discovered that microplastics accumulate in the liver, kidney, and intestine in animal models.

He also discovered that the particle size of the microplastics had a significant impact on the accumulation.

“Compelling evidence suggests that microplastics primarily collect in the guts of many species and induce intestinal inflammation and metabolic disturbance,” the researcher told Medical News Today. “Microplastics will inevitably come into contact with humans.”

“Estimating the exposure levels and loads of microplastics in people is crucial for assessing the health risk of microplastics.” However, accurate evidence on the effects of microplastics on humans is still unavailable. Furthermore, the actual health danger of human exposure to microplastics has long been a source of worry.

Fecal samples

Because microplastics are routinely ingested through the gut, the researchers wanted to see if there was a link between microplastics and IBD.

They did this by examining fecal samples from study participants. The researchers gathered 52 persons with IBD and 50 people who were otherwise healthy but did not have IBD.

The participants answered questions on the foods and beverages they consume, their working and living conditions over the past year, the state of their IBD, and their demographic characteristics on a questionnaire.

The scientists then looked at the feces samples to see how much and what kind of microplastics were present.

Microplastics linked to IBD

They discovered that those with IBD had considerably more microplastic in their stools than those who were healthy.

Further research revealed a link between the severity of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease and the number of microplastics present.

The researchers also discovered that persons who had more microplastic in their stool samples drank more bottled water, ate more takeout food, and were exposed to more dust where they lived or worked.

“For the first time, this study reveals that there is a significant difference in the concentration of microplastics in feces from IBD patients and healthy people. Our study also indicates that the characteristics of fecal microplastics are useful to estimate the gut exposure of microplastics.”

– Dr. Yan Zhang

“It’s difficult to say whether microplastics play a role in the development of IBD because it’s a complex systemic disease with an unknown etiology.” People with IBD are more likely to retain microplastics, we suspect.”

The study had flaws as well, the most significant of which was its small size. Before scientists can reach more solid findings, they must perform much larger investigations.

“The concentration of [microplastics] in feces found in this study cannot directly match the concentration of [microplastics] in the gastrointestinal system or in the human body,” the study authors write.

To put it another way, just though people with IBD excrete more microplastic doesn’t mean they have more microplastic in their bodies.

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