Connect with us

Headache / Migraine

Everything you need to know about migraines

Published

on

Headaches are serious, chronic, and painful. Sensory warning signs and other symptoms may precede or follow these.

The intense pain caused by migraines can last for hours, or even days.

They bother 36 million Americans, or about 12 percent of the population, according to the American Migraine Association.

Migraines can follow an aura of sensory disturbances followed by a severe headache that often appears on one side of the head. They tend to affect people aged 15 to 55 years.

Fast facts on migraines:

  • Some people who experience migraines can clearly identify triggers or factors that cause the headaches, such as allergies, light, and stress.
  • Some people get a warning symptom before the start of the migraine headache.
  • Many people with migraine can prevent a full-blown attack by recognizing and acting upon the warning signs.
  • Over-the-counter (OTC) medications can eliminate or reduce pain, and specific medications can help some people with migraine.
  • People who have severe attacks can take preventive medicines.

Triggers

It is not yet clear what causes migraines.

It is believed that they are the product of abnormal brain activity. It can influence both the manner in which nerves interact and the chemicals and blood vessels in the brain. Genetics may make someone more prone to the migraine-causing triggers.

The following causes are likely to set migraines off, though:

  • Hormonal changes: Women may experience migraine symptoms during menstruation, due to changing hormone levels.
  • Emotional triggers: Stress, depression, anxiety, excitement, and shock can trigger a migraine.
  • Physical causes: Tiredness and insufficient sleep, shoulder or neck tension, poor posture, and physical overexertion have all been linked to migraines. Low blood sugar and jet lag can also act as triggers.
  • Triggers in the diet: Alcohol and caffeine can contribute to triggering migraines. Some specific foods can also have this effect, including chocolate, cheese, citrus fruits, and foods containing the additive tyramine. Irregular mealtimes and dehydration have also been named as potential triggers.
  • Medications: Some sleeping pills, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) medications, and the combined contraceptive pill have all been named as possible triggers.
  • Triggers in the environment: Flickering screens, strong smells, second-hand smoke, and loud noises can set off a migraine. Stuffy rooms, temperature changes, and bright lights are also possible triggers.

Treatment

There is no clear treatment for migraines at this moment. Treatment is intended to avoid a full-blown assault, and to relieve the symptoms.

Alterations in lifestyle that may help minimize migraine incidence include:

  • getting enough sleep
  • reducing stress
  • drinking plenty of water
  • avoiding certain foods
  • regular physical exercise

Some people also feel that special diets like gluten-free, can help.

Suggest seeking additional care if improvements noted above do not alleviate migraine symptoms or frequency. Migraine symptoms diagnosis is based on avoiding causes, managing symptoms and taking medication.

Surgery

The last decade witnessed the emergence of new approaches to migraine care. A doctor may give the trigeminal and cervical spinal nerves an injection of botulinum toxin, or Botox, into the extracranial sensory branches. These are a group of nerves connected to migraine reactions in the face and back.

A 2014 study also found that surgical decompression of these nerves in patients who do not respond to first-line treatment may minimize or remove migraines.

Medications

Migraines are also treated over a drug cycle. Migraine medicine has several different forms, including painkillers.

Painkillers should be taken early in migraine development, instead of allowing headache to intensify.

Active over – the-counter (OTC) medications for treating migraines include:

  • naproxen
  • ibuprofen
  • acetaminophen

Other painkillers, such as caffeinated aspirin and acetaminophen, are also able to relieve headache or rising pain.

Most painkillers, including naproxen, acetaminophen, and aspirin with caffeine, are available for purchase online. Please speak to the doctor before you take some new medicine.

Drugs that treat nausea

Any people who have migraines will need to take medications to relieve the symptoms to come with them.

Metoclopramide can be used to manage certain symptoms, including nausea and vomiting. Serotonin agonists, including sumatriptan, can also be prescribed for serious migraines or migraines not reacting to OTC medications.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and antidepressants, such as tricyclics, are used to alleviate the effects of migraine although they are not licensed for this reason in all countries.

Preventive medications

Preventing migraines starts by minimizing causes. The key aims of preventive therapies are to reduce migraine headaches frequency, pain intensity, and length and improve the efficacy of other therapies.

Several drugs and supplements are available that help avoid migraine attacks including:

  • antidepressants
  • coenzyme Q10
  • herbal extracts, such as feverfew
  • magnesium citrate
  • vitamin B-12 supplements
  • riboflavin

Some supplements, including vitamin B-12, and feverfew, can be purchased in any medical store. When buying, make sure these supplements are administered safely alongside other medicines.

This is worth noting that certain people can experience headache overuse (MOH) medicine, or headache rebounding. It can happen in an effort to avoid migraine attacks after taking so many drugs.

Types

There are two main types of migraine. The distinction depends on whether the patient experiences any sensory symptoms that contribute to a migraine. Those are called the auras.

Migraine with aura

Migraine with aura
This picture is an illustration of what a person experiencing migraine with aura might see.

The auras serve as a warning for many people with migraine, telling them a headache is coming soon. Might involve the effects of an aura:

  • confusing thoughts or experiences
  • the perception of strange, sparkling or flashing lights
  • zig-zagging lines in the visual field
  • blind spots or blank patches in the vision
  • pins and needles in an arm or leg
  • difficulty speaking
  • stiffness in the shoulders, neck, or limbs
  • unpleasant smells

If the following symptoms for the person with migraine are rare they should not be ignored:

  • an unusually severe headache
  • visual disturbance
  • loss of sensation
  • difficulties with speech

When Aura migraines impair vision, the patient can see objects that are not there, such as transparent object strings. Often, they can not see portions of the object in front of them or even feel as if part of their field of vision appears, disappears and then returns.

People who encounter an aura may describe the visual disturbance as similar to the subsequent sensation of exposure to a very bright camera flash.

Migraine without aura

More generally, without any sensory disruption leading up to the attack, a person may experience a migraine. Migraines occur between 70 and 90 percent without an aura.

Other types

There are other types of migraine related to specific syndromes or triggers, including:

  • Chronic migraine: refers to any migraine that induces attacks on more than 15 days of the month.
  • Menstrual migraine: It is when the attacks take place in a sequence similar to the menstrual cycle.
  • Hemiplegic migraine: It triggers acute duration of weakness on one side of the body.
  • Abdominal migraine: This is a condition that ties migraine attacks to abnormal gut and abdominal function. It occurs mainly in children under the age of 14 years,
  • Migraine with brainstem aura: This is a uncommon form of migraine that can cause serious neurological symptoms, such as speech impaired.

Having detected a migraine pattern in any headaches encountered, talk to a doctor. They will be in a position to advise the form and recommend adequate care.

Symptoms

Migraine symptoms can begin a while prior to headache, immediately prior to headache, during headache, and after headache. However if not all migraines are similar, common signs include:

  • moderate to severe pain, usually confined to one side of the head but capable of occurring on either side of the head
  • severe, throbbing, or pulsing pain
  • increasing pain during physical activity or when straining
  • inability to perform regular activities due to pain
  • feeling sick and physically vomiting
  • increased sensitivity to light and sound, relieved by lying quietly in a darkened room

Some people experience other symptoms including nausea, changes in temperature, stomach ache and diarrhea.

Migraine vs headache

Understanding the difference between a migraine attack and a headache is important.

Headaches may differ greatly in the amount of time they last, how bad they are, and why they happen. These can not occur as migraine attacks do, in a recognizable pattern.

MIgraine attacks that occur with other symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting, can present as mild to extreme headaches on one side of the brain. Headaches of migraine and non-migraine are distinct, and may suggest multiple causes.

For order to better diagnose a migraine headache, it might be helpful to maintain a symptom log that records the time of onset, any causes, the length of headaches, any visible indications or auras that contribute to a migraine attack, and any other symptoms.

Ideally, a diary of headache should be used for at least 8 weeks, and record:

  • the frequency, duration, and severity of headaches
  • any associated symptoms
  • all prescribed and OTC medications taken to relieve headache symptoms
  • possible triggers
  • the relationship of headaches to menstruation

The International Headache Society suggests the criterion “5, 4, 3, 2, 1” for diagnosing migraines without having an aura.

This stands for:

  • 5 or more attacks with a duration of 4 hours to 3 days
  • At least two of the following qualities: Occurring on one side of the head, a pulsating quality, moderate-to-severe pain, and aggravation by routine physical activity
  • At least one additional symptom, such as nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light, or sensitivity to sound.

During initial migraine treatment, the doctor can recommend a series of tests to rule out any other causes of a headache. Which can involve scans with electroencephalography (EEG), CT, and MRI, or a spinal tap.

Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

9 − five =

Ear, Nose and Throat

Are sinus infections contagious?

Published

on

Sinus infections, often called sinusitis, are sometimes confused with the highly contagious common cold.

However, just because sinus infections and colds have similar symptoms does not mean that all sinus infections are as contagious as a cold.

It depends on the cause of a sinus infection whether it is communicable or not.

What is it?

sinus infection

Sinuses are hollow cavities that can be found in the cheeks, on either side of the nose, behind the nose, and in the forehead.

Normally, these spaces are airy and bordered by a thin coating of mucus.

When the tissues around these hollow spaces enlarge or become infected by bacteria, fungus, or a virus, a sinus infection results.

Are sinus infections contagious?

Sinus infections can be caused by a variety of causes, some of which are communicable.

A virus-caused sinus infection is infectious and rapidly spreads from person to person.

Sinus infections caused by a deformity, nasal obstruction, or allergies are not communicable.

Sinus infections are classified into several categories.

Sinus infections are divided into different categories based on how long they last.

The following are some of them:

  • Acute – Infections that persist for four weeks or less
  • Subacute – Infections that last between 4 and 12 weeks
  • Chronic – Infections that continue longer than 12 weeks
  • Recurrent – infections that recur on a yearly basis

Furthermore, each form of sinus infection can be caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or fungi.

Because of blockages in the nasal passages or malformations in the sinus cavities, some forms of sinusitis simply cause swelling and irritation. Sinus infections can also be caused by allergies and long-term exposure to pollution.

Symptoms

Sinus infections are frequently mistaken for a nasty cold. People may find it difficult to tell the difference between a cold and a sinus infection. Some of the symptoms are similar to those of a cold. These are some of them:

  • pain in the teeth
  • pain in one or both ears
  • fatigue
  • fever
  • pressure in the sinus cavities
  • bad breath
  • cloudy nasal discharge
  • stuffiness of the nose
  • cough
  • postnasal drip
  • sore throat

Bacterial sinus infections have a few additional symptoms. These signs and symptoms include:

  • facial pain
  • symptoms lasting longer than a week
  • pus-like or thick nasal discharge

Treatments

The majority of sinus infections are treated solely for symptom relief. There are numerous alternatives for alleviating annoying symptoms.

These are some of them:

  • oral steroids for more severe infections
  • nasal irrigation to reduce mucus drainage and remove irritants
  • medicated nasal sprays containing corticosteroids that reduce inflammation

A doctor would usually prescribe medicines to destroy the bacteria in cases of bacterial sinusitis. Antibiotics may be required for up to two weeks if a person has bacterial sinusitis.

Treatment for chronic or recurring sinus infections will also seek to address the underlying cause and shorten the length or frequency of infections.

A doctor may recommend injecting steroids straight into the nasal passages to relieve inflammation in these circumstances.

A doctor may recommend surgery to open up the sinus passages and give them more room to drain in cases of chronic sinusitis that are resistant to treatment. A doctor may provide allergy shots in the case of chronic sinus infections caused by allergies.\

Home remedies

A person may choose to self-treat a sinus infection at home in some instances. Until the sinus infection clears up, people can take over-the-counter drugs to treat their symptoms.

The following are some of the most frequent over-the-counter remedies for sinus infections:

  • Acetaminophen: Pain and tenderness caused by enlarged nasal passages are reduced.
  • Decongestants: reduce the amount of mucus that is produced
  • Cold medications: Drugs that treat a wide range of symptoms, such as congestion, pain, and cough

Additional therapies may be beneficial in conjunction with at-home treatment. Steam or a humidifier, for example, can assist cleanse nasal passages.

Some people use nasal irrigation at home to eliminate extra mucus and clear their airways.

Essential oils can be used by people who are interested in herbal or natural remedies.

Lemon oil, lavender oil, and eucalyptus oil are some oils that may aid with sinus strain. Essential oils should be used with caution because they are not regulated or controlled by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

When should you see a doctor?

Anyone who has been experiencing pain and pressure in their sinuses for more than a week should contact a doctor. If a chronic fever or cough does not improve with time, they should be addressed.

A doctor will examine a person who exhibits these symptoms. A physical examination and a determination of the individual’s history of sinus infections will be part of the evaluation.

The following indicators of sinus infection will be looked for by a doctor:

  • bad breath
  • tenderness of the face
  • swelling of nasal passages and tissues
  • greenish mucus
  • redness in the nasal passages

A doctor might also inquire about your pain. Pain in the ears, teeth, and areas surrounding the nasal passages are typically of interest to doctors.

If a sinus infection has lasted more than a week and the doctor suspects a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed.

Antibiotics aren’t always required because infections might be caused by viruses, allergies, or nasal abnormalities.

Sources:

  • https://health.clevelandclinic.org/2016/11/sinus-infections-contagious/
  • http://care.american-rhinologic.org/sinusitis_q_a
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/318237
  • http://acaai.org/allergies/types/sinus-infection
  • http://www.entnet.org/content/sinusitis

Continue Reading

Headache / Migraine

What is status migrainosus?

Published

on

Status migrainosus is a type of migraine that is difficult to treat. It’s a migraine that lasts more than 72 hours.

Treatments for migraines may not be effective in treating status migrainosus. However, there are a number of options for dealing with it.

The episodes can become debilitating and interfere with daily life. A person may require hospital treatment to break the cycle of symptoms.

In this article, we’ll look at what causes status migrainosus, how it differs from other types of migraine, and how to alleviate symptoms.

What is it?

status migrainosus
Status migrainosus symptoms extend longer than those of a regular migraine attack.

A severe migraine attack that lasts more than 72 hours is known as status migrainosus. The same symptoms that characterize a person’s usual migraine attacks may be present, but they may be more severe.

The main sign of status migrainosus is the persistent headache and accompanying symptoms. When traditional methods of symptom management, such as rest and medication, fail, hospitalization may be required.

The majority of migraine attacks follow a distinct pattern. A warning period may precede this, which may include visual problems or other sorts of aura.

Following that, during the attack phase of a migraine episode, a person may have a headache and:

  • sensitivity to light and noise
  • fatigue
  • nausea and possibly vomiting

The person may feel a migraine “hangover” as these symptoms fade, which can last hours or even days.

A person can distinguish a migraine episode from other forms of headaches based on the sequence of symptoms.

The headache phase of status migrainosus lasts for at least 72 hours, or three days.

Symptoms

The pain and nausea of status migrainosus are so intense for some people that they must spend time in a hospital.

The symptoms are comparable to those of other migraine types, but they linger longer and are more severe.

Migraine symptoms can also differ from person to person and episode to episode, although they typically look like this:

Phase of the prodrome

Mood swings, food cravings, nausea, difficulty sleeping, concentration, sensitivity to light and sound, and other symptoms may occur. They can persist anywhere from a few hours to several days.

Aura

If a person goes through this phase, their eyesight may change – lights or strange forms may appear in their field of view. On one side of the body, a person may experience numbness and tingling.

This stage could last anywhere from 5 minutes to an hour.

Phase of a headache

It’s possible that the headache will be severe and throbbing. It usually affects one side of the head, although it can also affect the other.

The migraine must include the following symptoms to be diagnosed as status migrainosus:

  • pain that is debilitating, rather than jus
  • a headache that lasts longer than 72 hours

A person with status migrainosus may also experience the following symptoms:

Changes in consciousness: Difficulty concentrating and communicating, as well as confusion and sleepiness, are all possible symptoms.

Vomiting and nausea: It’s possible that a person won’t be able to eat or drink, putting them at risk of dehydration and other symptoms.

Other symptoms: These may include weakness and tingling, nasal congestion, pain and stiffness in the neck, anxiety, and low mood.

The pain may temporarily ease with medication, rest, or both.

Diagnosis

There is no reliable test for migraine. Whether a person sees a doctor during or after an episode, the doctor may do the following:

  • perform a physical examination
  • do other tests to rule out, for example, a stroke or brain injury
  • ask about symptoms
  • take a medical history

Only migraine people develop status migrainosus.

A doctor may investigate whether a person’s medical history includes the following items to help determine whether they have status migrainosus:

  • at least five previous migraine episodes that each lasted 4–72 hours and occurred without an aura
  • two previous episodes of migraine with an aura

They may also conduct neurological tests or order an MRI to rule out other problems.

Treatment

Although there is no cure for migraine, drugs can help to reduce the duration of status migrainosus symptoms.

Pain, nausea, and other symptoms are treated with standard therapy. Among the possibilities are:

It’s important to preventing vomiting since dehydration can induce migraines and make symptoms worse.

A doctor may employ specialty medications to assist interrupt the cycle of symptoms in an emergency situation. The following therapies are possible:

  • steroids
  • muscle relaxants
  • antipsychotics
  • in rare cases, opioids
  • triptans, which tighten the blood vessels
  • anti-seizure medication
  • antihistamines

The doctor can inject these drugs if the patient is vomiting.

Prevention

There are methods for avoiding migraine attacks and status migrainosus. There are additional methods for reducing the severity or frequency of episodes.

Among the options are:

  • anti-seizure drugs
  • Botox injections
  • antihypertensive drugs
  • calcitonin gene-related peptide, or CGRP, pathway monoclonal antibodies
  • antidepressants

Acupuncture, biofeedback, and relaxation techniques are some non-drug treatments that may help.

Living with status migrainosus

Living with migraine can be challenging, particularly for those who are prone to status migrainosus.

Migraine can have long-term social, financial, and psychological consequences in addition to the immediate symptoms.

Life with migraine can be tough due to anxiety about an episode occurring, irritation over unmet plans, and a variety of other issues.

Support groups may be beneficial. They also give people the chance to share and learn new ways to deal with symptoms. The Move Against Migraine online group, for example, is run by the American Migraine Foundation.

Counseling may also assist a person in coping with the pain and anxiety that might accompany a chronic condition.

Find more tips for coping with migraine here.

Avoiding triggers

Many migraine people have noticed that certain triggers might set off attacks.

By keeping account of what happened in the days leading up to a migraine attack, including dietary, emotional, and environmental aspects, a person can learn to identify their triggers. The next stage is to figure out how to cut down on your exposure to these triggers.

The following are common status migrainosus triggers:

  • weather changes
  • infections, such as a cold or the flu
  • surgery on the head or face
  • hormonal imbalances
  • stress
  • changes in medication, such as antidepressants or birth control pills
  • injuries to the neck or head
  • changes in sleeping or eating patterns

Keeping hydrated and getting enough rest can help to lessen the number of episodes you have. Drinking at least 60–80 ounces of water each day is recommended.

Conclusion

The condition known as status migrainosus can be frightening and painful. Understanding what triggers these episodes and taking actions to avoid them might help reduce anxiety and keep the problem from recurring.

A tailored treatment strategy may also assist to avoid or lessen the severity of attacks.

After having status migrainosus, a person should seek further evaluation and counsel from a neurologist who specializes in migraine.

Sources:

  • https://www.ccjm.org/content/85/7/514.long
  • monoclonal-antibodies/
  • https://headaches.org/resources/intractable-migraine/
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/320247
  • http://www.headaches.org/2007/11/02/case-studies-issue-novemberdecember-2006/
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554611/
  • https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/status-migrainosus
  • https://www.ichd-3.org/1-migraine/1-4-complications-of-migraine/1-4-1-status-migrainosus/
  • https://www.migrainetrust.org/about-migraine/migraine-what-is-it/symptoms-and-stages/
  • https://americanmigrainefoundation.org/resource-library/timeline-migraine-attack/

Continue Reading

Complementary Medicine / Alternative Medicine

Is magnesium effective in the treatment of migraines?

Published

on

Migraines are difficult to treat with standard medicine, so many people seek out other methods to prevent them. Magnesium is one possible treatment.

Magnesium is a naturally occurring mineral that aids in blood pressure control, heart health, neuron and muscle function regulation, and the formation of bone, DNA, and protein. Headaches and migraines may be caused by a magnesium deficiency.

Magnesium is used by some people to treat and prevent migraine symptoms such as severe migraines, visual abnormalities, sensitivity to light and sound, nausea, and vomiting.

Magnesium and migraines

magnesium

Taking a magnesium supplement, according to some study, may be an effective method to prevent headaches. Other research has revealed that during a migraine, a person’s brain magnesium levels may be low.

To avoid migraines, the American Migraine Foundation recommends taking a 400–500 mg magnesium oxide supplement daily.

Magnesium’s effectiveness as a migraine preventive, according to some researchers, increases when a person takes higher dosages — over 600 (mg) — for at least 3 to 4 months.

Taking high dosages of magnesium as a supplement, on the other hand, may cause side effects in some people.

For people with migraines that include an aura or visual abnormalities, using magnesium may be more beneficial.

How to Treat Migraines with Magnesium

Magnesium oxide, in the form of a tablet, can be taken by migraine people to enhance their magnesium intake.

If a person is having trouble absorbing magnesium sulfate, a doctor may inject 1–2 grams (g) of it intravenously.

Magnesium can also be found in the following forms:

  • magnesium citrate
  • magnesium chloride
  • magnesium carbonate

The body absorbs these different types of magnesium at different rates. Magnesium is difficult to absorb unless it is bonded to something else, thus magnesium supplements frequently include other nutrients, such as amino acids, that have additional health advantages.

Some people prefer to increase their magnesium intake by eating more.

Magnesium can be found in the following foods:

  • mackerel, tuna, and Pollock
  • low-fat yogurt or kefir
  • bananas
  • figs
  • dark chocolate
  • cereals
  • spices
  • cocoa
  • nuts and grains
  • black beans and lentils
  • tea and coffee
  • green leafy vegetables
  • avocado
  • seeds, such as pumpkin or squash seeds
  • almonds

Magnesium is suggested in daily doses of 310–320 mg for women and 400–420 mg for males.

Risks and side effects

Magnesium is found in a variety of foods. There appear to be no hazards connected with increasing magnesium levels by consuming more of these foods.

Taking too many magnesium supplements, on the other hand, might cause unpleasant side effects such as diarrhea, cramping, and vomiting.

If a person develops diarrhea as a result of taking a magnesium supplement, they should stop using it immediately. Staying hydrated is also critical for a person suffering from diarrhea.

People should also avoid taking magnesium supplements if they are using aminoglycoside antibiotics. Combining these medications can cause in muscular weakness and other issues.

Magnesium can also interfere with how antibiotics are absorbed. As a result, any essential antibiotics should be taken at least 2 hours before or 4 to 6 hours after taking these supplements.

Magnesium also helps to reduce blood pressure. People who take magnesium supplements while taking blood pressure medicine may be at risk for hypotension, which is when blood pressure drops dangerously low.

An overabundance of magnesium in the body can have serious consequences, including:

  • coma
  • slowed breathing
  • an irregular heartbeat

Supplementing of magnesium may cause additional negative effects in people who have specific medical conditions, such as:

  • kidney problems, including kidney failure
  • gastrointestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or a stomach infection
  • bleeding disorders
  • diabetes

Anyone considering taking magnesium supplements should consult with a physician first. A doctor can tell you if the supplement is safe for you depending on your medical history.

Before using a magnesium supplement, pregnant women should visit their doctor. They should also avoid taking high amounts of magnesium sulfate intravenously because it can cause bone thinning in the fetus.

Conclusion

Magnesium, if administered correctly, could be a safe therapeutic choice for migraine people. Its risk of negative side effects is lower than that of some established medical therapies.

Magnesium oxide may be especially beneficial for people who have a history of aura.

Magnesium supplements should be discussed with a doctor first, as they may combine with a person’s medication or exacerbate symptoms of an existing condition.

Magnesium supplements can be found in a variety of pharmacies and health food stores.

Sources:

  • http://nccam.nih.gov/health/pain/headachefacts.htm?nav=gsa
  • http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/minerals/magnesium
  • https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-Consumer/
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322596
  • http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-HealthProfessional/
  • http://dining.nd.edu/whats-happening/news/69490-magnesiumthe-invisible-deficiency/
  • https://www.migrainetrust.org/living-with-migraine/treatments/supplements-and-herbs/
  • https://americanmigrainefoundation.org/understanding-migraine/magnesium/
  • https://www.migrainetrust.org/about-migraine/types-of-migraine/

Continue Reading

Copyright © 2022 NccMed.com