Dehydration happens when the body consumes more fluid than it takes in, or loses it. Dehydration can affect anyone, including infants.
People can quickly absorb the fluids by drinking and eating as normal on most days. Nevertheless, diarrhea, vomiting, fever and hot weather may all increase fluid loss and raise the risk of dehydration.
Caregivers should be mindful of the warning signs of dehydration in children, because this may lead to severe problems in safety. That can even be fatal in extreme cases.
Read on for more detail on the signs, symptoms and causes of dehydration. We cover medication as well, including when to see a doctor. With proper care, treating dehydration is straightforward and leads to full recovery.
Signs and symptoms of dehydration in toddlers
Whether an child has a stomach bug, is vomiting, has diarrhea, or refuses to eat or drink, caregivers will watch for symptoms of dehydration.
Caregivers should keep in mind that the child can not understand or be able to express the initial signs of hunger or exhaustion to others. It is important that we do not wait until the baby becomes excessively hungry before taking action.
Signs of dehydration in infants may include:
- urinating less frequently
- dry diapers, or no urination, for 3 hours or longer
- no tears when crying
- cracked lips
- a dry mouth
- sunken eyes
- decreased activity
- crying or being fussy
- dry or sticky mucus on the tongue or the lining of the mouth
- fast breathing
- a rapid heart rate
Causes and risk factors
For children, dehydration happens as more fluid exits the body than it comes for.
Many cases can result from infants who don’t drink enough water. Occasionally, however, an infection, sickness, or disease may lead to dehydration.
Risk factors for dehydration in infants are:
- not drinking enough water
- viral infections, such as rotavirus, Norwalk virus, and adenovirus
- bacterial infections, including Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, and Clostridium difficile
- parasitic infections, such as Giardia lamblia, also known as giardiasis
- excessive sweating due to fever or hot weather
- a fever
- chronic illnesses, including diabetes, bowel disorders, celiac disease, and cystic fibrosis
- a reaction to medication
- hot and humid weather
To determine the cause and extent of an infant’s dehydration, the doctor should consider their medical history, discuss with a caregiver their signs and symptoms, and perform a physical examination.
Often, the doctor may order different laboratory tests to help them identify the optimum treatment. Check for dehydration triggers can include:
- a complete blood count to look for infections
- blood cultures to check for infections
- blood chemistry tests to identify electrolyte imbalances, in cases of diarrhea and vomiting
- urine tests to look for bladder infections, determine the severity of the dehydration, and check for uncontrolled diabetes
- chest X-ray
- testing for rotavirus infection
- stool analysis
- a lumbar puncture to test the spinal fluid
Treatment and home remedies
For babies at home, carers will typically treat dehydration. The first step of recovery is to replace missing fluids with oral rehydration solutions intended to replace sugar and electrolytes.
People can find oral rehydration items in grocery stores, pharmacy stores, and over-the-counter (OTC).
Clear soups, popsicles, and ice chips can help with rehydration, particularly when an infant refuses to drink water. When the baby is already breast-feeding, between the rehydration solution and their healthy diet they will continue to do so.
When an infant requires medical attention, its doctor can provide rehydration as an IV solution.
Toddlers who were ill could start eating again if they haven’t vomited for 4 hours. The BRAT diet, consisting of bananas, pasta, applesauce, and toast, has been used by people for decades to relieve diarrhea and vomiting in children.
While this diet is healthy and receives strong anecdotal reviews, no rigorous study has been done to validate how well it works.
Nevertheless, a 2016 single-blind randomized controlled trial found rice soup to be successful alongside a prescription oral rehydration solution for children aged 8–24 months with acute diarrhea.
When to see a doctor
Caregivers should take a toddler with any of the following symptoms to see a doctor:
- no urinating for over 3 hours
- more urination than normal
- diarrhea that lasts for more than 24 hours
- dry mouth
- crying without tears
- bloody stool
- sunken eyes
- fever of 102°F or above
- abdominal or rectal pain
- decreased activity levels
When to call emergency services
Dehydration can turn serious.
If it is not possible to find a specialist, calling the emergency services or going to the nearest emergency room is crucial if the baby is:
- has a dry mouth
- has severe stomach pain
- is lethargic or difficult to wake up
Preventing dehydration in toddlers
Caregivers will also avoid dehydration in children by becoming conscious of the risk factors for dehydration and immediately replacing the fluids. Can also aid with the following techniques:
- If a toddler is vomiting, has diarrhea, or shows early signs of dehydration, give them an oral rehydration solution as soon as possible.
- When it is hot and sunny outside, allow toddlers to acclimatize to the heat slowly.
- Ensure that toddlers are drinking enough water throughout the day, especially if they are unwell or it is a hot day.
- Give toddlers plain water instead of sugary soft beverages because sugary or salty foods and beverages can lead to dehydration.
For most cases, a common viral infection causes babies to become dehydrated. During illness, dehydration can cause painful side effects and severe complications, and without treatment, can be fatal. So avoiding and treating dehydration is important.
Giving the baby plenty of fluids using oral rehydration medications, or an IV if appropriate, would ensure a full recovery.
What are the treatments for broken toes?
Despite their small size, the toes play an important part in walking and balancing. Injuries to the toes can impair a person’s stride, causing damage to other joints such as the hips and knees. Because of the importance of the toes in daily life, a broken toe can be inconvenient and painful.
Although some people feel that a broken toe cannot be fixed, this is not always the case. In fact, most toe fractures should be evaluated by a doctor. Broken toes that are not treated might lead to more painful problems in the future.
Because foot fractures are prevalent, it’s a good idea to be aware of the signs and symptoms of a broken toe, as well as when to seek medical attention.
Continue reading to learn how to recognize and treat a broken toe, as well as the many sorts of fractures and breaks, as well as recovery times.
A physical exam and an X-ray are usually used to diagnose a broken toe by a podiatrist, orthopedic surgeon, or family doctor.
While a visual examination of the toe can typically detect a displaced fracture, a doctor may still order an X-ray to examine the damage and choose the appropriate therapy.
Individuals can speed up the healing process by seeing a doctor for a diagnosis and following directions on how to care for their toe. The following are some of the treatments for a broken toe:
- Surgery: For more significant toe fractures, surgery may be required. To align the bones and allow them to recover in the proper position, surgeons may need to put a pin in the toe.
- Antibiotics or a tetanus shot: Doctors may prescribe extra drugs to help prevent infection in specific circumstances. This might happen if the skin is injured as a result of the bone break.
- Rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE): The RICE approach can be used to treat a wide range of ailments, including broken toes. It can help the toe recover faster and reduce pain. A slight toe fracture may just require this treatment.
- Buddy taping: Wrapping the toe and taping it to the toe next to it keeps it supported and protected.
- A post-surgery shoe or boot: The hard sole of these gadgets allows a person to walk without bending their toes. It also assists in removing part of the body’s weight from the painful toe.
- Bone setting: A doctor may need to reposition the bones for more severe displaced fractures in order for them to heal properly. To alleviate pain, they would usually do it with numbing drugs.
It’s important to remember that ice packs should never be used for more than 10 minutes at a time. They should never put them on the skin directly because this can cause frostbite.
People should also avoid wrapping the tape around a toe in a circular pattern, as this could cut off the toe’s blood supply and cause in lasting harm.
Standard treatment options
Doctors have conventional or default treatment options for toe fractures, according to one scholarly paper. Depending on whether the fracture is in the big toe or not, the treatment options differ. The goal is for the person to keep their toe as still and straight as possible throughout the healing process.
Big toe fractures
There are two stages of treatment for these fractures. For the first 2–3 weeks, doctors will recommend either a walking boot or a cast with a toe plate. For the next 3–4 weeks, they will propose a rigid-sole shoe.
Fractures in a smaller toe
For 4–6 weeks, doctors will propose buddy taping and a rigid-sole shoe.
Pain and trouble walking are the most prevalent symptoms of fractured toes.
The severity of these symptoms can differ from one person to the next. After a pause, some people may be able to walk on their toes again, while others may find the pain to be incapacitating.
A number of factors can influence the symptoms of a broken toe, including:
- how the bone broke
- where it is broken, including whether it is near a joint
- other medical conditions, such as gout or arthritis
- the severity of the break
- whether the broken bone has moved out of its proper location or become displaced
A toe can break in a variety of ways. Stress fractures, falls, and dropping an object on the foot are examples of these.
Many people will struggle to identify the difference between a broken toe and another injury, such as a muscular sprain or a nasty bruise, because the symptoms vary so much and the breaks can be slight to severe.
The following are the signs and symptoms of each type of break:
Broken toes can be caused by painful and major events such as falling, stubbing the toe very hard, or dropping an object on the toe. Traumatic fractures, often known as bone breaks, are common in sportsmen.
Fractures caused by trauma can range in severity from small to severe. A “pop” or “crack” sound may be heard when a bone breaks, however this is not always the case.
The following are some of the signs of a traumatic fracture that may appear shortly after the event:
- pain that does not go away with rest
Bruises that are dark purple, gray, or black are common in traumatic fractures.
If a person does not seek treatment, these symptoms can last for several weeks.
Stress fractures are small hairline breaches in the bone that form as a result of repeated stress. They’re a form of overuse injury that usually affects the legs and feet.
Stress fractures can occur months or years after beginning an activity that exerts stress on the bones, such as running.
Stress fractures can arise when the muscles of the toe become too weak to withstand force, according to a 2021 review. The toe bone becomes vulnerable to pressure and impact without the support of the muscle. When a bone is subjected to too much stress, it will eventually crack.
A stress fracture in the toe can cause the following symptoms:
- pain that goes away with rest
- swelling without bruising
- pain that occurs after activities such as walking or running
- soreness or tenderness when touched
The broken bone has migrated out of place, resulting in a displaced fracture. This is more likely to happen with more serious traumatic fractures.
A misplaced fracture in the toe might cause the toe to seem crooked, according to a recent article. A displaced fracture may tear the skin and cause the bone to protrude from the incision in some situations.
Broken toe healing timeframes will undoubtedly vary from person to person.
A big toe fracture, on the other hand, usually takes 5–7 weeks to heal. It will take 4–6 weeks for fractures in smaller toes.
While things can go wrong, data reveals that only a small percentage of people with fractured toes require surgical treatment.
Vs. a sprained toe
Sprains are different from fractures because they damage the muscles and ligaments.
A sprained toe occurs when the muscles and ligaments in the toe are injured. Despite the fact that sprained and fractured toes are very different, a new study found that their symptoms can be very similar.
Sprained toes cause the following symptoms:
- difficulty walking
Toe sprains can take up to 6 weeks to heal. R.I.C.E. and stiff-soled shoes are essential for sprained toe treatment, just as they are for broken toes.
Different types of toe fractures have some similar problems, according to a 2017 article:
- Sesamoid fracture: Small bones at the base of the big toe are known as sesamoids. Sesamoid fractures can take a long time to heal, resulting in long-term pain and a reduction in athletic performance.
- Hallux fractures: Hallux fractures are types of fractures in the big toe. They can cause to foot and big toe abnormalities. These fractures can also impair a person’s big toe’s range of motion, causing long-term walking issues.
- Surgery: Toe fractures can be treated surgically, although this can cause in nerve damage and infection.
- Cartilage injury: When a fracture enters a joint, it can harm the cartilage, resulting in deformity and traumatic osteoarthritis.
Although accidents and injuries cannot always be avoided, the following precautions can help reduce the chance of breaking a toe:
- Avoid wearing non-supportive shoes, such as flip-flops: Flip-flops provide minimal support for the foot, putting undue strain on muscles and bones. A person wearing these shoes is at risk of stubbling their toe. Furthermore, these shoes provide no protection for the toes in the event of a fall.
- Replace footwear when the soles begin to wear out: When the soles of a person’s shoes grow worn and smooth, they are more likely to fall or trip. This may result in a toe injury. Regularly inspecting the bottoms of shoes for signs of wear may be beneficial.
- Exercise: Regular exercise can lessen the chance of falling in people aged 65 and over, according to a 2020 study. Falls can cause in toe injuries, including fractures.
- Manage diabetes: Neuropathy, which affects the nerves in the foot, is a risk for people. This can result in balance issues, increased falls, and foot injuries that take longer to heal. Foot problems, in general, can be worse for people with diabetes, according to the National Health Service (NHS).
Toes that have been broken are often able to heal on their own. Nonetheless, it is advisable to get medical advice for the necessary treatment to ensure that the bone heals properly.
Proper medical treatment guarantees that a minor break doesn’t turn into a major problem later.
A person’s toes might suffer from a variety of various types of breakage. Trauma from sports injuries, stubbing the toes, and tripping and falling are all common causes of broken toes.
A fractured toe’s treatment and recovery time will vary depending on the cause and severity of the break.
Anyone who suspects they have sprained or broken a toe should get medical help to ensure the injury heals properly and does not cause long-term difficulties as a result of improper healing.
What is intubation? Everything you need to know
Intubation is a common technique in which a tube is inserted into a person’s airway. Doctors use it to provide medicine or assist a patient in breathing before surgery or in an emergency.
The majority of people recover from intubation without any long-term consequences. It does, however, include some dangers, as does any procedure.
In this post, learn about when doctors use intubation, how the procedure works, and what side effects are possible.
What is intubation?
Intubation is a medical operation in which a flexible plastic tube is inserted into a person’s throat. This is a standard process in operating rooms and emergency rooms all across the world.
Intubation is used for a variety of reasons.
- opening up the airway to give oxygen, anesthetic, or medicine
- removing blockages
- helping a person breathe if they have collapsed lungs, heart failure, or trauma
- allowing doctors to look at the airways
- helping to prevent a person from breathing in liquids
Intubation can be done in a variety of ways. Doctors classify them based on the tube’s placement and the objective it is attempting to achieve.
Intubation can be done in a variety of ways, including:
- Nasogastric intubation: The tube is passed via the nose and into the stomach to remove air, feed, or provide medications to the patient.
- Endotracheal intubation: Endotracheal intubation occurs when a doctor inserts a tube into the trachea through the nose or mouth to help a patient breathe while under anesthetic or due to a clogged airway.
- Fiber-optic intubation: When a person cannot extend or flex their head, a doctor puts a tube into the throat to check the throat or facilitate endotracheal intubation.
The intubation method varies based on the reason for the intubation and whether it occurs in an operating room or in an emergency circumstance.
A doctor will usually use anesthetic to sedate the person in the operating room or another controlled setting. The doctor will then introduce a laryngoscope into the patient’s mouth to assist with the insertion of the flexible tubing.
The laryngoscope is used by the doctor to locate and avoid harming sensitive tissues such as the vocal chords. If the doctor is having problems seeing, a small camera may be inserted to assist them.
Intubation is a technique used in the operating theatre to assist a patient with breathing while under anesthetic.
A doctor will listen to the person’s breathing after they’ve inserted the tube to ensure it’s in the right place. The tube is usually connected to a ventilator by a doctor.
The doctor will remove the tube from the person’s throat once the person no longer has difficulties breathing.
A healthcare provider may need to do intubation to save a person’s life in an emergency. It can be a highly helpful procedure for airway management, and it was very valuable during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Emergency intubation is a dangerous procedure that typically necessitates a well-thought-out plan, imaging scans to guide tube placement, and team member job assignment to ensure safe and effective intubation and minimize the risk of adverse outcomes.
Intubation may have the following adverse effects:
- damage to the vocal cords
- tearing or puncturing of tissue in the chest cavity that can lead to lung collapse
- injury to throat or trachea
- damage to dental work or injury to teeth
- fluid buildup
If a clinician conducts intubation in an emergency, adverse effects are more likely to occur. Intubation, on the other hand, can be a life-saving treatment in these situations.
The following are some of the mild side effects that may arise after the procedure:
- a sore throat
- speech difficulties
- difficulty swallowing
Pneumonia and trouble breathing are two more serious adverse effects that might develop.
A person may develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in rare situations, particularly if they were not sufficiently sedated or psychologically prepared for the treatment.
Finally, there are some hazards associated with anesthesia. Although the majority of people will have no adverse effects from anesthesia, some people, such as the elderly or those who are obese, are at a higher risk of difficulties.
After waking up from anesthesia, many people experience nausea and may vomit. They may also have brief memory loss or confusion.
Before undergoing surgery, a doctor will discuss the full list of hazards with the patient.
Many people get a painful throat and have trouble swallowing right after intubation, but recovery is usually swift, taking anything from a few hours to several days depending on how long they were intubated.
However, if a person develops any of the symptoms listed below after their operation, they should contact their doctor right away because these could be signals of something more serious:
- a severe sore throat
- pain in the chest
- difficulty speaking or swallowing
- shortness of breath
- pain in the neck
- facial swelling
In comparison to a ventilator
Intubation is the process of inserting a tube into the throat to assist in the movement of air into and out of the lungs. Mechanical ventilation is similar to intubation in that it involves breathing assistance from a respiratory equipment called a ventilator. Ventilators are also known as life-support machines by some people.
Typically, healthcare workers may insert a tube into a person’s mouth or nose, then connect the tube to the ventilator. The machine generates positive pressure, which forces air into the lungs, assisting with breathing and keeping the lungs open.
In comparison to a tracheostomy
A tracheostomy is a surgical technique in which a breathing tube is inserted directly into the trachea, or windpipe, through a hole in the front of the neck.
This technique is also known as a tracheotomy, which refers to the incision, while doctors refer to the opening as a tracheostomy. A person can breathe through the tube rather than the nose and mouth because of the incision’s location.
Intubation, on the other hand, does not usually require surgery, and the healthcare team places a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose.
Intubation is a common treatment that, in an emergency, can mean the difference between life and death.
In most circumstances, a person will recover completely following intubation in a matter of hours to days, with no long-term consequences.
Before surgery, people can ask their doctor or surgeon about all of the possible side effects and dangers of intubation. If a person has any severe or uncommon side effects, they should immediately see a doctor.
Trimalleolar fracture: What you should know
In a trimalleolar fracture, the three malleoli bones that make up the ankle are all broken at the same time.
It is these particular sections of the tibia and fibula that comprise the ankle that are known as malleoli. The lateral malleolus, which is located at the end of the fibula, the medial malleolus, which is located on the inside of the tibia (shinbone), and the posterior malleolus, which is located at the rear of the tibia are the three malleolus bones.
Both the foot and the ankle are supported by three bones, which act as an anchor for the ligaments that provide mobility, control, and stability.
Because a trimalleolar fracture contains fractures in three bones, surgeons believe it to be more unstable than other fractures, and it may result in subsequent ligament damage or dislocation as a result of this.
Trimalleolar fracture are discussed in this article, as well as the treatment options available, the length of time it takes to heal, and the causes and symptoms of a trimalleolar fracture.
The fact that trimalleolar fractures are frequently unstable means that doctors will almost always advocate surgical therapy.
During the surgery, each fracture will require a unique repair process to be performed.
Lateral malleolus fracture
In the first instance, the surgeon will realign the bone pieces, putting them back in their original positions.
Afterwards, the surgeon will affix screws and metal plates to the outside surfaces of the bones in order to keep them in place.
It may be necessary for the surgeon to put a screw or rod into a patient’s bone in order to hold the bone pieces together while they mend.
Medial malleolus fracture
Surgery on the medial malleoli can increase the likelihood of a successful recovery and allow a person to return to normal movement sooner after a severe trauma.
An impaction of the ankle joint may occur as a result of a medial malleolus fracture, which occurs when one bone is forced into another by an external force. When this occurs, a surgeon may be required to perform a bone transplant, which serves as a framework for the growth of new bone. Arthritis can be reduced with the use of bone grafting.
Surgeons can repair bone fragments with screws, plates, and wiring procedures.
Posterior malleolus fracture
There are a variety of surgical procedures available for this malleolus. A procedure that involves the insertion of screws running from the front to the rear of the ankle, or the other way around, is one alternative.
The other option involves fitting plates and screws along the back of the tibia.
While clinicians frequently prescribe surgery following a trimalleolar fracture, surgical intervention may not be suitable for all patients with this kind of fracture.
Nonsurgical therapy is frequently used for people with major health problems for whom the danger of surgery is too great, as well as for those who are unable to walk due to their condition.
The use of a splint to brace the ankle until the swelling subsides is typically the first line of therapy for this condition. When the swelling has decreased enough, the doctor may apply a short cast, which they will replace with smaller casts as the swelling continues to decrease.
The individual will require frequent X-rays to verify that the ankle remains stable over time.
It is possible that a person will be unable to put any weight on their ankle for up to 6 weeks. Once the ankle has healed, they may be able to wear a detachable brace to keep it from being immobilized any longer.
If someone has undergone ankle surgery, they will be unable to bear weight on the ankle for a period of time.
The length of time required will be determined by a number of factors, including the stability of the bones and the severity of the injury to the surrounding joint structures.
A person will frequently suffer significant swelling around the injured area. The following are some of the ways that swelling might interfere with recovery:
- prolong the healing process.
- delay further surgery
- cause blisters on the skin
- increase the chance of infection
A regular physical therapy regimen will be necessary for a complete recovery.
Causes and symptoms
A trimalleolar fracture of the ankle is most commonly caused by a high-impact injury, such as one sustained while participating in sports or in a vehicle accident. A simple trip or fall, on the other hand, might result in an injury.
An ankle fracture might appear to be the same as a severe sprain in many cases, however the following are the most typical signs and symptoms of an ankle fracture:
- an inability to put weight on the damaged ankle
- immediate and severe pain
- tenderness to the touch
In addition, the ankle may look to be out of position or to have a deformity to it.
An ankle injury need the immediate attention of a medical professional. In addition to reviewing the patient’s medical history and symptoms, the doctor will also discuss the circumstances that led up to the accident before doing a physical examination.
The doctor will do more tests to determine whether or not there is a fracture. Among the tests are:
- X-ray: This is the most common way to diagnose a fracture. An X-ray can show any breaks or displacement in a bone. It can also identify how many pieces of broken bone there are in the area of the break.
- Stress test: This is a special X-ray that is used to determine whether or not surgery is required.
- A CT scan: This can assist a doctor in determining the extent of the damage. It is particularly beneficial if the fracture has spread to the ankle joint.
- An MRI scan: A high-resolution picture of the anklebones and soft tissue is obtained during this procedure. It can also assist a doctor in determining whether or not there has been any ligament injury.
It is possible that ankle fractures will result in complications. One complication is malunion, which occurs when the bones move during the healing process and remain out of place after the healing process is complete.
Malunion is most commonly seen after nonsurgical therapy has been completed. It has the potential to make the ankle unstable and potentially cause arthritis in the long run.
Other issues to consider are as follows:
- blood clots in the leg
- damage to blood vessels, tendons, or nerves
- problems with bone healing, such as non-union, in which the bones do not connect after recovery
The three malleolus bones may all be fractured independently of one another without impacting the other members of the group.
A bimalleolar fracture, which occurs when two of the three malleoli are broken, may also occur in the body. The majority of persons who suffer from bimalleolar fractures shatter both the lateral and medial malleoli.
A bimalleolar comparable fracture has also been reported in certain individuals. This happens when one of the malleoli, as well as the ligaments on the inside of the ankle, are damaged. In many bimalleolar counterparts, the fibula fractures, causing damage to the medial ligaments and other structures.
Both bimalleolar fractures and bimalleolar equivalent fractures are often treated surgically since they may render the ankle unstable and lead to a dislocation if left untreated.
A trimalleolar fracture is a major injury that will significantly impair a person’s mobility and quality of life for the duration of the healing process.
It is critical that patients participate in their own recovery by participating in physical therapy and doing home exercises to strengthen the ankle joint. Even after a fracture has healed, it might take months for the muscles to acquire enough strength to allow a person to walk appropriately once again.
Following an ankle fracture, a person may recover full mobility with the help of comprehensive therapy. According to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, however, it might take up to two years to complete the procedure.