When most of us think about calories we think about how to fatten a meal. In terms of diet, calories are the amount of nutrition a meal contains.
We’ll gain weight if we regularly take in more calories than we need. If we take in too little water, we will lose weight, fat, and eventually muscle mass. A calorie meaning is the amount of energy required to lift 1 gram (g) of water through 1 ° Celsius.
The type and amount of food we consume is what decides how many calories we consume. For those on a weight-loss diet, the amount of calories in a food is a deciding factor in choosing whether to consume it or not.
As the body absorbs energy differently during the day, how and what we eat will make a difference too. The use of energy from our body will depend on how involved we are, how effectively our body uses the energy, and on our age.
Women are expected to need between 1,600 and 2,400 calories a day, and men between 2,000 to 3,000 according to the Americans ‘Dietary Recommendations for 2015-2020. This depends however on their age, gender, height, lifestyle, overall health, and level of activity.
Fast facts on calorie intake and use
- Recommended calorie intake depends on factors such as age, size, height, sex, lifestyle, and overall general health.
- Recommended daily calorie intakes in the US are around 2,500 for men and 2,000 for women.
- Eating a big breakfast could help with weight reduction and maintenance.
- The brain uses around 20 percent of the energy used in the human body.
- Factors affecting ideal calorific intake include age, bone density, and muscle-fat ratio.
- A 500-calorie meal consisting of fruits and vegetables has more health benefits and will keep you feeling full for longer than a 500-calorie snack of pop
The 2015-2020 Americans Dietary Guidelines suggest calorie intake ranging from 1,000 calories a day for a 2-year-old child to 3,200 for an active male aged 16 to 18.
As people get older they slow down their metabolic rate.
Which reduces their energy requirement. The average intake for women from age 19 to 25 is 2,000 calories a day, but after 51 years this falls to 1,600.
The human body needs energy to stay alive.
Around 20 percent of the energy we consume is used for metabolism in the brain. Much of the remainder is used in basal metabolism, the resources we use for functions such as blood circulation, digestion and respiration while in a resting state.
We need more energy to maintain a steady body temperature in a cold climate, as our metabolism rises to create more food. We need less water, in a warm climate.
For our skeletal muscles we do need mechanical energy, to maintain posture and to move about.
The metabolic cycle by which cells acquire energy by reacting oxygen with glucose to create carbon dioxide, water and energy is cell respiration.
How effectively breathing energy transforms into physical — or mechanical — power depends on the type of food consumed, the amount of physical energy, and what aerobic or anaerobic use of muscles is made of.
In other words, in order to fuel body functions like breathing and thinking, we need calories to sustain our posture, and to move about.
Here are some tips for burning energy and losing weight more effectively.
- Eat breakfast: A protein and healthy fat breakfast will keep you full for longer and help avoid daytime snacking.
- Eat daily meals: This will help you burn calories more efficiently and help avoid snacking in a wasteful way.
- Consider your “five-a-day”: fruits and vegetables can be a tasty snack, and can fill your meals out. These are rich in nutrients and protein, and low in fat and calories.
- Eat slow-: high- carbohydrates like legumes and healthy fats like avocado take longer to release sugar, so you’re not going to get hungry as easily as possible.
- Exercise: Exercise will help flush off excess calories, so you can feel good about it. It’s convenient for most people to do a brisk daily walk, and cost nothing. Challenge with a Pedometer. There are exercises for people using a wheelchair which can improve heart health and strength.
- Drink water: It is safe, it doesn’t have any calories and it will fill you up. Stop alcohol and soft drinks as these can easily contain too many calories. If you are looking for sweet drinks, select non-sweetened fruit juices, or get a juice maker.
- Eat more fiber: fiber that is found in fruits, vegetables and wholegrains will make you feel full and make you to digest well.
- Check the label: Some products have fats or sugars tucked away. “Ten percent less fat,” does not actually mean any less fat, so it doesn’t necessarily mean you should consume more of it or it’s even better. The mark will help you keep track whether you are counting calories.
- Using smaller plates: Evidence indicates portion sizes have risen over the past 3 decades and this may lead to obesity. Smaller plate use promotes smaller pieces.
- Slow down: Eat slowly and rest between courses or extra servings, because it may take your body 20 to 30 minutes to realize it is feeling full.
- Make a shopping list: Plan a week of healthful meals and snacks, list the ingredients you need, and when you go grocery shopping, stick to it.
- A little of what you fancy: Banning foods can lead to cravings and bingeing. Spoil yourself occasionally with a favorite treat, but in smaller amounts.
- Get enough sleep: Sleep loss affects the metabolism, and it has been linked to weight gain.
- Avoid eating 2 hours before bed: Eating within 2 hours of sleeping can interfere with sleep quality and promote weight gain.
Here are some examples of exercises that will help you burn in 30 minutes, and calories. The calculations are for an adult who weighs 125 pounds.
|Walking at 4.5 miles an hour||150|
|Running at 6 miles an hour||300|
Holding calorie consumption under those limits does not guarantee a balanced diet, as different foods affect the body differently.
Insulin levels will increase substantially more after consuming carbohydrates (carbs) compared with eating fats or protein. Some carbs, especially in the form of sugar, or glucose, get into the bloodstream much faster than others.
Refined meal is a fast carb, whereas legumes are slower. For body weight management and overall health slow release carbs are better than fast carbs.
A 500-calorie meal of fish or beef, salad and some olive oil, accompanied by fruit, is healthier and stays off hunger longer than a 500-calorie buttered or toffee popcorn snack.
You need to know your basal metabolic rate and an activity factor to figure out how many calories you need.
Basal metabolic rate
One useful way of estimating BMR is the Mifflin-St. Jeor equation:
Men: 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) – 5 x age (y) + 5
Women: 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) – 5 x age (y) – 161
To calculate your BMR automatically, follow this link and enter your details into the calculator.
After calculating the BMR, multiply the result with an activity factor:
- Sedentary lifestyle: If you do very little or no exercise at all, your daily calorie requirement is BMR x 1.2.
- Slightly active lifestyle: If you do light exercise between one and three times a week, your daily calorie requirement is BMR x 1.375.
- Moderately active lifestyle: If you do moderate exercise three to five times a week, your daily calorie requirement is BMR x 1.55.
- Active lifestyle: If you do intensive exercise six to seven times per week, your daily calorie requirement is BMR x 1.725.
- Very active lifestyle: If you do very intensive exercise twice a day, with extra heavy workouts, your daily calorie requirement is BMR x 1.9.
It should offer a rough picture of the average intake of calories you need to hold your body weight where it is.
The conclusion is also not ideal, because the equation does not take into account the muscle-to-fat ratios. Even while resting, a very muscular person needs more calories.
Ideal body weight
As with requirements for calories, an ideal body weight depends on a variety of factors, including age, sex, bone density, muscle-fat ratio and height.
There are different ways of assessing an ideal weight.
Body mass index (BMI)
Body mass index (BMI) is one way of working out what a person should weigh. If you know your height and weight, you can use this calculator to find out your BMI.
|18.5 to 24.9||Normal weight|
|30 or above||Obesity|
However, it does not take into account muscle mass.
Imagine a professional athlete weighing 200 pounds or 91 kilograms (kg) and standing 6 feet tall, or 1 meter (m) and 83 centimeters (cm). We may have the same BMI as a similarly high inactive person. The athlete is not overweight but more probably the inactive individual.
Researchers have found that there is a longer life expectancy for those people whose waist circumference is less than half their height.
An adult male who is 6 feet (183 cm) tall should have a waist that does not exceed 36 inches (91 cm).
An adult female who is 5 feet 4 inches (163 cm) tall should have a waist that does not exceed 32 inches (81 cm).
Measure halfway between the lower rib and the pelvic bone on the hip to determine the waiste.
When assessing a healthy weight this test can be more precise than BMI. However, it is limited because it does not accurately quantify the percentage of total body fat of an person, or the ratio of muscle to fat.
A large variety of diets claim to help people lose their body weight or hold it.
Some of these are healthy and reliable, and help people lose weight in the long run and keep it off. Some are hard to stick to, or easily put weight back on when the person starts following the diet.
See our article on the “Eight Most Common Diets” to find out more.
The rankings for these diets were based on how many things they were favorably listed, how common they were in general, and which ones earned the most positive reviews.
Eating a safe and well-balanced diet that you can maintain for more than 6 months is more critical than counting calories. It is equally necessary to be physically active and to align the calories expended each day with the energy used.
How long does it take for kidney stones to pass?
The kidneys are in charge of filtering the blood for urea and excess minerals. These substances are frequently excreted in the urine. Large concentrations of these minerals can, in some situations, build up in the kidneys, causing crystal-like stones.
Kidney stones can form in one or both kidneys. They may then flow thru the ureter, the tube that links the kidney to the bladder.
Small kidney stones usually pass thru without causing any problems and may not cause any symptoms. Larger stones can become lodged in the ureter and cause pain. They may cause issues such as infection and renal damage if they are not removed.
The speed with which a kidney stone passes can be influenced by a number of factors. More information on how long it takes to pass a kidney stone, how to speed up the process, and treatment options can be found in this article.
When to consult your doctor
Smaller kidney stones may pass on their own, producing little pain. Large stones, on the other hand, can be uncomfortable and raise the risk of health problems.
Pain is a sign that a person needs to see a doctor. They’ll be able to tell if the stone has to be treated in any way to help it pass.
If people have any of the following symptoms, they should see a doctor:
- blood in the urine
- fever and chills
- severe and persistent pain in the back or side
- cloudy or foul-smelling urine
- a burning feeling when urinating
These symptoms could indicate a kidney infection, which needs to be treated right once to avoid more serious problems.
Size and placement are the two key elements that determine how quickly a stone passes.
A kidney stone’s size influences how rapidly it passes through a person’s body. Smaller stones pass more quickly and with less pain.
The approximate timelines for passing kidney stones of various sizes are listed below:
- Around 80% of kidney stones with a size of less than 4 mm will pass on their own in around 31 days.
- Around 60% of kidney stones with a diameter of 4–6 mm will pass on their own after 45 days.
- Around 20% of kidney stones that are larger than 6 mm will pass on their own after a year. When stones are this large, however, it is better to consider surgical removal as soon as possible.
The position of the kidney stone also has an impact on whether or not it can be passed naturally. Some stones develop in the kidney, whereas others develop in the ureter.
Kidney stones that form near the kidney form in the upper section of the ureter. Those that form near the bladder are those that form in the lower section.
According to a 2014 assessment of research, 48 percent of stones that develop near the kidney pass without intervention. For stones that grow close to the bladder, the percentage climbs to 79 percent.
How to speed up the process
Drinking enough of water is the best technique to assist speed up the passing of a kidney stone. The extra fluid increases urine, which aids in the movement of the stone.
A person can also take actions to avoid the formation of new stones and the growth of existing ones. These steps are as follows:
- limiting protein intake
- reducing calcium intake
- consuming less salt
- eating more citrus fruits
Citrus fruits contain the chemical citrate, which can help prevent kidney stones from forming.
Dietitians and doctors can also recommend food programmes for kidney stone management.
Pain relief remedies
Kidney stones can be inconvenient and even painful to pass. In certain circumstances, over-the-counter drugs like ibuprofen may be sufficient to relieve pain.
If a person’s kidney stones are especially painful, they should speak with their doctor, who may be able to prescribe stronger pain relievers.
Treatment and surgery
Kidney stones can be treated without surgery in a number of ways. These are some of them:
- Alpha-blockers: These drugs relax the ureter, alleviating painful spasms and helping the stone pass.
- Calcium channel blockers: These drugs widen the ureter, helping the stone pass through.
- Lithotripsy: This procedure uses sound waves to break the stone into smaller fragments that can pass more easily.
Surgery is rarely the first treatment option. Kidney stones greater than 6 mm, on the other hand, necessitate emergency surgery. Large stones can become lodged in the ureter, resulting in infections and kidney damage.
Ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are the two main surgical options for kidney stone removal.
A general anaesthesia is required during ureteroscopy. Using tiny instruments introduced via the urethra, the surgeon removes or breaks up the stone during the surgery. A stent may then be placed into the urethra to keep it open. This makes it easier for any little stone shards to flow through.
The surgeon removes very large stones measuring 10 mm or more during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. A tiny incision in the back is used to remove the stone directly from the kidney. The surgery necessitates a general anaesthesia and a one to two-day stay in the hospital.
The time it takes to recuperate from a kidney stone is determined by how quickly it goes. The pain should go away fast if the stone passes naturally or with minimal medication.
If lithotripsy is performed as an outpatient operation, the patient should be able to return home the same day. The amount of time it takes to recover depends in part on the type of anaesthetic used.
If surgery is necessary, most people are able to resume most of their routine activities within a day of the procedure. People who receive a stent, on the other hand, should avoid high-intensity activities until the stent is removed by a medical practitioner. About a week after surgery, something happens.
Pain medicines may be used throughout recuperation.
Kidney stones are often unpleasant, and passing them through the body’s system might take many weeks. If a person’s stones become very painful or if they suffer other concerning symptoms, they should consult a doctor.
Kidney stones can be treated using a variety of methods. The goal of drug therapy is to relieve pain and suffering while also allowing the stone to pass more freely.
Kidney stones that are too large to pass naturally, on the other hand, may need to be surgically removed. Within a day or two of surgery, most people are able to resume their daily activities.
Uses of vitamin B-12 level test: Normal ranges, and results
The amount of vitamin B-12 in the blood or urine is measured in a vitamin B-12 level test to determine the body’s overall vitamin B-12 reserves.
Vitamin B-12 is required for a variety of body functions, including neuron function, DNA and red blood cell formation.
Treatment is required if a person’s vitamin B-12 levels fall outside of the usual range. Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause neurological symptoms as well as fatigue, constipation, and weight loss. B-12 levels that are too high could indicate liver disease, diabetes, or another condition.
Continue reading to learn more about B-12 testing and what the results indicate.
Purpose of a vitamin B-12 level test
The vitamin B-12 level test determines the amount of vitamin B-12 in your body. Doctors can use the data to see if low vitamin B-12 levels are causing symptoms.
If a person exhibits any of the following symptoms, a doctor may recommend a vitamin B-12 level test:
Vitamin B-12 insufficiency
Vitamin B-12 deficiency is thought to affect up to 15% of people in the United States, according to research. The following are signs and symptoms of a deficiency:
- fast heartbeat
- numbness and tingling in the hands and feet
- poor memory
- a sore mouth or tongue
- difficulty maintaining balance
Vitamin B-12 deficiency in infants can cause them to underachieve. They may have mobility issues in addition to developmental delays.
A vitamin B-12 level test may be required for people who have signs of low iron. Pernicious anaemia is caused by a lack of vitamin B-12 absorption, resulting in poor red blood cell causes.
It usually affects the elderly or people who are deficient in intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor is a gastric material that binds to vitamin B-12 and allows it to be absorbed by the body.
The following are signs and symptoms of pernicious anaemia:
- pale skin
- weight loss
- loss of appetite
High levels of folate in the blood
They can also make you more susceptible to anaemia.
Symptoms of other illnesses
Vitamin B-12 levels that are unusually high can be a symptom of liver disease, diabetes, or certain types of leukaemia. The findings of a vitamin B-12 test may be used by a doctor to help them make a diagnosis.
Vitamin B-12 deficiency is more common in some people than in others, especially those with low stomach acid or other digestive problems. Stomach acid helps the body absorb vitamin B-12 more effectively by separating it from meals.
Low vitamin B-12 levels are more common in the following groups of people than in others:
- people with conditions that reduce vitamin B-12 absorption, including celiac disease and Crohn’s disease
- people who have had gastric bypass surgery
- those who are breast-feeding
- people who are taking medicines such as chloramphenicol, proton pump inhibitors, or H2 blockers
- older adults
- vegans and vegetarians
- people with diabetes
How does the B-12 vitamin level test work?
Vitamin B-12 status is normally determined by a blood test, but home urine tests are now available. Vitamin B-12 levels can be checked as part of a routine blood test by a doctor.
Although fasting is not required before a B-12 test, it may be necessary if the doctor is utilising the test to check at other blood components.
It is important that patients inform their doctors about any medications or supplements they are taking, as some may have an impact on the outcome.
Acknowledging the results
The following are possible results:
- Low. Vitamin B-12 levels below 200 pg/mL are considered low. This indicates that you may have a vitamin B-12 deficiency, pernicious anaemia, or an overactive thyroid. Neurological symptoms are common in people who have low vitamin B-12 levels.
- High. Anything over 900 pg/mL is considered excessively high vitamin B-12 status. This result could indicate problems with the liver or kidneys, diabetes, or certain types of leukaemia.
Because the ranges of results differ from one laboratory to the next, it’s important to talk to a doctor about the results and what they signify.
To rule out vitamin B-12 deficiency, the doctor may measure levels of methylmalonic acid (MMA) and other chemicals. These lab results aid in the early detection of vitamin B-12 deficiency.
Vitamin B-12 deficiency treatment
Vitamin B-12 injections are frequently required by people who have low amounts of the vitamin. These shots are more successful at boosting vitamin B-12 levels than supplements, especially when people have medical issues that make supplements difficult to absorb.
High doses of vitamin B-12 supplements may help some people improve their B-12 status. Supplements are sold in the form of capsules or liquids in pharmacies, supermarkets, health food stores. It may also be beneficial to consume extra vitamin B-12-rich foods.
Treatment for high vitamin B-12 levels
There is no upper limit on vitamin B-12 consumption because high amounts do not cause problems. Having naturally high levels of vitamin B-12 in the body, on the other hand, could be cause for alarm, since it could indicate a serious underlying condition. Doctors will focus on treating the underlying medical condition rather than the vitamin B-12 levels.
Vitamin B-12 foods.
Although low vitamin B-12 levels are frequently caused by absorption problems and other medical conditions, some people may be deficient because they do not acquire enough vitamin B-12 through their food. This is especially true for vegans and vegetarians who have been vegetarian for a long time.
Vitamin B-12-rich foods include:
- fortified plant-based dairy alternatives
- fortified breakfast cereals
- fortified nutritional yeast
- fish and seafood
- dairy products
Vitamin supplements can help vegans and strict vegetarians make up for dietary deficiencies. Older persons should seek to achieve their vitamin B-12 needs through fortified meals and vitamin supplements, as supplements are simpler for their bodies to absorb than naturally occurring vitamin B-12.
Vitamin B-12 dietary recommendations
Vitamin B-12 is required in 2.4 micrograms (mcg) per day for adults and adolescents over the age of 14. During pregnancy, this rises to 2.6 mcg, and breast-feeding raises it to 2.8 mcg.
Vitamin B-12 is an essential nutrient that is necessary for good health. The status of a person’s vitamin B-12 is determined by a vitamin B-12 level test. This test may be recommended by a doctor to people who have symptoms of a deficiency or who are at risk of having low vitamin B-12 levels in their bodies.
Vitamin B-12 deficiency can be avoided by eating a well-balanced diet that includes many sources of the vitamin on a daily basis, or by taking supplements. If they have trouble absorbing vitamin B-12 from food, oral supplements or injections can help them avoid symptoms and consequences.
Uses, benefits, and side effects of vitamin B-12 shots
Vitamin B12 shots are injections that a doctor may recommend to address a nutrient B12 deficiency, particularly if the body has trouble absorbing the vitamin.
A doctor may recommend oral vitamin B12 supplementation or injections if a person’s vitamin B12 levels are low owing to a medical condition.
Injections are typically used by people who have difficulty absorbing vitamin B12 or who have had stomach surgery. Shots allow the body to absorb vitamin B12 without having to pass it thru the digestive system.
The necessity of maintaining proper vitamin B12 levels is discussed in this article, as well as the benefits and risks of vitamin B12 shots.
Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that is important for a variety of biological activities, including:
- nerve cells
- red blood cells
- DNA production
Megaloblastic anaemia can make a person feel fatigued and weak if they don’t get enough vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12 can be found in a variety of foods, including:
- dairy products
- nutritional yeast
- some fortified foods
Vitamin B12 binds to protein molecules in animal-based diets. Stomach acid separates it from the protein during digestion, and a chemical called intrinsic factor causes the bloodstream to absorb it.
A condition known as autoimmune atrophic gastritis causes some people’s bodies to produce insufficient stomach acid or intrinsic factor. Vitamin B12 shots may be required for these people to lower their risk of deficiency, which can develop to pernicious anaemia.
Those who have had gastrointestinal surgery and whose digestive system is unable to absorb vitamin B12 properly may also require shots.
What dosage of vitamin B12 do We require?
The recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for vitamin B12 are listed in the table below. The RDA is the minimal daily quantity required by the majority of healthy people in a certain group.
|0–6 months||0.4 micrograms (mcg)|
|7–12 months||0.5 mcg|
|1–3 years||0.9 mcg|
|4–8 years||1.2 mcg|
|9–13 years||1.8 mcg|
|14+ years||2.4 mcg|
|Pregnant people||2.6 mcg|
|People who breastfeed||2.8 mcg|
A doctor, on the other hand, may provide advice on an individual’s specific needs.
Vitamin B12 shots
Vitamin B12 shots are a type of supplement that contains cyanocobalamin, a synthetic form of vitamin B12.
The shot will be administered by a doctor into the muscle. If they inject it into a vein, the body may lose a high amount of it through urine.
Cyanocobalamin is available in three different forms: liquid, tablet, and capsule. Certain foods, such as cereals, may be fortified with vitamin B12 in a synthetic form.
Who needs vitamin B12 shots?
Vitamin B12 injections can only be obtained with a prescription after a clinical diagnosis of low levels. Because the human liver accumulates vitamin B12 throughout time, low levels are uncommon in most healthy persons.
Some people, however, are at a higher risk of deficiency and may benefit from vitamin B12 injections or tablets.
Those suffering from vitamin B12 deficient symptoms
A doctor should be seen if you have symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency or pernicious anaemia.
The following are some of the signs and symptoms:
- difficulty thinking and remembering
- heart palpitations
- pale skin
- weight loss
- numbness and tingling in the hands and feet
- mood changes
- a sore tongue
- low appetite
Vitamin B12 deficiency risk factors
The following risk factors can increase the chance of developing vitamin B12 deficiency:
- high alcohol consumption
- older age
- pernicious anemia
- atrophic gastritis, which refers to inflammation in the stomach
- Helicobacter pylori infection
- celiac disease
- Crohn’s disease
- a history of gastrointestinal surgery
- following a plant-based diet
- pancreatic insufficiency
- some hereditary conditions that affect vitamin B12 absorption
Those suffering from gastric people
Vitamin B12 release and absorption may be affected by gastrointestinal conditions.
These are some of them:
- pernicious anemia, which can lead to gastric atrophy, or damage to the stomach
- fish tapeworm infestation
- bowel or pancreatic cancer
- folic acid deficiency
- overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine
- celiac disease
- Crohn’s disease
People who have had gastrointestinal surgery, such as weight loss surgery, may have less of the cells that secrete stomach acid and intrinsic factor. Vitamin B12 absorption may be affected as a result of this.
According to research published in 2015, vitamin B12 deficiency is more common in people over the age of 60, and certain people may benefit from vitamin B12 injections.
The researchers discovered that disorders linked to decreased stomach acid production, such as gastric atrophy, are more common in older persons. Low stomach acid also encourages the growth of some bacteria, which depletes vitamin B12 reserves.
Vegans and vegetarians
Because vitamin B12 is mostly found in animal sources, people who eat a plant-based diet are more likely to be vitamin B12 deficient.
In a 2010 study of 689 males, researchers discovered that those who ate a plant-based diet had greater rates of vitamin B12 insufficiency. Compared to just 1% of people who ate meat, over half of vegans and 7% of vegetarians had inadequate vitamin B12 levels.
Vitamin B12 is transferred to the infant through the placenta and breast milk, thus vegetarians and people who are pregnant may need to take supplements or eat fortified foods. If the baby is exclusively breastfed, he or she may not get enough vitamin B12. This can result in long-term and serious neurological problems.
A doctor may propose injections in rare circumstances, but research shows that taking extra vitamin B12 by mouth is just as beneficial as getting an injection in a muscle. It is also less expensive.
Vitamin B12 shots may be recommended by a doctor for people who are at risk of deficiency or its repercussions.
Vitamin B12 injections may help to lower your risk of developing the following conditions:
- heart disease
- neurological disorders
- problems with thinking and memory
- vision loss
- neural tube defects in children born to those with a vitamin B12 deficiency
Because the risk of toxicity or overdose is low, there is no upper limit for vitamin B12 intake. Vitamin B12 injections, on the other hand, may have unintended consequences.
If a person has any of the following symptoms, or if they persist or worsen, they should get medical help:
- pain, redness, or itching at the site of the injection
- mild diarrhea
- a swelling sensation in the body
- temporary itching of the skin
There may also be a risk of:
- pulmonary edema
- congestive heart failure
- peripheral vascular thrombosis, which involves blood clots
- polycythemia vera, which is a type of blood cancer
Anyone experiencing trouble breathing, hives, or swelling should seek immediate medical attention. They could be suffering from anaphylaxis, a life-threatening allergic reaction.
Certain drugs may interact with vitamin B12. Before obtaining a vitamin B12 shot, people should always tell their doctor about all prescription and over-the-counter medications they are taking.
The following are some of the most regularly prescribed drugs that may interact with vitamin B12:
- H2 receptor antagonists
- proton pump inhibitors
Medical disorders and allergies
Before having a vitamin B12 shot, anyone with allergies or medical issues should always consult a doctor.
Shots of vitamin B12 may not be appropriate for those who have a history of:
- hypokalemia, or low potassium levels
- deficiencies in other nutrients, particularly folic acid and iron
- sensitivity to vitamin B12
- Leber’s disease, which affects the optic nerve
- kidney problems
While most people obtain enough vitamin B12 from their diet, some people do not. This could be caused by low intrinsic factor levels in the digestive system, a digestive disease, or eating a plant-based diet.
The American Dietary Guidelines for 2020–2025 propose that vitamin B12 and other nutrients be met first and foremost through food.
If dietary sources are inadequate, a doctor may prescribe supplementation in the form of tablets or injections, depending on the cause of the deficiency.