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Bones / Orthopedics

Magnesium: Things you need to know

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Magnesium is an essential mineral, and plays a part in the human body’s over 300 enzyme reactions. The other functions include helping with the work of muscles and nerves, controlling blood pressure and strengthening the immune system.

An adult body contains around 25 grams (g) of magnesium, of which 50–60 percent are contained by the skeletal system. The rest is found in body fluids, skin, soft tissue, and.

Most people in the U.S. do not get enough magnesium in their diet while signs of deficiency are rare in otherwise healthy individuals.

Doctors connect magnesium deficiency to a number of health problems, so people should try to reach their recommended daily magnesium levels.

Some of the foods highest in magnesium are almonds, spinach, and cashew nuts. If a person is unable to obtain enough magnesium through his diet, his doctor can recommend taking supplements.

In this article, we look at the role and benefits of magnesium, what it does in the body, dietary sources, and potential health hazards that doctors associate with excess.

Benefits

A lady eating nut seeds
Many types of nuts and seeds are rich in magnesium.

Magnesium is one of seven principal macrominerals. These macrominerals are minerals that people need to consume at least 100 mg per day in fairly large quantities. Microminerals such as iron and zinc are just as important while people need them in smaller quantities.

Magnesium is important to many body functions. Getting enough of this mineral can help prevent or cure chronic diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and migraine.

The following sections discuss the role of magnesium in the body, and its impact on an individual’s health.

Bone health

Although most work has focused on calcium‘s function in bone health, magnesium is important for healthy bone formation as well.

Research from 2013 has related adequate intake of magnesium to higher bone density, enhanced bone crystal formation, and lower risk of osteoporosis in females following menopause.

Magnesium can directly and indirectly enhance bone health as it helps control the levels of calcium and vitamin D, which are two other nutrients essential to bone health.

Diabetes

Research has related high diets of magnesium to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. This may be because magnesium plays an significant role in insulin metabolism and glucose regulation.

A 2015 analysis in the World Journal of Diabetes notes that most people with diabetes, but not all, have low magnesium and that magnesium may play a role in managing diabetes.

A magnesium deficiency can exacerbate insulin resistance, a condition that often develops prior to type 2 diabetes. In comparison, insulin resistance can cause low levels of magnesium.

Researchers have linked high magnesium diets to diabetes in several studies. Additionally, a 2017 systematic analysis shows that taking magnesium supplements can also boost insulin sensitivity in people with low levels of magnesium.

Scientists however need to collect more data before doctors can regularly use magnesium in people with diabetes for glycemic control.

Cardiovascular health

Magnesium is required by the body to maintain muscle health including the heart. Research has shown that magnesium is an essential part of cardiac safety.

A 2018 review reports that a deficiency in magnesium may increase a person’s risk for cardiovascular problems. This is partially because of their cellular-level functions. The authors find that magnesium deficiency is normal in people with congestive heart failure, and may exacerbate their clinical results.

People who get magnesium shortly after a heart attack have a lower mortality risk. Doctors also use magnesium to reduce the risk of arrhythmia, or irregular heart rhythm, during treatment for congestive heart failure (CHF).

Growing magnesium intake will lower a person’s risk of stroke, according to a meta-analysis In 2019. They note that the risk of stroke decreased by 2 per cent for every 100 mg of magnesium per day.

There is also some evidence indicating that magnesium plays a part in hypertension. According to the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), however, taking magnesium supplements, based on existing studies, decreases blood pressure “to only a limited degree.” ODS calls for a “significant, well-designed” study to clarify the function of magnesium in cardiac health and cardiovascular prevention.

Migraine headaches

Magnesium therapy may help avoid headaches, or may help alleviate them. This is because a deficiency of magnesium will affect neurotransmitters and limit constriction of the blood vessels, which are causes that doctors relate to migraine.

Those who have migraines in their blood and body tissues may have lower levels of magnesium relative to others. During a migraine, magnesium levels within a person’s brain can be small.

A 2017 systematic review says magnesium therapy can be useful in preventing migraine. The authors say that taking 600 mg of magnesium citrate seems a healthy and efficient method of prevention.

The American Migraine Foundation notes that people frequently use doses of 400–500 mg a day to avoid migraine.

The levels which may have an impact are likely to be high, so people can use this therapy only under their doctor’s guidance.

Premenstrual syndrome

Magnesium may also be a part of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

Small-scale studies, including an article in 2012, indicate that taking magnesium supplements together with vitamin B-6 can improve symptoms of PMS. A more recent analysis in 2019, however, indicates the evidence is inconsistent, and more studies are needed.

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists say that taking magnesium supplements may help in reducing PMS bloating, mood symptoms and breast tenderness.

Anxiety

Magnesium levels may play a role in mood disorders, including anxiety and depression.

Low magnesium levels may have ties to higher rates of anxiety, according to a systematic analysis from 2017. This is due in part to activation in the axis of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), which is a group of three glands that regulate a person’s stress reaction.

The analysis points out, however, that the standard of evidence is poor, and researchers need to perform high-quality trials to find out how well magnesium supplements can function to relieve anxiety.

Recommended daily intake

According to the ODS the following table indicates the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for age and sex magnesium intake.

AgeMaleFemale
1–3 years80 mg80 mg
4–8 years130 mg130 mg
9–13 years240 mg240 mg
14–18 years410 mg360 mg
19–30 years400 mg310 mg
31–50 years420 mg320 mg
51+ years420 mg320 mg

During pregnancy, people can increase their magnesium intake by about 40 mg per day.

Experts base the optimal intake for children under the age of 1 on the levels contained in breastmilk.

Sources

Many foods have high magnesium levels including nuts and seeds, dark green vegetables, whole grains, and legumes. Many breakfast cereals and other fortified foods also get magnesium from the manufacturers.

The best sources of magnesium include:

SourcePer servingPercentage of daily value
Almonds (1 ounces or oz)80 mg20%
Spinach (half a cup)78 mg20%
Roasted cashews (1 oz)74 mg19%
Oil roasted peanuts (one-quarter cup)63 mg16%
Soy milk (1 cup)61 mg15%
Cooked black beans (half a cup)60 mg15%
Cooked edamame beans (half a cup)50 mg13%
Peanut butter (2 tablespoons)49 mg12%
Whole wheat bread (2 slices)46 mg12%
Avocado (1 cup)44 mg11%
Potato with skin (3.5 oz)43 mg11%
Cooked brown rice (half a cup)42 mg11%
Low fat yogurt (8 oz)42 mg11%
Fortified breakfast cereals40 mg10%
Oatmeal, instant, 1 packet36 mg9%
Canned kidney beans (half a cup)35 mg9%
Banana (1 medium)32 mg8%

When the wheat is refined, wheat products lose magnesium, so selecting cereals and bread products made from whole grains is safest. Most common fruits, meat, and fish have low magnesium content.Wheat products lose magnesium when the wheat is refined, so it is best to choose cereals and bread products made with whole grains. Most common fruits, meat, and fish contain low in magnesium.

Magnesium deficiency

Although many people don’t meet their daily magnesium intake, signs of deficiency are uncommon in otherwise healthy individuals. The magnesium deficiency is referred to as hypomagnesemia.

Inadequacy or deficiency of magnesium may result from excess alcohol intake, a side effect of some medications, and certain health conditions, including gastrointestinal disorder and diabetes. Deficiency is more common in older adults.

Magnesium deficiency symptoms include:

  • a loss of appetite
  • nausea or vomiting
  • fatigue or weakness

Symptoms of more advanced magnesium deficiency include:

  • muscle cramps
  • numbness
  • tingling
  • seizures
  • personality changes
  • heart rhythm changes or spasms

Research has related magnesium deficiency to a number of health problems, including Alzheimer’s disease, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and migraine.

Risks of too much magnesium

This is doubtful that magnesium will be overload from nutritional sources as the body will remove any excess magnesium from food by urine.

Nevertheless, a high supplementary intake of magnesium can lead to gastrointestinal issues, such as diarrhea, nausea, or cramping.

Very large doses can lead to kidney failure, low blood pressure, leakage of urine, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, lethargy, loss of control of the central nervous system (CNS), cardiac arrest, and even death.

People with a kidney disease do not take magnesium supplements unless told by their doctor to do so.

Drug interactions

Magnesium supplementation may also give rise to some drug interactions. Medications that may interact with magnesium supplements or affect magnesium levels include:

  • oral bisphosphonates that treat osteoporosis, such as alendronate (Fosamax)
  • tetracycline antibiotics, including doxycycline (Vibramycin) and demeclocycline (Declomycin)
  • quinolone antibiotics, including levofloxacin (Levaquin) and ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
  • diuretics, such as furosemide (Lasix)
  • prescription proton pump inhibitors, including esomeprazole magnesium (Nexium)

Should I take supplements?

Magnesium supplements are available for online purchase, but it is easier to get any vitamin or mineral through food as nutrients work better when people mix it with other nutrients.

A lot of vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients function in combination. This word means it provides more health benefits than taking them separately.

Focusing on a safe, nutritious diet to fulfill regular magnesium requirements and use supplements as a substitute, but under medical supervision, is better.

Summary

Magnesium is an important macronutrient that plays a key role in many processes of the body, including muscle, nerve, bone, and mood health.

Evidence has related deficiencies in magnesium to a range of health complications. A doctor may recommend taking magnesium supplements if a person is unable to get their daily needs from their diet.

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Bones / Orthopedics

Things to understand about the shoulder

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The shoulder is a complex upper-body structure that connects the arms to the torso. It is made up of a number of parts that work together to offer stability and a wide range of motion.

The shoulder is a huge and complicated ball-and-socket joint with several bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments. These structures work together to construct and support this very flexible joint, which allows the arms to move freely. However, because of this mobility, the shoulder can be damaged by overuse, instability, or injury.

The anatomy, function, and structures of the shoulder will be discussed in this article.

Overview

Shoulder

Because of the variety of structures that make up the shoulder, it is a complex part of the body that can move freely. The shoulder includes the body’s most mobile joint, allowing for a high range of motion but at the sacrifice of stability. It’s prone to getting hurt.

Three primary bones meet at the shoulder to form a 90-degree angle. The pectoral girdle is made up of two of these bones: the clavicle and scapula. The collarbone and shoulder blade are the common names for these bones. The humerus, which is the biggest bone in the arm, is the third bone.

The glenohumeral, acromioclavicular, and sternoclavicular joints are formed by the intersection of these bones and the sternum, or chest bone. The great range of motion of the shoulder is due to these joints.

The joints are subsequently surrounded by cartilage, ligaments, muscles, and tendons, which unite the bones and provide stability. Muscles also enable movement.

Anatomy

Shoulder anatomy

Functions

The primary purpose of the shoulder is to offer a wide range of motion for the arms. People who can raise, lower, and rotate their arms can accomplish a variety of actions, including tossing and reaching, as well as athletic movements like swimming.

The shoulder’s bones and joints

The shoulder is made up of three bones. These are the following:

  • The clavicle: This bone, also called the collarbone, connects the arm to the chest and is located in front of the scapula. It is connected to the arm, the neck, and the chest through a number of muscles.
  • The scapula: The shoulder blade is also known as the scapula. It’s triangular in shape. It primarily adheres to the body through muscle and “floats” off the rear of the chest. The acromion, a bony component of the scapula, connects it to the clavicle. On the scapula, the glenoid is a shallow socket.
  • The humerus: The humerus is the bone in the upper arm. Between the elbow and the shoulder is a lengthy bone called the humerus. At the top of the arm, the humerus bears a spherical part that acts as a “ball” for the scapula’s “socket.”

The shoulder is made up of three joints. These are some of them:

  • The glenohumeral joint: A ball-and-socket joint is what this joint is. It is the joint that links the humerus to the scapula. It is the body’s most movable joint. The shoulder can move in various planes, including arm rotation and moving the arm up and away from the body, thanks to the joint.
  • The acromioclavicular joint: The clavicle is joined to the scapula by this. The clavicle joins to the scapula by a bone component known as the acromion. The shoulder is stabilized by this joint, which also aids movement such as elevating the shoulders.
  • The sternoclavicular joint: The clavicle is connected to the sternum by this. The sternum is the flat bone in the center of the chest, often known as the breastbone. The clavicles can move thanks to the joint.

Muscles of the shoulder

Extrinsic and intrinsic muscles make up the shoulder. Extrinsic muscles come from the torso and attach to the shoulder’s bones, whereas intrinsic muscles come from the scapula or clavicle and attach to the humerus.

The following muscles make up the intrinsic muscles of the shoulder:

  • The deltoid: The deltoid is a triangular-shaped muscle on the outside of the shoulder. It connects the clavicle to the scapula. The deltoid muscle permits you to move your arm forwards, backwards, sideways, and away from your body. It also helps to keep the shoulder stable while carrying and lifting.
  • Teres major: The scapula gives rise to this muscle, which joins to the humerus. Internal rotation of the arm is possible because to Teres major.
  • Supraspinatus: This muscle originates from the scapula and attaches to the humerus. It helps to support the glenohumeral joint and allows the arm to move out from the body.
  • Infraspinatus: The scapula gives rise to this muscle, which joins to the humerus. It turns the arm externally and stabilizes the glenohumeral joint.
  • Teres minor: The teres minor stems from the scapula and connects to the humerus. It rotates the arm laterally while also stabilizing the glenohumeral joint.
  • Subscapularis: The scapula gives rise to this muscle, which joins to the humerus. It permits the arm to rotate towards the body while also stabilizing the glenohumeral joint.

The rotator cuff muscles are the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles. All of them come from the scapula and connect to the humerus. These muscles work together to raise and rotate the arm.

The following muscles make up the extrinsic muscles of the shoulder:

  • The trapezius: The trapezius is a muscle that runs from the base of the head to the clavicle and scapula. The scapula is raised.
  • Latissimus dorsi: The humerus bone is attached to this muscle, which originates in the lower spine. It assists with pull-ups and rowing exercises by bringing the arm backwards and towards the torso.
  • Levator scapulae: This is a long, narrow muscle that aids in scapula elevation. It also aids in glenoid cavity rotation, spine stabilization, and neck extension and lateral flexion.
  • Rhomboid major and rhomboid minor: The rhomboid muscles help rotate the glenoid cavity by stabilizing the scapula and maintaining it in place.

Common conditions

While the shoulder is incredibly mobile, its suppleness leaves it vulnerable to injury and instability. These injuries can limit your range of motion and cause shoulder pain. The following are some of the most prevalent shoulder ailments:

Rotator cuff injuries

Trauma to any of the muscles and tendons that make up the rotator cuff is referred to as a rotator cuff injury. The following are some of the most common rotator cuff issues:

  • Tears: When a tendon is torn, it no longer fully adheres to the bone, which is a common injury. Injury and age-related deterioration are the most common causes of rotator cuff tears. While treatment varies depending on the severity of the condition, it usually include rest, pain medication, and rehabilitation activities. Surgery may be required in more severe situations.
  • Bursitis: The bursa, which are fluid-filled sacs that cushion and protect tissues by decreasing friction, is inflamed. The bursa can be irritated and inflamed by infections or too much friction from repetitive movements or injuries. Antibiotics, rest, corticosteroid injections, and surgery may be used as treatment options in more severe cases.
  • Tendinitis: This is an inflammation of the tendons that might cause it difficult to lift the arms. It usually happens as a result of tendons irritation or damage caused by sports or repetitive overhead movements. It’s also known as a shoulder impingement by certain people. Rest, physical therapy, and injections are common treatments, but if these don’t work, surgery may be required.

Arthritis

Arthritis is a condition in which the joints become inflamed. The cartilage in people with arthritis is destroyed, and the joint no longer has a smooth surface.

Arthritis can cause pain, decreased range of motion, and a clicking sounds in the shoulder joints, especially the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints.

The following are examples of arthritis that can affect the shoulder:

  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • avascular necrosis
  • osteoarthritis
  • rotator cuff tear arthropathy
  • post-traumatic arthritis

Treatment will vary depending on the type and severity of the arthritis, but it will usually start with nonsurgical options including rest, physical therapy, and pain relievers. When these methods fail or the pain becomes incapacitating, a doctor may recommend surgery.

Fracture

Broken bones are also known as fractures. As a result, a shoulder fracture develops when the scapula, clavicle, or head of the humerus breaks. Fractures can occur as a result of:

  • car accidents
  • collisions
  • falls

Shoulder fractures can often be treated without surgery by a doctor. This usually entails wearing a sling to immobilize the shoulder and allowing it to heal. However, if the bone is entirely out of place, surgery may be required. This usually entails placing plates, screws, or rods inside the bone to stabilize the fracture.

Dislocation

When the humerus comes partially or completely out of the glenoid, it is referred to as a shoulder dislocation. The shoulder is the most often displaced joint due to its mobility, with forward, or anterior, dislocations accounting for roughly 97 percent of all occurrences.

A doctor will most likely conduct a closed reduction to repair a shoulder dislocation. This is a process in which the humerus is reinserted into the joint socket. After that, a doctor may recommend resting or immobilizing the shoulder before beginning rehabilitation exercises once the pain and swelling have subsided.

A dislocation can sometimes be so severe that it necessitates surgery. If the shoulder becomes unstable following a dislocation, surgery may be required to prevent recurrent dislocations.

Shoulder health advice

The following steps can be taken to ensure that a person’s shoulder is healthy and has a decent range of motion:

  • before exercising, make sure you extend your shoulder muscles properly
  • when working or playing sports, avoid overusing the shoulder muscles
  • using an exercise program to strengthen the shoulder muscles
  • shoulder pain should not be ignored, and if the pain persists, a doctor should be consulted
  • attempting to stay away from activities that could result in a fall or accident

Conclusion

The shoulder is a complex structure with numerous bones, muscles, and tendons. These components come together to form a movable joint that allows the arms to move freely.

The shoulder, however, is prone to instability and injury since it is a mobile joint that many people utilize regularly. Rotator cuff injuries, shoulder arthritis, fractures, and dislocations can all cause pain and interfere with shoulder function. Treatment, rest, stretching, and exercising as soon as possible might assist to strengthen the shoulder and speed up healing.

Sources:

  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459125/
  • https://www.assh.org/handcare/blog/anatomy-101-shoulder-bones
  • https://www.training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/skeletal/divisions/appendicular.html
  • https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases–conditions/arthritis-of-the-shoulder
  • https://www.assh.org/handcare/safety/bones
  • https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/bursitis/advanced#tab-overview
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537018/
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537258/
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/parts-of-the-shoulder
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK536933/
  • https://www.training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/muscular/groups/upper.html
  • https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/recovery/rotator-cuff-and-shoulder-conditioning-program/
  • https://medlineplus.gov/rotatorcuffinjuries.html
  • https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases–conditions/rotator-cuff-tears/
  • https://ota.org/for-patients/find-info-body-part/3832
  • https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases–conditions/shoulder-impingementrotator-cuff-tendinitis/
  • https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases–conditions/shoulder-pain-and-common-shoulder-problems/
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499858/

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Bones / Orthopedics

Secondary osteoarthritis: What is it?

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of arthritis in which joint cartilage breaks down. There is no known cause of primary OA. Secondary OA, on the other hand, develops as a result of a pre-existing medical condition, joint injury, or abnormality.

Although primary and secondary OA are the same condition, they are caused by different causes.

OA can affect any joint in the body, causing pain, stiffness, and a restricted range of motion.

The symptoms and causes of secondary OA are discussed in this article. We also talk about treatment choices and the outlook for people who have the condition.

What is osteoarthritis (OA)?

Osteoarthritis (OA)

OA is the most common type of arthritis, according to the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), and it typically affects elderly people.

OA is a joint condition in which the cartilage in the joints breaks down. It can occur in every joint of the body, however it most commonly affects the:

  • lower back
  • knees
  • fingers
  • hips
  • neck

According to the NIAMS, OA symptoms can range from mild to severe and may include:

  • limited range of motion in the affected joint
  • a loose or unstable-feeling joint
  • swelling around the joint, which may worsen after activities that require using that joint
  • joint pain, which may get worse at night
  • stiff joints, which may occur after periods of rest or after sleeping

Primary vs. secondary OA

People with OA might have either primary or secondary OA. The symptoms of these illnesses are the same, but the causes are not.

There is no known cause of primary OA. Secondary OA, on the other hand, comes as a result of an existing medical condition, abnormalities, infection, or injury.

Causes

Secondary OA can be caused by a variety of causes, including:

  • hemoglobinopathies, which are conditions affecting red blood cells
  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
  • Marfan syndrome
  • inflammatory arthritis
  • an existing joint abnormality
  • injury or trauma to the joint
  • metabolic disorders
  • a joint condition present from birth
  • infectious arthritis
  • osteoporosis
  • osteochondritis dissecans, where bone underneath joint cartilage dies due to a lack of blood supply
  • Paget’s disease
  • avascular necrosis, where bone tissue dies from a lack of blood supply

Treatment

Secondary OA treatment seeks to alleviate pain, reduce stiffness, and improve range of motion and joint function. It may also assist to keep the condition from worsening.

Among the treatment options are:

Exercise

According to research, combining aerobic and resistance activities can help reduce pain and enhance physical function.

Exercise can also assist to build muscle, enhance endurance, and increase flexibility. An OA workout regimen may include:

  • Stretching exercises can help you enhance your range of motion.
  • Strengthening muscles using weights or exercise bands, which then aids to support joints.
  • Exercising to increase balance and agility, which can assist people maintain daily activities
  • Exercise in water to alleviate joint tension, or engage in low-impact exercises such as walking, tai chi, or cycling.

People must avoid any activities that aggravate their symptoms or put additional strain on their joints.

Getting rid of excess weight

Losing additional weight can help alleviate joint tension.

In people with knee OA, decreasing one pound (lb) of body weight can ease four pounds of pressure on the knees.

Losing excess weight may also be beneficial:

  • slow down progression of OA and cartilage breakdown
  • decrease inflammation
  • relieve pain and improve physical function

Joint support

Braces, splints, and walking canes can assist stabilize joints and remove excess pressure.

Furthermore, if joints are misaligned, remedial equipment such as orthotics or knee braces may be beneficial.

Medications

Certain drugs may aid with pain relief and inflammation reduction. These could include:

  • Anti-inflammatory and pain relievers taken orally
  • To reduce pain, administer topical ointments to affected joints.
  • Corticosteroids are pain relievers that a doctor may inject into the joint.
  • Hyaluronic acid injections into the knee to promote joint lubrication are used to treat knee OA.
  • Long-term pain relief with oral selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.

Surgery

If other therapies are ineffective, a person is suffering from serious joint degeneration, or OA is interfering with a person’s daily life, surgery may be required.

An osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which a physician removes a portion of bone near the injured joint in order to redistribute weight away from that joint.

A partial or whole joint replacement is another surgical option for OA, depending on the level of joint deterioration. This entails removing a portion or all of the joint and replacing it with a synthetic joint composed of plastic, ceramic, or metal.

Risk factors

Secondary OA risk factors include:

  • having an abnormal joint structure or unusually aligned bones
  • having muscle weakness
  • being female
  • having a family member with OA
  • being over the age of 50 years
  • having had a bone fracture, ligament or cartilage tear, or other joint injury
  • overly using the same joints, which may happen as a result of certain occupations or sports
  • having obesity, as excess body weight can put extra stress on joints and increase inflammation

Outlook

The prognosis for OA varies from person to person and is determined by which joints are affected, the severity of symptoms, and level of physical function.

OA may be minor in some people, and they may be able to effectively manage their symptoms with treatment.

In other circumstances, people with OA may suffer from significant disability. For some people with severe OA, joint replacement surgery may be the best long-term option.

Conclusion

OA is a joint condition in which joint cartilage degrades, resulting in pain, stiffness, and reduced range of motion in the joints.

Secondary OA is caused by an existing condition, injury, or infection, whereas primary OA has no clear cause.

Treatment may help relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and prevent the condition from progressing.

Exercising, losing excess weight, using support equipment, and taking drugs are all possible treatment strategies. In some circumstances, surgery may be required to relieve joint stress or to replace a damaged joint.

Sources:

  • https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/osteoarthritis/advanced
  • https://www.arthritis.org/diseases/osteoarthritis
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/what-is-secondary-osteoarthritis
  • https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/arthritis/osteoarthritis
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482326/
  • https://www.arthritis.org/health-wellness/healthy-living/nutrition/weight-loss/weight-loss-benefits-for-arthritis

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Bones / Orthopedics

What you should know about babies born with spina bifida

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Spina bifida is a spine condition that is usually detected at birth by doctors. It is a neural tube abnormality that appears early in the development of a fetus and can occur anywhere along the spine.

The backbone, which normally protects the spine, does not form and seal properly in spina bifida. As a result, people with spina bifida frequently suffer from spinal cord and nerve damage.

Every year, around 1,500 babies in the United States are born with spina bifida. Although specialists are unaware of the exact causes of the condition, they advise females of childbearing age to ingest folic acid to lower the chance of neural tube defects.

This page discusses baby spine issues, such as spina bifida. It also discusses symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options.

Infant spine problems

infant

The spine is made up of tiny bones called vertebrae that are piled on top of each other with discs in between. A healthy spine should have moderate bends from front to back to help absorb movement stress, but it should run straight down the center of the back.

Infants may have a variety of spine disorders that cause their back to twist or rotate. These are some examples:

  • lordosis, an excessive inward curve of the spine
  • spina bifida
  • scoliosis, an abnormal sideways spinal curve
  • kyphosis, an abnormal forward bending of the spine

The most frequent crippling congenital condition is spina bifida, which means “divided spine.” Doctors categorize the condition as a form of neural tube defect (NTD), in which the neural tube of a growing embryo does not develop or close as predicted. This causes nerve and spinal cord damage.

These complications appear throughout the first 28 days of pregnancy and may occur before a woman realizes she is pregnant.

Spina bifida is commonly referred to as the “snowflake condition” because no two cases are alike. Depending on the size and location of the incision, the condition might range from minor to severe.

Spina bifida is classified into three types:

  • Myelomeningocele: This is the most common and severe type of spina bifida. It is also known as spina bifida cystica. Some vertebrae do not form normally in babies with this condition and do not properly encase the spinal cord. As a result, some of the spinal cord, nerves, spinal fluid, and other tissues push through the spine, forming a sac on the baby’s back. An individual may suffer from moderate to severe handicap as a result of nerve involvement.
  • Meningocele: The baby with this kind of spina bifida has a bag bulging from the back. However, because the sac does not contain parts of the spinal cord and there is minimal nerve involvement, the individual may only endure modest problems.
  • Spina bifida occulta:  This is the least severe kind of spina bifida. Because there is merely a gap in the spine and no opening in the back, a person may be unaware that they have this problem. Babies that have spina bifida occulta may have a birthmark, dimple, or hair patch at the base of their spine.

Causes

Doctors are unsure what causes spina bifida. However, it appears to run in families, implying that genetics have a role in the condition.

Taking folic acid when pregnant lowers the chances of having a child with spina bifida. As a result, people who may get pregnant should take this B vitamin on a daily basis. Females of reproductive age should take 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid daily, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Symptoms

Spina bifida symptoms vary depending on the severity of the condition and may differ between individuals.

Myelomeningocele symptoms include:

  • bowel and bladder issues
  • paralysis
  • seizures
  • curved spine
  • open spine
  • a skin-covered sac protruding from the back
  • hydrocephalus
  • learning disabilities
  • physical disabilities

A person with a meningocele may have no symptoms other than the sac protruding through their back.

Individuals with spina bifida occulta may be unaware of their condition until late childhood or adulthood. It may not cause any symptoms and, in most cases, does not cause in disability.

Diagnosis

To detect spina bifida before birth, doctors can perform one of three tests:

  • A blood test: During weeks 16–18 of pregnancy, doctors can obtain a blood sample from a woman. The level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the sample is then measured in a laboratory. AFP is a protein produced by the unborn baby and passed to the mother. If the fetus develops spina bifida, around 80% of pregnant people have high levels of AFP.
  • Ultrasound: An ultrasound, often known as a sonogram, is a type of imaging that takes photos of the fetus in the uterus. Ultrasound is widely used by doctors to detect indications of spina bifida, such as an open spine.
  • Amniocentesis: This test involves extracting a little amount of fluid from the uterus using a fine needle. Doctors can examine the sample for AFP levels, which may suggest that the fetus has spina bifida.

Treatment

Spina bifida has no known cure. There are, however, various therapeutic options available for infants with spina bifida.

  • Myelomeningocele: In the case of open spina bifida, a surgeon can seal the hole before or after the infant is born.
  • Hydrocephalus:  If a newborn has hydrocephalus, or water on the brain, a surgeon can insert a tube to drain the fluid. This tube, also known as a shunt, aids in the relief of head pressure and related symptoms.
  • Tethered spinal cord:  The spinal cord adheres to the spinal canal in this condition, limiting proper movement. The spinal cord extends unnaturally as the kid grows. A surgeon can untether or detach the spinal cord from the surrounding tissue, allowing the patient to resume normal movement. Doctors anticipate that up to 50% of children who have surgery for spina bifida shortly after birth will need surgery to untether their spinal cord later on.
  • Catheterization:  Individuals with open spina bifida may have nerve damage that prohibits them from having normal bladder function. A doctor may advise the child’s carers to catheterize the bladder and enable it to drain completely. This is accomplished by putting a small plastic tube known as a catheter into the bladder many times per day. Children with spina bifida must be evaluated on a regular basis by a urologist, a doctor who specializes in the urinary tract.

Furthermore, many people with spina bifida require mobility aids such as braces, crutches, or wheelchairs. Doctors may also advise patients to continue receiving physiotherapy.

Outlook

The outlook of an infant with spina bifida is determined by the severity of their spinal abnormalities. For example, if an infant has full paralysis, hydrocephalus, and other congenital defects, his or her outlook may be bleak.

However, with proper care and medical attention, most infants with spina bifida survive into adulthood.

Conclusion

Spina bifida is one of various baby spine disorders that can occur during the development of a fetus in the uterus. There are three major varieties, with varying degrees of severity. Myelomeningocele is the most dangerous condition, in which a fluid-filled sac containing the spinal cord and other tissues protrudes through the infant’s back.

Meningocele is characterized by the presence of a sac but the absence of the spinal cord or nerves, and the patient may not feel severe symptoms. Spina bifida occulta is the mildest form of spina bifida, in which no sac protrudes through the back yet there is a breach in the spine. Individuals with this type of spina bifida may be unaware of their condition until they reach maturity.

Spina bifida has no cure because the nerve damage is irreversible. Surgery and other therapies, on the other hand, can help people manage their disability and mobility issues.

Sources:

  • https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/spinabifida/data.html
  • https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/folicacid/about.html
  • https://medlineplus.gov/spinabifida.html#cat_78
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/spina-bifida-in-infants-and-treatment-options
  • https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Spina-Bifida-Information-Page#
  • https://www.spinabifidaassociation.org/resource/occulta/
  • https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases–conditions/spinal-deformity-in-children-with-myelomeningocele/
  • https://www.aans.org/en/Patients/Neurosurgical-Conditions-and-Treatments/Tethered-Spinal-Cord-Syndrome
  • https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/spinabifida/conditioninfo/treatment
  • https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/spinabifida/facts.html
  • https://www.spinabifidaassociation.org/what-is-spina-bifida-2/

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