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Immune System / Vaccines

Measles: Understanding the causes and treatment



Measles is an highly infectious illness caused by the Rubeola virus.

If measles however invade an environment where people have never been exposed, the effect can be catastrophic.

Vaccination stops many measles outbreaks from happening around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that 2.6 million people die each year from measles who did not receive the vaccine.

Important facts about measles

  • Measles is a highly infectious condition
  • Scientists have identified 21 strains of the measles virus
  • Symptoms of measles can include watery eyes, sneezing, and a dry hacking cough
  • There is no specific treatment for measles. Prevention is better than cure
  • Pregnant women should not take the vaccine

What is measles?

Measles is a infectious disease which can easily spread.

Also known as rubeola or morbilli, measles is an infectious disease, meaning it is continuously present in a community, and resistance grows in many people.

It is an uncomfortable condition but one that usually goes around within 7 to 10 days without treatment.

An individual gains immunity for the rest of their life, after a bout of measles. A second time they would rather unlikely contract measles.


A child suffering from measles
Measles is often noticed through a breakout of spots.

The symptoms of measles always include fever and at least one of the three Cs:

  • cough
  • coryza, or runny nose
  • conjunctivitis

Symptoms will appear about 9 to 11 days after initial infection.

Symptoms may include:

  • runny nose
  • dry hacking cough
  • conjunctivitis, or swollen eyelids and inflamed eyes
  • watery eyes
  • photophobia, or sensitivity to light
  • sneezing
  • a reddish-brown rash
  • Koplik’s spots, or very small grayish-white spots with bluish-white centers in the mouth, insides of cheeks, and throat
  • generalized body aches

Fever often happens. This can range from moderately extreme to 40.6 degrees Centigrade. It may last many days, and when the rash occurs, it can fall, and then rise again.

Following initial signs the reddish-brown rash occurs around 3 to 4 days. This may last for more than a week.

The rash normally starts behind the ears and spreads over head and neck. It extends out to the rest of the body after a few days including the legs. They often join in as the spots expand.

Most rashes in childhood are not measles but a child will see a doctor if:

  • a parent suspects the child may have measles
  • symptoms do not improve, or they get worse
  • the fever rises to above 38º Centigrade (ºC) or 100.4º Fahrenheit (ºF)
  • other symptoms resolve, but the fever persists


A child receiving Measles vaccination
The measles vaccine is widely available and is said to have dropped global rates of measles by over 75 percent.

Complications are relatively common from measles. Some people can be dangerous.

Patients with a poor immune system, such as those with HIV, AIDS, leukemia, or a vitamin deficiency, very young children, and adults over the age of 20 are the most at risk.

Older adults are more likely to encounter problems than stable children over age 5.

Complications can include:

  • diarrhea
  • vomiting
  • eye infection
  • respiratory tract infections, such as laryngitis and bronchitis
  • difficulty breathing
  • ear infections, which can lead to permanent hearing loss
  • febrile seizures

Patients with a weakened immune system that have measles are more vulnerable to bacterial pneumonia. This can be fatal if not treated.

As well as the following less common complications:

  • Hepatitis: Liver complications can occur in adults and in children who are taking some medications.
  • Encephalitis: This affects around 1 in every 1,000 patients with measles. It is an inflammation of the brain that can sometimes be fatal. It may occur soon after measles, or several years later.
  • Thrombocytopenia, or low platelet count, affects the blood’s ability to clot. The patient may bruise easily.
  • Squint: Eye nerves and eye muscles may be affected.

Complications that are very rare but possible include:

  • Neuritis, an infection of the optic nerve that can lead to vision loss
  • Heart complications
  • Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE): A brain disease that can affect 2 in every 100,000 people, months or years after measles infection. Convulsions, motor abnormalities, cognitive issues, and death can occur.
  • Other nervous system complications include toxic encephalopathy, retrobulbar neuritis, transverse myelitis, and ascending myelitis.


Measles can lead to miscarriage, early delivery or a low birth weight during pregnancy. A woman intending to become pregnant and not being vaccinated will seek advice from her doctor.


There are two types of measles:

  • Measles: This is the standard form caused by the rubeola virus.
  • Rubella, or German measles: This is caused by the rubella virus.

Rubella is usually viewed as mild but presents greater risk to unborn babies than to young children if a woman contracts the virus while pregnant.

As normal measles it is neither as contagious, nor as serious.

The vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) includes all forms of immunizations.


Measles is caused by Rubeola Virus infection. The virus resides inside the mucus of an infected child or adult’s nose and mouth.

The disease is contagious for 4 days until the rash occurs, and it remains infectious for about 4 to 5 days afterwards.

Infection spreads through:

  • physical contact with an infected person
  • being near infected people if they cough or sneeze
  • touching a surface that has infected droplets of mucus and then putting fingers into the mouth, or rubbing the nose or eyes

The virus remains active on an object for 2 hours.

How does a measles infection develop?

It multiplies in the back of the throat, the lungs and the lymphatic system as soon as the virus enters the body. In the urinary tract, skin, blood vessels, and central nervous system it later infects and replicates.

It takes 1 to 3 weeks for the virus to develop itself, but signs begin within 9 to 11 days of initial infection.

Whether they breathe in infectious droplets or are in direct physical contact with an infected person, someone who has never been contaminated or vaccinated is likely to become sick.

Approximately 90 percent of non-immune individuals can experience measles if they share a home with an infected person.


Measles gives people a fever.
Measles gives people a fever.

There is no medication related to that. If no problems occur, the doctor will prescribe rest and plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration.

Symptoms usually go away within seven to ten days.

Will aid with the following measures:

The following measures may help:

  • If the child’s temperature is high, they should be kept cool, but not too cold. Tylenol or ibuprofen can help control fever, aches, and pains. Children under 16 years should not take aspirin. A doctor will advise about acetaminophen dosage, as too much can harm the child, especially the liver.
  • People should avoid smoking near the child.
  • Sunglasses, keeping the lights dim or the room darkened may enhance comfort levels, as measles increases sensitivity to light.
  • If there is crustiness around the eyes, gently clean with a warm, damp cloth.
  • Cough medicines will not relieve a measles cough. Humidifiers or placing a bowl of water in the room may help. If the child is over 12 months, a glass of warm water with a teaspoon of lemon juice and two teaspoons of honey may help. Do not give honey to infants.
  • A fever can lead to dehydration, so the child should drink plenty of fluids.
  • A child who is in the contagious stage should stay away from school and avoid close contact with others, especially those who are not immunized or have never had measles.
  • Those with a vitamin A deficiency and children under 2 years who have measles may benefit from vitamin A supplements. These can help prevent complications, but they should only be taken with a doctor’s agreement. If you want to buy vitamin A supplements.

Antibiotics do not help with the measles virus, but they can also be prescribed if there is an underlying bacterial infection.


A doctor can usually diagnose measles by looking at the symptoms and signs. A blood test indicates that the rubeola virus is present.

The measles is a notifiable illness in most countries. The doctor will inform the authorities of any suspected cases. If the patient is a child the doctor must inform the school as well.

Not until at least 5 days after the rash occurs should a child with measles return to school.


People who have already had measles are generally resistant, so it is unlikely they will get it again.

People who are not immune should take measles vaccine into consideration.

Measles vaccination

In the United States, the vaccine for measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) is regularly administered at age 12 to 15 months, followed by a booster shot before starting kindergarten at age 4 to 6.

Newborns bear their mother’s immunity for a few months after birth if their mothers are healthy, but often before the age of 12 months and as early as 6 months the vaccine is recommended.

This can happen if in an area where there is a significant epidemic they are, or are likely to be, in.

The WHO reports that measles vaccination campaigns resulted in a global decline of 79 percent in measles deaths from 2000 to 2015, avoiding about 20.3 million deaths.

Adults do not require a vaccine in the U.S. if they:

  • were born or lived in the U.S. before 1957 in the U.S., unless they work in a healthcare setting and have no evidence of immunity
  • received two MMR shots after they were 12 months old
  • had one MMR vaccine plus a second dose of measles vaccine
  • are found to be immune to measles, mumps, and rubella after a blood test

The vaccine should not be taken by:

  • women who are pregnant or plan to become pregnant soon
  • people with a serious allergy to gelatin or neomycin, an antibiotic

Anyone whose immune system may be weakened by a disease or a restrictive treatment may ask their doctor whether they will receive the vaccine.

An possible correlation between the MMR vaccine has been worried about a risk of autism but scientists have found no proof of a connection.

The CDC points out that 90 percent of fatal cases were among people with no history of vaccination during an epidemic of measles in the United States between 1989 and 1991.

They say:

“The most important cause of the measles resurgence of 1989-1991 was low vaccination coverage.”

The CDC urges people to vaccinate their children, to prevent the spread of measles and the possibility of an outbreak.The CDC encourage people to have their children vaccinated, to prevent the spread of measles and the risk of an outbreak.

Immune System / Vaccines

Types, symptoms, and treatments of cytomegalovirus



Cytomegalovirus is a typical herpes virus. Many people are unaware they have it since they show no signs or symptoms.

However, the virus can cause issues during pregnancy and in people with a compromised immune system because it remains dormant in the body.

The virus spreads through bodily fluids and can be passed on to an unborn child by a pregnant woman.

Cytomegalovirus, also known as HCMV, CMV, or human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5), is the most frequent virus transmitted to a growing baby.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than half of all people in the United States have contracted the virus by the age of 40. It affects both men and women equally, regardless of age or ethnicity.


consulting a doctor

Fluids such as saliva, sperm, blood, urine, vaginal fluids, and breast milk can spread acquired cytomegalovirus between people.

The virus can also be contracted by touching a virus-infected surface and then touching the interior of the nose or mouth.

The virus is most commonly contracted in childhood, at daycare centres, nurseries, and other places where children are in close proximity to one another. The immune system of a child at this age, on the other hand, is typically capable of dealing with an infection.

CMV can recur in people who have a compromised immune system as a result of HIV, organ transplantation, chemotherapy, or long-term use of oral steroids.

Congenital CMV develops when a female catches the virus for the first time during pregnancy or shortly before conception.

A dormant CMV infection might resurface during pregnancy, especially if the mother has a compromised immune system.


Depending on the type of CMV, the symptoms will vary.

Acquired CMV

The majority of people with CMV do not show any symptoms, however if they do, they may include:

  • swollen glands
  • joint and muscle pain
  • low appetite and weight loss
  • fever
  • night sweats
  • tiredness and uneasiness
  • sore throat

After two weeks, the symptoms should be gone.

Recurring CMV

The symptoms of recurrent CMV differ depending on which organs have been affected by the infection. The eyes, lungs, and digestive system are all likely to be affected.

Among the signs and symptoms are:

  • fever
  • diarrhea, gastrointestinal ulcerations, and gastrointestinal bleeding
  • shortness of breath
  • pneumonia with hypoxemia, or low blood oxygen
  • mouth ulcers that can be large
  • problems with vision, including floaters, blind spots, and blurred vision
  • hepatitis, or inflamed liver, with prolonged fever
  • encephalitis, or inflammation of the brain, leading to behavioral changes, seizures, and even coma.

Any of these symptoms should be reported to a doctor by someone with a reduced immune system.

Congenital CMV

According to the National CMV Foundation, approximately 90% of kids born with CMV show no symptoms, but 10–15% will develop hearing loss during their first 6 months of life. The degree of hearing loss varies from mild to complete deafness.

The infection will affect only one ear in half of these children, but the other half will experience hearing loss in both ears. Hearing loss in both ears can increase the risk of speech and communication issues in the future.

If congenital CMV is present at birth, symptoms may include:

  • enlarged spleen
  • seizures
  • jaundice
  • pneumonia
  • spots under the skin
  • low birth weight
  • Purple skin splotches, a rash, or both
  • enlarged liver

Some of these signs and symptoms can be treated.

In roughly 75% of babies born with congenital CMV, the virus will affect the brain. This could lead to difficulties later in life.

They may be exposed to the following conditions:

  • autism
  • central vision loss, scarring of the retina, and uveitis, or swelling and irritation of the eye
  • cognitive and learning difficulties
  • deafness or partial hearing loss
  • epilepsy
  • impaired vision
  • problems with physical coordination
  • seizures
  • small head


Scientists have been looking for a CMV vaccine, however there is no cure as of yet.

People with acquired CMV who encounter the virus for the first time can ease symptoms with over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers like Tylenol (acetaminophen), ibuprofen, or aspirin, and should stay hydrated.

Antiviral drugs, such as ganciclovir, can be used to inhibit the spread of CMV in people who have it congenitally or on a regular basis.

These drugs have the potential to cause side effects. Hospitalization may be required if there is substantial organ damage.

It’s possible that newborns will need to be admitted to the hospital until their organ functions return to normal.


The following precautions may help minimise the risk of developing CMV:

  • Hands should be washed with soap and water on a frequent basis.
  • Kissing a small child should be avoided at all costs, including contact with tears and saliva.
  • When passing around a drink, avoid sharing glasses and kitchen equipment.
  • Diapers, paper handkerchiefs, and other such items should be disposed of with care.
  • To prevent CMV from spreading through vaginal secretions and sperm, use a condom.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advises parents and caregivers of children with CMV to seek treatment as soon as possible, whether that means taking medication or attending all appointments for services such as hearing tests.


CMV infections are classified as either acquired, recurrent, or congenital.

  • When a person contracts CMV for the first time, it is known as acquired or primary CMV.
  • When a person already has CMV, it is referred to as recurrent CMV. The virus is dormant and then becomes active due to a weak immune system.
  • When a person contracts CMV while pregnant and passes it on to the foetus, this is known as congenital CMV.

Except when it affects an unborn child or a person with a weakened immune system, such as a recent transplant recipient or someone living with HIV, CMV is normally not an issue.

CMV infection can cause organ failure, eye damage, and blindness in HIV patients. In recent years, advances in antiviral treatment have lowered the risk.

Immunosuppressants are used by people who have had organ and bone marrow transplants to suppress their immune systems so that their bodies do not reject the new organs. In these people, dormant CMV can become active and cause organ damage.

Antiviral medications may be given to transplant recipients as a prophylactic against CMV.

The virus can be passed to the foetus by a pregnant woman. This is referred to as congenital CMV.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about one in every 200 newborns is born with the virus.

The majority of these babies will show no signs or symptoms, but about 20% will have symptoms or long-term health issues, such as learning challenges.

Vision and hearing loss, small head size, weakness, trouble using muscles, coordination issues, and seizures are all possible symptoms.


A blood test can detect antibodies produced by the body as a result of the immune system’s response to the presence of CMV.

A pregnant woman faces a low risk of CMV reactivation affecting her unborn child. If a doctor suspects a pregnant woman has CMV, an amniocentesis may be recommended. To determine whether the virus is present, a sample of amniotic fluid is extracted.

The newborn will be tested within the first three weeks of life if the doctor suspects congenital CMV. Testing for congenital CMV after 3 weeks will not be definitive because the kid may have contracted the virus after birth.

Even if the virus is not active, anyone with a weaker immune system should get tested. Testing for vision and hearing issues will be done on a regular basis as part of the CMV complications monitoring.


CMV causes just a small percentage of healthy people to become very ill.

CMV mononucleosis, a condition in which too many white blood cells have a single nucleus, can occur in people with a weaker immune system.

Sore throat, swollen glands, swollen tonsils, fatigue, and nausea are some of the symptoms. It can cause hepatitis, or inflammation of the liver, as well as spleen enlargement.

Mononucleosis induced by the CMV is comparable to mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). Glands fever is another name for EBV mononucleosis.

Other CMV problems include:

  • gastrointestinal problems, including diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, colon inflammation, and blood in the feces
  • liver function problems
  • central nervous system (CNS) complications, such as encephalitis, or inflammation of the brain
  • pneumonitis, or inflammation of lung tissue.



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Flu / Cold / SARS

What is the flu recovery timeline?



Many sources treat the common cold and the flu as interchangeable terms, but the flu is frequently more severe than the common cold. Although most people with the flu recover in about a week, if complications arise, the sickness can persist longer.

For several days, a person with the flu may be unable to work, conduct home activities, or care for children. Some people get severe symptoms and may need to be admitted to the hospital.

We’ll go over how long the flu normally lasts, a chronology of the most common symptoms, and when to see a doctor for treatment in this post.

When to consult your doctor

flu symptoms

People should aim to contact a doctor within 24 to 48 hours of the onset of flu symptoms, as this is when antiviral medications are most effective.

It’s also important to contact a doctor if your symptoms don’t improve after 7 days or if you develop new ones, such as ear pain.

If you are experiencing any of the following people, you should seek immediate medical attention:

  • Breathing becomes hard or difficult.
  • Muscle pain is intolerable or severe enough to make walking impossible.
  • A fever of more than 104°F develops in a youngster.
  • When a child or infant breathes, they produce loud noises or pull on the muscles around their ribcage.
  • A person has seizures, loss of consciousness, confusion, or inability to speak properly .
  • A fever occurs in a newborn under the age of 12 weeks.
  • Chronic medical issues cause symptoms to worsen.
  • The dizziness is severe and does not subside after a few hours.
  • A person stops urinating or only urinates once in a while.
  • Symptoms improve for a while, then return and become worse.

How long?

Symptoms normally continue 3–7 days in people who do not develop major flu complications. Some people notice that their symptoms improve and then deteriorate, or that they are worse at specific times of day, such as in the morning.

Although the fever and the most severe symptoms usually go away within a week, some people can have poor energy for up to two weeks, and a cough can last up to eight weeks.

The flu vaccination lessens but does not eliminate the risk of acquiring the flu. People who catch the flu after getting a vaccination, on the other hand, tend to have milder symptoms that linger for a shorter amount of time.

Antiviral medications like oseltamivir (Tamiflu) can also help to shorten the duration of the flu and reduce the risk of catastrophic consequences.

Symptoms may continue longer in infants and young children, older individuals, and people with respiratory disorders. These people are also more likely to develop significant flu symptoms including pneumonia and breathing problems.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the flu causes roughly 200,000 people in the United States to visit the hospital each year.

Complications from the flu are unlikely to go away on their own and can turn into a medical emergency. It is possible that they will necessitate a person to stay in the hospital. A person’s recovery from acute flu complications might take weeks or even months.

Timeline, signs and symptoms

Unlike the symptoms of the common cold and other viruses, which appear gradually, flu symptoms appear suddenly. A person may go from feeling normal to having a fever and other symptoms in a few of hours.

With the flu, a high temperature is more likely than with a cold, and it generally emerges before other symptoms.

The following are the most common flu symptoms:

  • a dry cough
  • a sore throat
  • vomiting
  • chills
  • muscle aches
  • headache
  • weakness and extreme exhaustion
  • congestion
  • high fever

Between days 2 and 4, the symptoms usually peak. Some people start to feel better by day five. Only a few people are able to return to work or education.

After a fever has broken, however, it is important to stay at home for the next 24 hours. Stay at home if your temperature is only relieved by anti-fever medicines.

On day 7, the majority of people are feeling much better, however some are still sick. It’s very uncommon for the flu to last more than a week, so a prolonged recovery isn’t always a bad thing. However, if the symptoms persist after a week, it’s probably advisable to contact a doctor.


An antiviral flu medicine is the finest and most effective treatment for the flu. Taking this medication within two days after becoming ill may help to decrease the duration of the flu and prevent complications.

Before using any anti-flu medicine, a person should consult with a doctor to assess the risks and benefits. Because some people encounter adverse effects when using anti-flu medications, it’s important to notify your doctor about any previous health problems or drug responses.

Antibiotics are ineffective against the flu. Antibiotics only treat bacterial infections, and the flu is a virus.

Some people, however, acquire secondary illnesses as a result of the flu. Ear infections are more common in children, but they can also affect adults. If your symptoms suddenly alter or worsen, it could be a sign of a new infection, either viral or bacterial.

How to aid recovery

The strategies listed below can aid in the healing process:

  • Staying in bed and resting.
  • Avoid going to work, school, or anywhere else because the flu can be spread.
  • Drinking a lot of water. To avoid dehydration, take an electrolyte drink if you have a fever or vomiting.
  • Taking over-the-counter pain relievers like ibuprofen or acetaminophen.
  • Hand washing should be done often to prevent the infection from spreading to other family members.


The majority of people who catch the flu will experience symptoms for 3 to 7 days. If difficulties arise, they may be hospitalised for a longer period of time.

Every year, the flu kills thousands of people. Children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems are all more susceptible to flu complications. People who have the flu should rest and stay away from public places until their symptoms subside.

Even major issues can be recovered with rest and medical attention. Anyone experiencing severe flu symptoms should seek medical attention. Every year, a person can obtain a flu shot to lower their risk of contracting the virus.



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Immune System / Vaccines

When should people get the hepatitis B vaccine?



Hepatitis B is a liver ailment caused by a virus. It might go away on its own or worsen, leading to cirrhosis or liver cancer. Since the 1980s, a vaccination against the virus that causes hepatitis B has been available.

Hepatitis B is a short-term condition that causes no long-term harm in many people. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 2–6% of individuals with hepatitis B will acquire a chronic infection. Cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer are all possible effects of a chronic hepatitis B infection.

Hepatitis B is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and a vaccination against it has been available in the United States since the 1980s. The vaccination protects people from being infected with hepatitis B and prevents them from contracting it.

Depending on the age range, multiple vaccination series are offered. For example, babies under the age of one year can receive the vaccination in three or four doses, while individuals beyond the age of one year can receive the vaccine in a two- or three-dose series. A person should consult with a physician to determine which vaccination series is best for them.

Multiple hepatitis B vaccination regimens will be discussed in this article. It will also look at who should get the vaccine and who should not.

Children under 1 year old


A newborn may receive the vaccination in three or four doses, according to the Hepatitis B Foundation:

  • Three-dose vaccine series: All medically stable newborns in the United States with a birth weight of at least 2,000 grams should get their first dose of hepatitis B vaccination within 24 hours of delivery, according to medical specialists.
  • Four-dose vaccine series: Combination vaccinations, like the ones in this series, protect against a variety of illnesses. The first dose of the combo vaccination is usually given to a newborn when he or she is 6 weeks old. This implies that until the age of six weeks, a newborn is not protected against hepatitis B. As a result, within 24 hours of delivery, a newborn should get a dose of the hepatitis B vaccination.

The following table shows the recommended HBV immunization regimens for infants under the age of one year:

Vaccine seriesBrand nameDose 1Dose 2Dose 3Dose 4
3-dose vaccine seriesEngerix-B or Recombivax HBat birth4 weeks after birth6 months after the first dose
4-dose combination vaccine seriesVaxelis or Pediarixat birth

(hepatitis B vaccine)
at 6 weeks old

(combination vaccine)
at 14 weeks old

(combination vaccine)
at 6 months old

(combination vaccine)

Those over 1 year old and adults

The three-dose course is appropriate for both children and adults. Adults over the age of 18 are eligible for the two-dose series.

The following table shows the recommended HBV vaccine schedule for people over the age of one :

Vaccine seriesBrand nameDose 1Dose 2Dose 3
3-dose vaccine seriesEngerix-B, Recombivax, or Tinrixday 11 month after the first dose6 months after the first dose
2-dose vaccine seriesHepislav-Bday 11 month after the first dose

Accelerated vaccine schedule for children and adults

A person may get a vaccination series over a shorter amount of time than the normal schedule under specific conditions.

If a person is traveling to an area where they are at high risk of exposure or working as an emergency responder in a disaster region, they may be given an expedited vaccination series.

For adults and children

The vaccination is given in three doses over the course of two months, with a one-year booster dose.

The initial expedited dosages protect against HBV right away, and the booster dose aids in long-term protection.

The following is the authorized accelerated immunization schedule for adults and children:

Vaccine seriesBrand nameDose 1Dose 2Dose 3Dose 4
4-dose vaccine seriesEnergix-Bday 11 month later2 months after the first dose1 year after the first dose

For adults only

A combination vaccination that protects against hepatitis A and B is used in the four-dose combination vaccine schedule.

This vaccination series consists of three doses given over the course of one month. After a year, the user is given a booster dosage. This is a popular option for people who need to travel outside of the United States on short notice.

The two-dose immunization regimen consists of two doses given one month apart.

For adults above the age of 18, there are two accelerated vaccination schedules:

Vaccine seriesBrand nameDose 1Dose 2Dose 3Dose 4
4-dose combination seriesTwinrixday 11 week later1 month after the first dose1 year after the first dose
2-dose vaccine seriesHepislav-Bday 11 month later

For vertical transmission

It is important that infants delivered to females who have hepatitis B receive proper hepatitis B vaccination doses. If hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) is available, they may be obliged to take it.

Antiviral prophylaxis is also recommended by WHO to assist prevent hepatitis B transmission.

The two recommended hepatitis B immunization regimens for children born to hepatitis B carriers are listed in the table below:

Vaccine seriesBrand nameDose 1Dose 2Dose 3Dose 4
3-dose vaccine seriesEngerix-B and Recombivax HBat birth

(hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG)
1 month later6 months after first dose
4-dose combination vaccine seriesVaxelis or Pediarixat birth

(hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG)
at 6 weeks of age

(combination vaccine)
at 14 weeks of age

(combination vaccine)
at 24 weeks of age

(combination vaccine)

International schedule

A combination vaccination, which protects against numerous illnesses, including hepatitis B, is used in many countries.

The three recommended worldwide hepatitis B vaccination regimens are listed in the table below:

Vaccine seriesDose 1Dose 2Dose 3Dose 4
3-dose vaccine series for those under 1 year oldat birth1 month after the first dose6 months after the first dose
3-dose vaccine series for those over 1 year old and adultsday 11 month after the first dose6 months after the first dose
4-dose combination vaccine for those under 1 year oldat birth

(hepatitis B vaccine)
at 6 weeks of age

(combination vaccine)
at 14 weeks of age

(combination vaccine)
at 6 months of age

(combination vaccine)

Who should get vaccinated against hepatitis B?

All babies should have the hepatitis B vaccine, according to medical experts.

The following people, according to the CDC, are at a greater risk of getting hepatitis B than the general population:

  • people who inject drugs
  • people who are at an increased risk due to exposure in their job
  • people who travel to countries with high levels of hepatitis B
  • people with chronic liver disease
  • people with HIV
  • sexually active people who are not in mutually monogamous relationships
  • people in a sexual relationship with someone who has hepatitis B

Most people are safe from the hepatitis B vaccination. After getting the vaccination, a person may encounter certain typical mild side effects.

These are some of them:

  • soreness or swelling in the arm at the site of injection
  • headache
  • fever

Who should not get the hepatitis B vaccine?

If you have any of the following symptoms, you should consult a doctor before having the vaccine:

  • have had an allergic reaction to neomycin (Twinrix)
  • have had an allergic reaction to yeast
  • have had an allergic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine or any component of a hepatitis B vaccine

A person can still get the vaccination if they have a small sickness, such as a cold. If someone is moderately or seriously unwell, they should not obtain the hepatitis B vaccine until they have recovered.


Hepatitis B is a liver ailment caused by a virus. It spreads by the transmission of body fluids from an infected person to an uninfected one.

Hepatitis B vaccinations are available in a variety of forms. The hepatitis B vaccination is administered in a series of doses. These vaccines are used in two-, three-, and four-dose vaccination regimens.

A combination vaccination that protects against hepatitis B and other infections is also available.



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