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Singing practice decrease snoring



Are you a pathological snorer-or your partner? Joining a choir, or taking lessons in singing, may help. A UK study showed a vocal exercise program developed by a choir director helped to minimize snoring.

The clinical trial, carried out by Exeter University and the Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust, showed that singing exercises, which strengthen some muscles of the throat, also alleviated symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea, a disorder in which people stop breathing during deep sleep.

In the soft palate and upper throat (the pharyngeal muscles), snoring and obstructive sleep apnea may result from weak muscles.

Serious singers by doing such vocal exercises develop the tone and power of certain muscles.

The study came about because choir director Alise Ojay contacted Malcolm Hilton, an otolaryngologist consultant at Exeter hospital and subdean of Exeter Medical School University.

Dr. Hilton explains:

“Alise told me that a number of people had benefitted from the singing exercise programme she had devised to strengthen the throat muscles. I then set up this trial and the results have been really interesting.”

Hilton reports that millions of people are affected by snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. Snoring may not be a life-threatening disease, but it disrupts lives and frequently requires medical advice from the sufferers.

In comparison, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is potentially even more severe. It can cause people to stop breathing during deep sleep, and significantly decrease the quality of sleep.

A recent study showed that mild obstructive sleep apnea may increase the risk of sudden heart death. Dr. Hilton:

“It’s often suspected that OSA may lead to road injuries and high blood pressure.”

The team recruited 60 chronic snorers and 60 people with mild to severe sleep apnea for the study.

  • The participants from each group were randomly assigned to either follow a program of singing exercises for three months, or no intervention.
  • The self-guided exercise program was provided on a box-set of three audio CDs, and could be completed in around 20 minutes each day.

The outcomes at the end of the trial showed that the regular singing exercises reduced snoring intensity, frequency and loudness, and improved sleep efficiency. There were no modifications of this sort in the participants who were not asked to do the exercises.

Hilton says the exercises weren’t complicated, and over the three-month trial two-thirds of the participants asked to do them accomplished this on most days.

He adds that the results open up a “absolute new path” of alternative treatments without needing to undergo surgery, which is good news for snorers:

“I was open-minded about it. I had no expectations but it was an interesting concept.

There is not already a quick-fix treatment for snoring. It is a condition where, if you could find a non-invasive treatment, that would be very beneficial.”

But for better results Hilton recommends that the exercises should be followed by improvements in lifestyle, such as weight loss. A main contributor to snoring is overweight.

Study reported in July 2013 showed that people singing together in a group synchronized heart rates. Written by Catharine Paddock PhD

Flu / Cold / SARS

Symptoms, causes, and treatment of head cold



A common cold, often known as a head cold, is a viral infection of the nose and throat. Although it is usually a mild sickness, the symptoms can have a substantial influence on daily activities.

The average adult gets two to three colds per year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and children may get more.

This article examines the signs and symptoms of a head cold, as well as a variety of home remedies for alleviating symptoms.

What is it?

head cold

Head colds are caused by viruses. They are normally harmless and go gone on their own. They can, however, cause unpleasant symptoms in certain people.

Head colds can be mistaken for other illnesses such as chest colds and sinus infections. There are, nevertheless, some major distinctions.

Sinus infection vs. head cold

When a viral infection causes symptoms mostly in the head, such as a stuffy nose or a headache, it is known as a head cold.

Bacteria can grow in the sinuses, the hollow areas around the nose, producing a sinus infection if fluid builds up there.

Many of the symptoms of sinus infections are similar to those of head colds, such as a runny nose and cough. Infections of the sinuses can also cause facial pain and pressure.

Viruses, including head colds, can cause sinus infections.

Head cold vs. chest cold

When the symptoms of a cold impact the head, including the nose and throat, it is known as a head cold.

When the airways swell and mucus builds up in the lungs, it’s called a chest cold or acute bronchitis. When this happens, a person often has a loose, chesty cough that includes coughing up some mucus. Coughing in this manner aids in the clearing of the airways.

A chest cold normally clears up in three weeks.

Colds in the head and chest are caused by viruses. A head cold can quickly progress to a chest cold.

Colds in the head and chest can have a variety of symptoms:

Common head cold symptomsCommon chest cold symptoms
coughing, runny nose, and sneezingcoughing often with mucus
sore throatsore throat
body achesbody aches, including chest soreness

A person may, however, have a combination of these symptoms.


A head cold can be caused by a variety of viruses, including:

Colds in the head are extremely contagious. When a person with a head cold sneezes or coughs, virus-laden droplets can fly through the air and infect others.

It is possible to get a head cold after coming into contact with surfaces or objects that have been touched by someone who has been infected with the virus. The virus can get into a person’s body through their eyes, mouth, or nose.


After being exposed to rhinovirus or another cold-causing virus, symptoms of a head cold occur 1 to 3 days later. These signs and symptoms differ from person to person and include:

Most symptoms can be relieved in as little as one week for some people. However, some people may have symptoms for a longer period of time.

Risk factors

Although anyone can have a head cold, and most people will get several colds throughout their lifetime, there are specific characteristics that enhance the risk of being unwell. These are some of them:

  • exposure to other people with head colds, particularly schoolchildren
  • having a weakened immune system
  • the season, as colds are more common in fall and winter
  • being under the age of 5
  • smoking


The majority of people will recover from a head cold without any difficulties. When issues do occur, they include the following:

  • Asthma attack: In asthmatics, a cold can induce an asthma attack.
  • Acute sinusitis: A persistent head cold can lead to sinusitis, a condition characterised by inflammation and infection of the sinuses.
  • Ear infection (otitis media): An ear infection can occur if the virus enters the area beneath the eardrum.
  • Other infections: Following a head cold, certain people, particularly youngsters and those with compromised immune systems, might develop secondary infections. Strep throat, pneumonia, and croup are common secondary diseases linked with a head cold that require medical attention.


Antibiotics are useless since a head cold is caused by a viral infection. Rather, treatment tries to control symptoms and alleviate suffering.

The following are some common home cures for a head cold:

  • Rest: Resting aids the body’s healing process. Staying at home instead of going to work or school decreases the risk of spreading the illness to others.
  • Hydration: Staying hydrated aids in the relief of congestion in the nose and sinuses while also calming the throat. Staying hydrated can be as simple as drinking water or diluted juice. Warm drinks, such as teas, broths, and soups, may be very useful. Caffeine and alcohol should be avoided until a person is fully recovered.
  • Saltwater gargle: A person can gargle with a 1/2 teaspoon of salt and 8 ounces of warm water to relieve a sore throat.
  • Pain relievers: Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs can help with headaches, sore throats, and fevers. Some of medications, such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen.. When providing medicines to children, always follow the directions on the package.
  • Humidifiers or vaporizers: Coughing and congestion are relieved by using these devices, which add moisture to the air. Using a vaporizer or humidifier at night may help you sleep better. To prevent the growth of bacteria and mould, vaporizers and humidifiers should be cleaned on a daily basis.
  • Nasal sprays: Saline nasal sprays are safe for both children and adults and can help release mucus in the nose. Adults can take nasal decongestant sprays for up to three days. People should avoid using decongestant sprays for an extended period of time since it can lead to addiction or rebound congestion.
  • Supplements: To prevent or treat a head cold, many people use vitamins. Vitamin C, Echinacea, and zinc are among the most popular supplements. However, there is little evidence that taking supplements helps to alleviate symptoms.


Although there is no way to prevent a head cold, the methods outlined below can help lower the risk of catching the virus. They may be especially important for people who are immunocompromised:

  • Stay away from infected people. To avoid contracting a head cold, keep a safe distance from someone who has one.
  • Hands should be washed frequently. Transmission of the virus is reduced by thoroughly cleansing hands with soap and hot water. Hand sanitizer with alcohol is also effective.
  • Items should not be shared. Avoid sharing glasses or utensils with others to avoid spreading cold germs.
  • When family members are sick, use disinfectant. When a family member is unwell, disinfect the kitchen counters and bathroom fixtures. It is also important to clean children’s toys on a regular basis.
  • Cough or sneeze into tissues. Germs are prevented from spreading via the air by using tissues. After sneezing or coughing, throw away used tissues right away and always wash your hands.
  • Make an effort to live a healthy lifestyle. Eating a well-balanced diet, getting regular exercise, lowering stress, and getting enough sleep can all help the immune system fight off illness.
  • Instill healthy hygiene habits in your children. Request that youngsters sneeze or cough into a tissue or the crook of their elbow to avoid using their hands to cover their lips. Encourage children to thoroughly wash their hands on a frequent basis.

When to consult your doctor

If a person or a kid experiences any of the following symptoms, they should see a doctor:

  • symptoms lasting longer than 10 days
  • severe or unusual symptoms
  • flu symptoms, including:
    • fever
    • chills
    • muscle or body aches

If a child younger than 3 months old has a fever or appears sluggish, contact a doctor very away.


Although there is no cure for a head cold, there are a number of home treatments that can help relieve symptoms and suffering. A person can take precautions to avoid contracting a cold by limiting their exposure to viruses that cause colds.

A person suffering from a head cold might expect to recover in 7–10 days. Individuals who have severe or persistent symptoms of a head cold should see a doctor.


A head cold can result from exposure to a variety of viruses, the most common of which being rhinoviruses. A runny nose, headaches, and cough are all signs of a head cold.

Colds in the head aren’t dangerous and normally go away on their own. Rest, staying hydrated, and taking over-the-counter cold drugs can all help to alleviate symptoms.

Colds in the head are highly contagious and can be transferred by coughing or sneezing.



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Flu / Cold / SARS

How to get rid of a cold: Natural treatments, prevention, and medication



A viral infection in the upper airways, sinuses, throat, and nose causes the common cold. It is normally not a cause for concern, despite the fact that it is uncomfortable.

A cold is a self-limiting infection in the vast majority of cases, despite feeling poorly with sneezing, sore throat, cough, and runny nose. This means it gets better on its own without requiring specific treatment.

The majority of people recover in one week, while it may take longer in some circumstances.

In this article, we’ll look at how to manage cold symptoms and find some relief.


When people have a cold, they tend to sweat and have runny noses, which can cause severe dehydration. This fluid loss must be restored on a regular basis. Water is the best beverage.

If you have a cold, you should drink a lot of water. Keep in mind that coffee and caffeinated sodas might dehydrate you, so cause them.

Chicken soup

Chicken soup, according to experts, can help reduce the symptoms of a cold. It is thought to slow the movement of neutrophils, which are immune system cells that cause inflammation, as well as mucus.

Chicken soup is also a good source of water, which can aid with dehydration.


getting enough of rest

Not only will getting enough of rest help to alleviate some of the symptoms and make people feel better, but it may also shorten the duration of their cold. Rest aids the immune system’s ability to combat the viral infection.


Antibiotics are prescribed for bacterial illnesses. Viruses cause colds, which do not react to antibiotics. Antibiotics will not help patients recover faster, nor will they prevent them from spreading the infection on to others.

Fear of consequences, according to a BMJ article, is not a good enough reason to prescribe antibiotics for the common cold. However, it adds that, “as far as the elderly are concerned, antibiotics do greatly lower the risk of pneumonia following a chest infection.”


Echinacea, often known as purple coneflower, is a wild flower endemic to North America. It is used as a herbal treatment by indigenous peoples for a range of ailments and problems. Studies have shown contradictory results, and they continue to do so.

According to a 2007 study published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, the herbal cure cut the length of a cold by an average of 1.4 days and reduced the risk of developing a cold by 58%.

Researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine, on the other hand, revealed in Annals of Internal Medicine that Echinacea had no effect on the common cold, and that it only shortens the duration of symptoms “by half a day at most.”

Inhalation of steam

The steam may help to relieve congestion problems. For a typical steam inhalation, follow these steps:

  • Fill a pan halfway with water and bring to a boil.
  • Place the pan on a stable table and cover it with a cloth or heat-resistant mat.
  • Patients can sit with their heads over the pan and a cloth over their shoulders.
  • Close your eyes and take a deep breath.
  • Make sure there’s no steam in your eyes.

Steam inhalation should not be used with tiny children because to the risk of scorching. Standing close to a hot shower and inhaling the steam may be beneficial to little children.


In order to avoid the transmission of infection, good cleanliness is important. When you’re sick, avoid going to work or school.

When coughing or sneezing, cover your mouth with a tissue and toss it away as soon as possible. Make care to properly wash your hands with soap and warm water.

If there are no tissues available and a person coughs or sneezes, doctors recommend coughing or sneezing into the inner region of the elbow, which does not contaminate surfaces.

Salt water

Salt water

Gargling with a solution of one-quarter teaspoon salt dissolved in 8 ounces warm water may provide brief relief from sore throat symptoms. A saline solution can relieve pain by drawing excess fluid from inflammatory tissues in the back of the throat. Thick mucus may also relax and become simpler to remove.

Nasal saline drops – available at pharmacies, these may aid in the relief of nasal congestion in young babies. Gargling with nasal saline drops instead of salt solutions could be beneficial (getting babies and very young children to gargle is virtually impossible).

Vitamin C

Vitamin C’s effects on the common cold were investigated in a Cochrane analysis published in 2013. The study found that people who took at least 200 mg of vitamin C per day experienced a reduction in the duration of their symptoms. They discovered that taking

Steam inhalation should not be used with tiny children because to the risk of scorching. Standing close to a hot shower and inhaling the steam may be beneficial to little children.


Previous research on the effects of zinc for treating colds has yielded conflicting results. According to the majority of favourable studies, zinc should be administered within 24 hours after the onset of symptoms.

Zinc appears to perform better in adults than in youngsters, according to Canadian researchers, who also noted that side effects, particularly when higher amounts are used, are common. Permanent anosmia, or the inability to smell, is a major side effect. It’s important to know what kind of zinc you’re taking and how much you’re taking before you start using it.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C’s effects on the common cold were investigated in a Cochrane analysis published in 2013. The study found that people who took at least 200 mg of vitamin C per day experienced a reduction in the duration of their symptoms. They discovered that taking Vitamin C after the symptoms started had little benefit.

C after the symptoms started had little benefit.

Treatment for fever and pain

Pain relievers and antipyretics (fever-reducing medications) may be beneficial. Although a high temperature is undesirable, a low fever is beneficial since it aids the body’s ability to fight diseases more quickly. Viruses and bacteria have a harder time reproducing when the body temperature rises. Doctors no longer advocate attempting to reduce a minor fever, with the exception of extremely young patients.

Antipyretics, on the other hand, are usually fine if patients are irritated and uncomfortable. Only elderly adults, not children or young adults, should use aspirin.

Fever and pain are well treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofen. For the exact dosage and timing for these medications, see a doctor or a licenced pharmacist. Overmedication can cause in liver damage or failure, as well as renal damage or failure.

Air humidifers

An air humidifier will assist keep the throat and nasal passages moist throughout the cold months when central heating dries out the air.


Previous research on the effects of zinc for treating colds has yielded conflicting results. According to the majority of favourable studies, zinc should be administered within 24 hours after the onset of symptoms.

Zinc appears to perform better in adults than in youngsters, according to Canadian researchers, who also noted that side effects, particularly when higher amounts are used, are common. Permanent anosmia, or the inability to smell, is a major side effect. It’s important to know what kind of zinc you’re taking and how much you’re taking before you start using it.


Some cold symptoms, such as watery eyes, runny nose, coughs, and sneezes, may be relieved slightly by sedating (first generation) antihistamines. However, experts are divided on whether the benefits of using antihistamines exceed the risks. The results of studies have been mixed.

Antihistamines, according to many experts, dry out nasal membranes, slowing mucus flow and impairing the ability of the nasal passages to rid themselves of germs.

Antihistamines may have a short-term effect on symptoms, according to a recent study published in PLOS, but only in adults during the first two days of treatment. There is insufficient evidence in youngsters to assess the treatment’s efficacy. Again, the disadvantages may outweigh the advantages.


Decongestants are drugs that help you breathe easier by shrinking the bulging membranes in your nose. Decongestants can be taken orally or through the nose. Nasal decongestants should not be used for more than 5 days unless prescribed by a doctor; extended use may cause the nose to become more blocked.

Decongestants should not be used by patients with hypertension unless they are under the care of a doctor. Many scientists are unsure if decongestants work or are worth suggesting because they only act for a limited period of time. Patients on MAOI (monoamine oxidase inhibitor) antidepressants should avoid nasal decongestants.

Medications for cough

Medications for cough

Children may be at risk from over-the-counter cough treatments. They should not be given to youngsters under the age of two, according to the FDA.



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Ear, Nose and Throat

8 home treatments and methods to reduce sinus pressure



Sinus pressure can be treated with medication, but there are a number of home remedies that can help to alleviate symptoms and speed up recovery.

Mucous membrane is a form of skin that lines the sinuses. Mucus is produced by this membrane, which defends the body by catching dirt and other particles that could otherwise cause illness.

If a person has an allergic response or an infection, the lining of their sinuses can enlarge. Pressure may be felt around the nose, cheekbones, and above the eyes as a result of swelling. These facial parts may be uncomfortable or irritated.

Infections or allergies can cause sinus pressure that is painful. This symptom can be alleviated by blowing your nose.

Natural alternatives to over-the-counter sinus treatments are listed below.

Neti pot

Neti pot

Neti pots are used by some people to rinse out their noses, which helps to keep the mucous membrane wet and relieve sinus pressure. The device has the appearance of a tiny saucepan with a long spout.

The following are instructions for using a neti pot:

  • gently insert the spout into the highest nostril
  • breathe through the mouth
  • wash the hands
  • pour water into the nostril
  • fill the pot with sterile water
  • lean directly over a sink
  • tilt the head sideways

Pollen, bacteria, and other debris should be flushed out as water runs from one nostril to the other. This procedure should be repeated on both nostrils.

It is critical to utilise sterile or distilled water, which can be purchased from a pharmacy, rather than tap water. Alternatively, you can boil water and then let it cool.

Steam inhalation

Sinus pressure can be relieved by using steam to open the nasal passages.

At home, steam inhalation is simple. Boil water in a large bowl, then lean over so that your face is right above the water. Breathe through your nostrils while wearing a towel over your head.


Traditional Chinese medicine relies heavily on acupressure. It entails applying pressure to particular places on the body in order to ease pain or illness symptoms. Although scientists aren’t sure if acupressure works, it may help with some symptoms.

Colds, flu, and sinus disorders have traditionally been treated using acupressure. It can be performed at home or by a professional.

Avoid putting too much pressure on the area to avoid creating pain or discomfort.

Here’s how to relieve sinus strain using acupressure:

  • extend the thumbs and find the dips on either side of the spine
  • use the thumbs to massage the area in small circles
  • relax, breathing slowly and deeply
  • do this for 4 to 5 seconds at a time
  • link the fingers of both hands together, forming the shape of a cup
  • use the linked hands to cradle the back of the head, where the neck and skull join

Massage the cheeks and the bridge of the nose with your fingertips to assist release pressure. Firm but mild massage is recommended.

Saline nasal spray

A blocked nose can be cleared by inhaling saline solution.

Using sterilised water, salt, and baking soda, a saline solution can be easily prepared at home. Mix the following materials together:

  • 1/4 pint of clean water
  • 1/4 teaspoon (tsp) of salt
  • 1/4 tsp of baking soda

Sniff this into one nostril at a time through cupped palms.

Use a clean, dry spray bottle as an alternative. Spray the solution into a nostril by gently inserting the nozzle into the nostril. Repetition two to three times per day is recommended.


It is critical to keep the body hydrated while a person is sick.

Drink plenty of liquids to keep the mucous membranes in your sinuses wet. This aids in their normal functioning.

Tea and coffee can be substituted with water, fruit juices, or herbal teas.

Compression with a warm washcloth

Heat applied to the nasal area can also reduce pressure. Using a warm washcloth is one of the simplest ways to do this.

Wring out a clean washcloth after running it under hot water. Fold it in half and place it across your nasal bridge and cheeks for a few minutes.

The use of essential oils

Natural oils generated from plants are known as essential oils. To reduce sinus pressure, the American Sinus Institute recommends utilising essential oils.

Menthol gives the impression that your nasal passageways are opening up.

Inhale the steam gently via your nose after adding a few drops of the oil to boiling water.

Although menthol has some anaesthetic qualities, there is no scientific proof that it causes the nasal passages to open.

Essential oils, such as menthol, can be purchased online. However, people should only get these oils from reputable sources.

Rest and relax

A person with sinus pressure may find it difficult to concentrate on work or study. Taking a pause and getting plenty of rest might aid in the recovery of the body.


If the pressure is caused by an infection, such as sinusitis, it should go away in a few weeks.

Sinus pressure can come and go if it’s caused by an allergy. Sinus pressure can be avoided by taking antihistamines before coming into touch with an allergy, such as grass or pet fur.

The natural therapies listed above can aid in the relief of sinus congestion and pain. They can also aid in the recuperation process.

Home cures, on the other hand, may not always be effective. People should consult a doctor for advice and treatment if an infection does not go away after 2 to 3 weeks.



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