Dehydration happens as the body exits more water and fluids than it does enter. Also the low dehydration rates can cause headaches, lethargy and constipation.
The body of man is around 75 per cent water. Could not live without this bath. Water is found inside cells, within blood vessels, and between cells.
A sophisticated water control system keeps our water levels balanced, and when we need to maximize fluid intake our thirst mechanism informs us.
Though water is constantly lost throughout the day as we breathe, sweat, urinate, and defecate, drinking fluids can replenish the water in our body. When dehydration occurs, the body may also transfer water around to areas where it is most needed.
Most dehydration events may be easily reversed by increasing the intake of fluid, but serious cases of dehydration need urgent medical treatment.
Fast facts about dehydration
- Around three-quarters of the human body is water.
- The causes of dehydration include diarrhea, vomiting, and sweating.
- Individuals more at risk of dehydration include athletes, people at higher altitudes, and older adults.
- Early symptoms of dehydration include dry mouth, lethargy, and dizziness.
The initial dehydration signs include fatigue, darker urine and reduced urine output. Urine color is also one of the best measures of a person’s level of hydration – clear urine indicates you’re well hydrated and darker urine indicates you’re dehydrated.
It’s important to remember, however, that dehydration can occur without thirst, particularly in older adults. That’s why it is important to drink more water when you’re sick, or when the weather is hotter.
As the condition progresses to moderate dehydration, symptoms include:
- dry mouth
- weakness in muscles
Severe dehydration (loss of 10-15 percent of the water in the body) can be characterized by severe versions of the above symptoms and:
- lack of sweating
- sunken eyes
- shriveled and dry skin
- low blood pressure
- increased heart rate
Symptoms in children
- in babies – a sunken fontanel (soft spot on the top of the head)
- dry tongue and mouth
- no tears when crying
- sunken cheeks and/or eyes
- no wet diaper for 3 or more hours
The basic causes of dehydration are not to take in enough water, to lose too much water or to mix both.
Often it’s not possible to ingest enough fluids because we’re too busy, lack the facilities or the strength to drink, or are in an environment with no drinking water (for example, while hiking or camping). Other causes of dehydration include:
Diarrhea – the primary cause of dehydration and associated deaths. The large intestine collects water from food matter, and this is avoided by diarrhoea. The body excretes too much water which results in dehydration.
Vomiting – leads to a loss of fluids which makes drinking water impossible to substitute.
Sweating -the cooling process of the body releases a large amount of water. Hot, humid weather, and intense physical activity will further increase sweating fluid loss. Similarly, a fever may cause an increase in sweating which can dehydrate the patient, particularly if diarrhea which vomiting are also present.
Diabetes -elevated levels of blood sugar cause excessive urination and loss of fluid.
Frequent urination – usually caused by uncontrolled diabetes, but may also be attributed to alcohol and drugs such as diuretics, antihistamines, medicines for blood pressure, and antipsychotics.
Burns – Blood vessels can get damaged, causing the fluid to leak into the tissues around them.
While anyone may experience dehydration, some people are at a greater risk. Those at highest risk include:
- People at higher altitudes.
- Athletes, especially those in endurance events, such as marathons, triathlons, and cycling tournaments.
- People with chronic illnesses, such as diabetes, kidney disease, cystic fibrosis, alcoholism, and adrenal gland disorders.
- Infants and children – most commonly due to diarrhea and vomiting.
Dehydration is often normal in older adults; this also occurs because they drink less water and they don’t need to get up for the toilet as much as possible. There are also brain shifts that mean thirst isn’t always there.
If dehydration is not tested, it can lead to serious complications; this can include: low blood volume-less blood causes a decrease in blood pressure and a reduction in the amount of oxygen entering tissues; this can be life-threatening.
Seizures – due to an electrolyte imbalance.
Kidney complications – include kidney stones, urinary tract infections, and eventually kidney failure.
Heat damage – from minor cramps to fatigue from heat or even heat stroke.
A doctor can treat dehydration using both physical and mental tests. A patient with symptoms such as disorientation, low blood pressure, rapid pulse, fever, lack of sweat, and dehydrated skin may typically be treated.
Blood testing is also used to monitor kidney function and to evaluate levels of sodium, potassium, and other electrolytes. Electrolytes are chemicals that control body hydration and are essential to the functioning of the nerves and muscles. An examination of the urine can provide some very valuable details to help diagnose dehydration. Urine would be darker in colour and more concentrated in a dehydrated individual-containing a certain amount of compounds called ketones.
Doctors typically look for a sunken, vulnerable spot on the skull to diagnose dehydration in children. We can also look for a lack of sweat and characteristics of some muscle tone.
Dehydration should be treated by replenishing the amount of fluid inside the body. Clear beverages such as tea, liquid broths, frozen water or ice pops, or sports drinks (such as Gatorade) can be used to do so. However some patients with dehydration may require intravenous fluids to rehydrate. People who are dehydrated should avoid caffeine-containing beverages like coffee, tea, and sodas.
Conditions underlying that induce dehydration should also be treated with the correct medication. These could include medications available for purchase over – the-counter or online, such as anti-diarrhea medications, antiemetics (stop vomiting), and anti-fever drugs.
Prevention is actually the most significant dehydration treatment. Eating plenty of high water content fluids and foods (such as fruits and vegetables) will suffice for most people to avoid dehydration.
People should be careful about performing workouts during excessive heat or the hottest part of the day and anyone who exercises should make it a priority to replenish fluids.
Since the elderly and very young are at greatest risk of being dehydrated, they should be given special attention to ensure they receive enough fluids.
Video: Signs of dehydration – how to prevent it
Types, conditions, and treatments of facial tics
A facial tic is an uncontrollable, involuntary spasm of the facial muscles. The tic is unwelcome and occurs frequently enough to be bothersome to the individual who has it.
A person can keep in a tic for a short period of time, similar to how a person can hold in a sneeze, but doing so frequently causes the individual to become progressively uncomfortable.
Facial tics can be caused by a variety of conditions, but they rarely signify a serious medical condition.
Facial tics are more common in children than in adults, according to a study published in Pediatric Neurology, and males appear to be significantly more prone to them than girls. After a few months, most children’s facial tics disappear.
When to consult your doctor
Facial tics are frequently temporary and fade away on their own. If a person has a tic that lasts more than a year, they should contact a doctor.
Anyone who has severe, chronic tics that affect a variety of muscle groups should see their doctor for a correct diagnosis.
Although it is not always possible to prevent facial tics, many of them do not require treatment and will go away on their own.
For persistent tics, there are treatments that can help people manage the tic. Some people may benefit from learning stress relief techniques and consulting a therapist.
Involuntary muscular movements that occur anywhere on the face are known as facial tics. However, they normally occur in the same location each time and are frequent enough to annoy the individual. Tics that are severe can have a negative impact on a person’s quality of life.
The following are examples of common facial tics:
- raising the eyebrows
- opening and closing the mouth
- mouth twitching
- rapid eye blinking or winking
- flaring the nostrils
- scrunching the nose
- clicking the tongue
- sucking the teeth
Some people may also have vocal tics, such as clearing their throat or grunting, in addition to muscle tics.
A person can temporarily repress a tic, but it will eventually emerge.
Types of tic disorders
Facial tics can be caused by a variety of conditions. The severity of the tic, as well as the existence of other symptoms, can assist a doctor figure out what’s wrong.
Transient tic disorder
Tics are only present for a short time. A regular facial or vocal tic may be caused by transient tic condition, however the tic usually lasts less than a year.
Tics are usually only present when a person is awake with transient tic disorder. Tics are uncommon when people are sleeping.
The majority of causes of tics in children are due to transient tic disorder. They normally go away on their own without any treatment.
Chronic motor tic disorder
Chronic motor tic disorder is a type of tic disorder that lasts longer. A person with chronic motor tic disorder must have had tics for more than a year, for periods of at least 3 months at a time, in order for a doctor to diagnose them.
Chronic motor tic disorder, unlike transitory tic condition, causes tics that can occur while sleeping.
Both toddlers and adults can develop chronic motor tic condition. Young children with persistent motor tic disorder may not require treatment since their symptoms are more tolerable or go away on their own.
Adults with the illness may require medication or other forms of treatment to keep their tics under control.
Tourette’s syndrome, often known as Tourette’s condition, is a persistent disorder that causes one or more motor or vocal tics.
Tourette’s syndrome affects the majority of people throughout their childhood, however it can also affect adults. Tics normally get less acute as a person gets older.
Both physical and verbal tics are present in people with Tourette’s syndrome. They may unintentionally create sounds or pronounce words.
Small motor tics, such as fast blinking or throat clearing, are common in people with Tourette’s syndrome. They may, however, have more complex motor tics, such as:
- saying inappropriate words
- making inappropriate gestures
- yelling out
- shrugging one or both shoulders
- shaking the head uncontrollably
- flapping the arms
Behavioral therapy can help people with Tourette’s syndrome manage their symptoms. People with any other underlying problems, on the other hand, may require medicine.
Treatment for facial tics varies according to the tic’s nature and intensity. Many tics, such as those caused by transitory tic condition, may fade away over time if not treated.
Tics that interfere with school or work performance may require treatment. Tics that endure a long time, such as those caused by Tourette’s syndrome, may require more intensive treatment.
Tics can be treated in a variety of ways, including:
Alpha-adrenergic agonists, neuroleptic medications, and dopamine blockers are some of the pharmaceuticals used to treat tics.
Doctors may recommend Botox injections in the case of persistent facial tics or twitches. Botox injections can temporarily block facial muscles, which may be enough to prevent tic recurrence.
Any underlying diseases causing the tic, such as Tourette’s syndrome or ADHD, can also be treated with medication.
Doctors may prescribe that a person meet with a psychotherapist on a regular basis to help them change or remove their tics.
Some people may benefit from behavioural modification and habit reversal strategies to assist them overcome their tics and improve their quality of life.
The person is usually taught to recognise when the tic is about to happen as part of the therapy. When a person is able to accomplish this, the therapist will encourage them to try to replace the tic with another behaviour.
This may assist a person replace a physical habit with one that is less distracting or does not interfere with daily functioning over time.
In severe cases of facial tics, such as those caused by Tourette’s syndrome, several surgical treatments may be helpful.
Deep brain stimulation is one surgical treatment option. Electrical currents may be able to reach specific parts of the brain via electrodes implanted in the brain, according to some experts, which could assist control brain waves and eliminate tics.
Deep brain stimulation may help ease symptoms of Tourette’s syndrome, according to a recent study, but further research is needed to find the appropriate parts of the brain to stimulate.
Natural therapies for facial tics may also be recommended by doctors. Because stress is thought to play a role in the development and maintenance of tics, natural treatments will focus on lowering stress in the individual’s life.
Among the stress-relieving activities are:
- imaginative play
- light exercises
For people wanting to minimise stress and find relief, getting a full night’s sleep is also essential. A doctor may suggest counselling in some cases.
Types, symptoms, and treatments of cytomegalovirus
Cytomegalovirus is a typical herpes virus. Many people are unaware they have it since they show no signs or symptoms.
However, the virus can cause issues during pregnancy and in people with a compromised immune system because it remains dormant in the body.
The virus spreads through bodily fluids and can be passed on to an unborn child by a pregnant woman.
Cytomegalovirus, also known as HCMV, CMV, or human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5), is the most frequent virus transmitted to a growing baby.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than half of all people in the United States have contracted the virus by the age of 40. It affects both men and women equally, regardless of age or ethnicity.
Fluids such as saliva, sperm, blood, urine, vaginal fluids, and breast milk can spread acquired cytomegalovirus between people.
The virus can also be contracted by touching a virus-infected surface and then touching the interior of the nose or mouth.
The virus is most commonly contracted in childhood, at daycare centres, nurseries, and other places where children are in close proximity to one another. The immune system of a child at this age, on the other hand, is typically capable of dealing with an infection.
CMV can recur in people who have a compromised immune system as a result of HIV, organ transplantation, chemotherapy, or long-term use of oral steroids.
Congenital CMV develops when a female catches the virus for the first time during pregnancy or shortly before conception.
A dormant CMV infection might resurface during pregnancy, especially if the mother has a compromised immune system.
Depending on the type of CMV, the symptoms will vary.
The majority of people with CMV do not show any symptoms, however if they do, they may include:
- swollen glands
- joint and muscle pain
- low appetite and weight loss
- night sweats
- tiredness and uneasiness
- sore throat
After two weeks, the symptoms should be gone.
The symptoms of recurrent CMV differ depending on which organs have been affected by the infection. The eyes, lungs, and digestive system are all likely to be affected.
Among the signs and symptoms are:
- diarrhea, gastrointestinal ulcerations, and gastrointestinal bleeding
- shortness of breath
- pneumonia with hypoxemia, or low blood oxygen
- mouth ulcers that can be large
- problems with vision, including floaters, blind spots, and blurred vision
- hepatitis, or inflamed liver, with prolonged fever
- encephalitis, or inflammation of the brain, leading to behavioral changes, seizures, and even coma.
Any of these symptoms should be reported to a doctor by someone with a reduced immune system.
According to the National CMV Foundation, approximately 90% of kids born with CMV show no symptoms, but 10–15% will develop hearing loss during their first 6 months of life. The degree of hearing loss varies from mild to complete deafness.
The infection will affect only one ear in half of these children, but the other half will experience hearing loss in both ears. Hearing loss in both ears can increase the risk of speech and communication issues in the future.
If congenital CMV is present at birth, symptoms may include:
- enlarged spleen
- spots under the skin
- low birth weight
- Purple skin splotches, a rash, or both
- enlarged liver
Some of these signs and symptoms can be treated.
In roughly 75% of babies born with congenital CMV, the virus will affect the brain. This could lead to difficulties later in life.
They may be exposed to the following conditions:
- central vision loss, scarring of the retina, and uveitis, or swelling and irritation of the eye
- cognitive and learning difficulties
- deafness or partial hearing loss
- impaired vision
- problems with physical coordination
- small head
Scientists have been looking for a CMV vaccine, however there is no cure as of yet.
People with acquired CMV who encounter the virus for the first time can ease symptoms with over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers like Tylenol (acetaminophen), ibuprofen, or aspirin, and should stay hydrated.
Antiviral drugs, such as ganciclovir, can be used to inhibit the spread of CMV in people who have it congenitally or on a regular basis.
These drugs have the potential to cause side effects. Hospitalization may be required if there is substantial organ damage.
It’s possible that newborns will need to be admitted to the hospital until their organ functions return to normal.
The following precautions may help minimise the risk of developing CMV:
- Hands should be washed with soap and water on a frequent basis.
- Kissing a small child should be avoided at all costs, including contact with tears and saliva.
- When passing around a drink, avoid sharing glasses and kitchen equipment.
- Diapers, paper handkerchiefs, and other such items should be disposed of with care.
- To prevent CMV from spreading through vaginal secretions and sperm, use a condom.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advises parents and caregivers of children with CMV to seek treatment as soon as possible, whether that means taking medication or attending all appointments for services such as hearing tests.
CMV infections are classified as either acquired, recurrent, or congenital.
- When a person contracts CMV for the first time, it is known as acquired or primary CMV.
- When a person already has CMV, it is referred to as recurrent CMV. The virus is dormant and then becomes active due to a weak immune system.
- When a person contracts CMV while pregnant and passes it on to the foetus, this is known as congenital CMV.
Except when it affects an unborn child or a person with a weakened immune system, such as a recent transplant recipient or someone living with HIV, CMV is normally not an issue.
CMV infection can cause organ failure, eye damage, and blindness in HIV patients. In recent years, advances in antiviral treatment have lowered the risk.
Immunosuppressants are used by people who have had organ and bone marrow transplants to suppress their immune systems so that their bodies do not reject the new organs. In these people, dormant CMV can become active and cause organ damage.
Antiviral medications may be given to transplant recipients as a prophylactic against CMV.
The virus can be passed to the foetus by a pregnant woman. This is referred to as congenital CMV.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about one in every 200 newborns is born with the virus.
The majority of these babies will show no signs or symptoms, but about 20% will have symptoms or long-term health issues, such as learning challenges.
Vision and hearing loss, small head size, weakness, trouble using muscles, coordination issues, and seizures are all possible symptoms.
A blood test can detect antibodies produced by the body as a result of the immune system’s response to the presence of CMV.
A pregnant woman faces a low risk of CMV reactivation affecting her unborn child. If a doctor suspects a pregnant woman has CMV, an amniocentesis may be recommended. To determine whether the virus is present, a sample of amniotic fluid is extracted.
The newborn will be tested within the first three weeks of life if the doctor suspects congenital CMV. Testing for congenital CMV after 3 weeks will not be definitive because the kid may have contracted the virus after birth.
Even if the virus is not active, anyone with a weaker immune system should get tested. Testing for vision and hearing issues will be done on a regular basis as part of the CMV complications monitoring.
CMV causes just a small percentage of healthy people to become very ill.
CMV mononucleosis, a condition in which too many white blood cells have a single nucleus, can occur in people with a weaker immune system.
Sore throat, swollen glands, swollen tonsils, fatigue, and nausea are some of the symptoms. It can cause hepatitis, or inflammation of the liver, as well as spleen enlargement.
Mononucleosis induced by the CMV is comparable to mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). Glands fever is another name for EBV mononucleosis.
Other CMV problems include:
- gastrointestinal problems, including diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, colon inflammation, and blood in the feces
- liver function problems
- central nervous system (CNS) complications, such as encephalitis, or inflammation of the brain
- pneumonitis, or inflammation of lung tissue.
Symptoms, treatment, and causes of ear infections
Infections in the middle ear can be caused by viruses or bacteria. These frequently cause in pain, inflammation, and fluid accumulation.
Before they become three years old, almost 75% of youngsters will have had at least one ear infection. The most common reason for a child’s visit to the doctor is an ear infection.
Glue ear, secretory otitis media, middle ear infection, and serous otitis media are all terms for ear infections.
Infections of the ear are widely understood, and their frequent recurrence necessitates ongoing investigation. This article discusses the symptoms and causes of ear infections, as well as the treatment choices and diagnostic methods available.
What is it?
A bacterial or viral infection of the middle ear is known as an ear infection. Inflammation and fluid buildup in the ear’s interior cavities are caused by this infection.
The middle ear is a space behind the eardrum that is filled with air. It has vibrating bones that translate sound from outside the ear into messages that the brain can understand.
Ear infections hurt because the swelling and accumulation of extra fluid puts pressure on the eardrum.
An ear infection can be acute or chronic. Chronic ear infections might harm the middle ear permanently.
An ear infection is frequently preceded by a cold, flu, or allergic reaction. These increase mucus in the sinuses, causing the eustachian tubes to discharge fluid slowly. The nasal passages, throat, and eustachian tubes will all be inflamed during the initial illness.
The role of eustachian tubes
The eustachian tubes run from the middle ear to the throat’s rear. These tubes’ ends open and reopen to control air pressure in the middle ear, restock air, and drain natural secretions.
The eustachian tubes can become blocked due to a respiratory infection or allergies, resulting in an accumulation of fluid in the middle ear. If this fluid becomes bacterially contaminated, infection may result.
Young children’s eustachian tubes are smaller and more horizontal than those of older children and adults. This implies that fluid is more likely to pool in the tubes instead of draining away, raising the risk of ear infection.
The role of adenoids
Adenoids are tissue pads found in the back of the nasal cavity. They respond to bacteria and viruses in the air and help the immune system function. The adenoids, on the other hand, can sometimes trap bacteria. The eustachian tubes and middle ear may get infected and inflamed as a result of this.
The adenoids are adjacent to the eustachian tube entrances and can cause the tubes to close if they expand. The adenoids in children are larger and more active than those in adults. Children are more likely to get ear infections as a result of these factors.
The signs and symptoms in adults are simple. Adults with ear infections suffer from ear pain and pressure, as well as ear fluid and hearing loss. Children are exposed to a broader spectrum of symptoms. These are some of them:
- ear pain, especially when lying down
- difficulty sleeping
- difficulty hearing
- lack of appetite
- tugging or pulling at the ear
- crying more than normal
- loss of balance
In general, there are three types of ear infections.
Acute otitis media (AOM)
The most common and least dangerous type of ear infection is AOM. The fluid beneath the eardrum gets infected and bloated, and the middle ear becomes infected and swollen. Fever is another possibility.
Otitis media with effusion (OME)
There may be some fluid behind the eardrum after an ear infection has cleared. Although a person with OME may not show symptoms, a doctor will be able to detect any lingering fluid.
Chronic otitis media with effusion (COME)
COME refers to fluid returning to the middle ear on a regular basis, whether or not an infection is present. This reduces your ability to fight other infections and has a detrimental influence on your hearing.
Ear infection testing is a simple procedure, and a diagnosis can often be determined solely on the basis of symptoms.
To examine for fluid behind the eardrum, the doctor will usually use an otoscope, which is a light-attached tool.
A pneumatic otoscope is sometimes used by a doctor to check for infection. This device uses a puff of air to check for retained fluid in the ear. The eardrum will move less than normal if there is any fluid behind it.
If the doctor is unsure, he or she may perform further tests to confirm a middle ear infection.
The doctor employs a device that shuts up the ear canal and changes the pressure inside it. The eardrum movement is measured by the instrument. This allows the doctor to determine the middle ear pressure.
The eardrum is bouncing sound against the eardrum in this technique. The amount of sound that bounces back shows the level of fluid buildup. The bulk of sound is absorbed by a healthy ear, whereas an infected ear reflects more soundwaves.
A clinician may employ tympanocentesis if an ear infection has not responded well to treatment. A small hole is made in the eardrum and a small amount of fluid is drained from the inner ear during this treatment. The infection’s cause can then be determined using this fluid.
Antibiotic treatment is required for infants under the age of six months to help prevent the spread of infection. Amoxicillin is frequently used as an antibiotic.
Unless the kid shows signs of a severe infection, doctors usually recommend monitoring the child without antibiotics for children aged 6 months to 2 years.
Ear infections usually go away on their own, and the only prescription required is pain relief. Antibiotics are only used in circumstances that are more serious or last longer.
The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) advises patients to be on the lookout for:
- children aged 6 to 23 months who have experienced mild inner ear pain in one ear for less than 48 hours and a temperature of less than 102.2° Fahrenheit (39° Celsius)
- children aged 24 months and over with mild inner ear pain in one or both ears for less than 48 hours and a temperature of less than 102.2°F
Antibiotics are rarely recommended for children above the age of two. Antibiotic resistance develops as a result of overuse. Serious infections may become more difficult to treat as a result of this.
For persistent infections, the AAFP recommends acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or eardrops as pain relievers. These are useful for reducing fever and pain.
A warm compress, such as a towel, can help to relieve the pain in the affected ear.
If you have recurrent ear infections for several months or a year, your doctor may recommend a myringotomy. A surgeon creates a small cut in the eardrum to allow the build-up of fluid to be released.
To help air out the middle ear and prevent future fluid buildup, a very small myringotomy tube is implanted. These tubes are typically left in place for 6 to 12 months before falling out naturally rather than requiring manual removal.
- Ear infections are very frequent, particularly among children. This is linked to a developing immune system and variations in ear architecture. There is no surefire way to avoid infection, however there are a few things you can do to lower your chances:
- Ear infections are less common in children who have been vaccinated. Inquire with your doctor about immunizations for meningitis, pneumococcal disease, and the flu.
- Wash your hands, as well as your child’s, frequently. This can help your child avoid having colds and flu by preventing bacteria from spreading to them.
- Second-hand smoking should never be exposed to a child. Ear infections are more common in infants who spend time with people who smoke.
- If at all possible, breastfeed infants. This aids in the improvement of their resistance.
- Feeding a newborn from a bottle while sitting up reduces the risk of milk going into the middle ear. When a baby is lying down, do not allow them to sip on a bottle.
- Allow your child to play with ill children as little as possible, and limit their exposure to group care or big groups of children.
- Antibiotics should only be used when needed. Ear infections are more common in children who have had an ear infection in the last three months, especially if antibiotics were used to treat it.
Ear infections are a common occurrence in most children’s lives. They can be unpleasant and debilitating, but if appropriately handled, they pose very few long-term issues.