Soybean curds are used to make tofu. It’s naturally gluten-free and calorie-free. It doesn’t have any cholesterol and is high in iron and calcium.
It’s an essential source of protein for vegans and vegetarians alike.
It also contains isoflavones such as phytoestrogens. Isoflavones can act as both oestrogen agonists and oestrogen antagonists. These can aid in the prevention of some cancers, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Overconsumption, on the other hand, could pose some risks.
Curds of soymilk are coagulated to make tofu. The curds are then pressed and compacted into tofu, which is a gelatinous white block.
Simple facts you need to know about Tofu
Here are a few important points to remember about tofu. The main article has more details.
- For many vegetarians and vegans, tofu is an essential source of protein.
- It can aid in the reduction of “bad” LDL cholesterol.
- It may help alleviate some of the symptoms of menopause.
- Tofu contains 177 calories per cube.
A 122-gram block of hard tofu contains the following ingredients
- 177 calories
- 5.36 g of carbohydrate
- 12.19 g of fat
- 15.57 g of protein
- 421 mg of calcium
- 65 of magnesium
- 3.35 mg of iron
- 282 mg of phosphorus
- 178 mg of potassium
- 2 mg of zinc
- 27 micrograms (mcg) of folate, DFE
Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, choline, manganese, and selenium are all present in limited quantities.
Tofu’s main ingredient is soy. It is a full source of dietary protein, meaning it contains all of the essential amino acids that the body needs. Soybeans are also high in polyunsaturated fats, especially omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid, which is good for you.
Isoflavones, which are found in soy foods, have been related to a variety of health benefits as well as some risks.
Soy’s calcium and magnesium content can help to strengthen bones, relieve PMS symptoms, control blood sugar, and prevent migraine headaches.
It may improve the appearance of skin and hair, increase energy, and aid in the maintenance of a healthy weight.
Tofu’s high levels of isoflavones have been linked to a lower risk of many age- and lifestyle-related diseases in studies.
1. Cardiovascular disease
Soy isoflavines have been found to help lower LDL “bad” cholesterol levels while having no effect on HDL or “good” cholesterol levels.
Soy intake on a daily basis has been shown in studies to lower indicators of cardiovascular disease risk, such as weight, body mass index (BMI), and total cholesterol. The FDA has set a daily soy protein intake of 25 grammes as the minimum requirement for lowering cholesterol levels.
Tofu, as an alternative to animal protein, may help lower LDL cholesterol levels. As a result, the risk of atherosclerosis and high blood pressure is reduced.
2. Cancers of the breast and uterus
There has been some debate in the past regarding the protection of soy consumption after a breast cancer diagnosis. Isoflavones have a chemical structure that is similar to estrogen, and high estrogen levels can increase the risk of breast cancer.
Eating small quantities of whole soy foods, or fewer than two servings a day, does not appear to affect tumor growth or the risk of developing breast cancer.
Instead, there is mounting evidence that daily soy consumption can lower the risk of recurrence of breast cancer. However, there isn’t enough evidence to suggest soy to all breast cancer survivors just yet.
More research is needed to validate how genistein functions, how it can be used therapeutically, and its bioavailability, or how well the body can absorb it, according to the researchers.
3. Diabetes type 2
Kidney disease is common in people with type 2 diabetes, and it causes the body to excrete an abnormal amount of protein in the urine.
According to one study, those who ingested only soy protein in their diet excreted less protein than those who consumed only animal protein.
Patients with type 2 diabetes, according to the researchers, may benefit from this.
4. Kidney health
Protein, especially soy protein, can improve renal function, which could be beneficial to people on dialysis or who have had a kidney transplant.
Soy had a beneficial impact on certain biomarkers in people with chronic kidney disease, according to a meta analysis of nine studies.
This could be due to its protein content, but it could also be due to its effect on blood lipid levels.
Soy isoflavones, particularly after menopause, can help reduce bone loss and increase bone mineral density. They’ve also been said to help with other menopausal symptoms.
6. Symptoms of menopause
Because of the phytoestrogens found in soy products, some research suggests that they may help alleviate symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes.
Although each woman’s symptoms may vary, hot flashes tend to be much less frequent in Asian countries, where soy consumption is higher.
Although there have been mixed reports, there is evidence that consuming genistein-rich soy products can help reduce the frequency and intensity of hot flashes.
More research is required, however, to determine exactly what happens and why.
7. Damage to the liver
Any kind of tofu curdled with various coagulants, according to one rat study, can help prevent liver damage caused by free radicals.
8. Age-related brain diseases
According to population reports, there is a lower prevalence of age-related mental illnesses in areas where people eat more soy.
The findings, however, have been mixed.
Treatment with soy isoflavones was related to improved performance in nonverbal memory, verbal fluency, and other functions, according to one study.
In a separate small study involving 65 Alzheimer’s patients over the age of 60, the same group found no evidence that soy isoflavines provided any cognitive benefits.
However, research published in 2017 indicated that soy products may benefit people with Alzheimer’s disease because they contain lecithin, which aids in the production of the phospholipids phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylserine by the body (PS). Neurons depend heavily on PA and PS to work properly.
Suggestions for preparation
Tofu is available in a variety of textures, including extra firm, firm, soft, or silken.
- Tofu that is firm or extra-firm is denser than soft or silken tofu and holds its shape better when cooked. This makes it suitable for grilling and stir-frying.
- In casseroles and soups, soft tofu fits well.
- Silken tofu is ideal for puddings and dips, and it can also be blended into smoothies to boost protein content.
Tofu is a popular ingredient in Asian cooking, particularly in East and Southeast Asia. It can be quickly integrated into any recipe due to its neutral flavour.
Many meat alternatives, such as tofu sausages and tofu burgers, contain tofu. These have the same flavour and texture as the beef they’re imitating.
Tofu is used in the following healthy dishes:
While soy foods can be a healthy alternative to meat, there is some debate about some of their health benefits.
Breast cancer risk
Some researchers believe that a high soy intake is linked to an increased risk of breast cancer.
Geographic research, on the other hand, indicate that in areas where women eat more soy, the risk of breast cancer is lower. This risk cannot be confirmed because there is insufficient evidence from human clinical trials.
Furthermore, the effect tends to be limited to a particular form of estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer.
Early rodent studies indicated that a high soy intake could promote tumour development, but later research discovered that rats metabolise soy differently than humans, invalidating the earlier findings.
Whole soy foods in moderate quantities are actually thought to have no effect on tumour growth or the risk of developing breast cancer.
Other studies have shown that eating at least 10 milligrammes (mg) of soy per day will reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence by 25%.
Others believe that because of how soy isoflavones function, they can aid in disease prevention. They demand that the matter be looked into further.
Animal studies have also indicated that the degree to which an isoflavone-containing product has been processed influences the risk of tumour development.
Tofu and other soy foods that have undergone limited processing, such as soybeans or edamame, tofu, tempeh, and soymilk, are preferable.
Tofu sausages, for example, can contain additives such as sodium and flavourings that make them less nutritious. When purchasing packaged foods, it is important to read the nutrition label.
Fertility and feminization
Another problem with a high soy intake is that the phytoestrogen in soy produce can have a slightly feminising effect, which could lead to complications including gynecomastia (male breast development) or fertility issues.
However, the effect is unlikely to be significant enough to preclude soy from being used in baby and other foods.
Genetically modified soy
Soy products from the United States are often genetically modified (GM). Hexane, a solvent used to extract oil from soy beans, can also be used to treat soy products.
Organic food could be a safe option for those worried about genetic manipulation or hexane production.
Rather than concentrating on one food item, the secret to good health is to live a healthy lifestyle with a balanced and varied diet and daily exercise.
- Barrett, J. R. (2006, June). The science of soy: What do we really know? Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(6), A352–A358
- Everything you need to know about tofu https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/278340
- Basic report: 16160, tofu, hard, prepared with nigari. (2016, May)
- Bolca, S., Bracke, M., & Depypere, H. (2012). Soy consumption during menopause. Facts, views and vision in ObGyn, 4(1), 30-37
- Gleason, C. E., Fischer, B. L., Dowling, N. M., Setchell, K. D. R., Atwood, C. S., Carlsson, C. M., … Asthana, S. (2015, August 11). Cognitive effects of soy isoflavones in patients with Alzheimer’s disease 47(4), 1009-1019
- Hexane in soy food. (2012, May 1)
- Isoflavones. (n.d.)
- Jargin, S. V. (2014). Soy and phytoestrogens: Possible side effects. German Medical Science, 1218
- Lanou, A. J. (2011). Soy foods: are they useful for optimal bone health? Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease, 3(6), 293–300
- Moré, M. & Rutenberg, D. (2017). Soy lecithin-derived phosphatidylserine plus phosphatidic acid: Effects on brain functions in elderly patients with Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Journal of Aging Science, 5(3)
- Open areas of investigation: Human studies. (2011)
- Ruscica, M., Pavanello, C., Gandini, S., Gomaraschi, M., Vitali, C., Macchi, C. … Magni, P. (2016, October 18). Effect of soy on metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Nutrition, 1-13
- Soy and breast cancer. (2013, April)
- Spagnuolo, C., Russo, G. L., Orhan, I. E., & Nabavi, S. M. (2015, July). Genistein and cancer: Current status, challenges, and future directions. Advances in Nutrition Retrieved from
- Taku, K., Umegaki, K., Sato, Y., Endoh, K., & Watanabe, S. (2007). Soy isoflavones lower serum total and LDL cholesterol in humans: a meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials [Abstract]. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 85(4), 1148-56
- Teixeira, S. R., Tappenden, K. A., Carson, L., Jones, J., Prabhudesai, M., Marshall, W. P. & Erdman J. W. (2004, August 1). Isolated soy protein consumption reduces urinary albumin excretion and improves the serum lipid profile in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nephropathy. The Journal of Nutrition, 134(8), 1874-1880
- Toxic chemicals: Banned in organics but common in “natural” food production. (2010, November)
- Webb, D. (2010, November). Shedding light on soy
- Webb, D. (2011, September). Soyfoods made easy – a soy primer
- Yakubu, N., Oboh, G., & Olalekan, A. A. (2013). Antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of tofu (curdle soymilk) against acetaminophen-induced liver damage in rats. Biotechnology Research International
How long does it take for kidney stones to pass?
The kidneys are in charge of filtering the blood for urea and excess minerals. These substances are frequently excreted in the urine. Large concentrations of these minerals can, in some situations, build up in the kidneys, causing crystal-like stones.
Kidney stones can form in one or both kidneys. They may then flow thru the ureter, the tube that links the kidney to the bladder.
Small kidney stones usually pass thru without causing any problems and may not cause any symptoms. Larger stones can become lodged in the ureter and cause pain. They may cause issues such as infection and renal damage if they are not removed.
The speed with which a kidney stone passes can be influenced by a number of factors. More information on how long it takes to pass a kidney stone, how to speed up the process, and treatment options can be found in this article.
When to consult your doctor
Smaller kidney stones may pass on their own, producing little pain. Large stones, on the other hand, can be uncomfortable and raise the risk of health problems.
Pain is a sign that a person needs to see a doctor. They’ll be able to tell if the stone has to be treated in any way to help it pass.
If people have any of the following symptoms, they should see a doctor:
- blood in the urine
- fever and chills
- severe and persistent pain in the back or side
- cloudy or foul-smelling urine
- a burning feeling when urinating
These symptoms could indicate a kidney infection, which needs to be treated right once to avoid more serious problems.
Size and placement are the two key elements that determine how quickly a stone passes.
A kidney stone’s size influences how rapidly it passes through a person’s body. Smaller stones pass more quickly and with less pain.
The approximate timelines for passing kidney stones of various sizes are listed below:
- Around 80% of kidney stones with a size of less than 4 mm will pass on their own in around 31 days.
- Around 60% of kidney stones with a diameter of 4–6 mm will pass on their own after 45 days.
- Around 20% of kidney stones that are larger than 6 mm will pass on their own after a year. When stones are this large, however, it is better to consider surgical removal as soon as possible.
The position of the kidney stone also has an impact on whether or not it can be passed naturally. Some stones develop in the kidney, whereas others develop in the ureter.
Kidney stones that form near the kidney form in the upper section of the ureter. Those that form near the bladder are those that form in the lower section.
According to a 2014 assessment of research, 48 percent of stones that develop near the kidney pass without intervention. For stones that grow close to the bladder, the percentage climbs to 79 percent.
How to speed up the process
Drinking enough of water is the best technique to assist speed up the passing of a kidney stone. The extra fluid increases urine, which aids in the movement of the stone.
A person can also take actions to avoid the formation of new stones and the growth of existing ones. These steps are as follows:
- limiting protein intake
- reducing calcium intake
- consuming less salt
- eating more citrus fruits
Citrus fruits contain the chemical citrate, which can help prevent kidney stones from forming.
Dietitians and doctors can also recommend food programmes for kidney stone management.
Pain relief remedies
Kidney stones can be inconvenient and even painful to pass. In certain circumstances, over-the-counter drugs like ibuprofen may be sufficient to relieve pain.
If a person’s kidney stones are especially painful, they should speak with their doctor, who may be able to prescribe stronger pain relievers.
Treatment and surgery
Kidney stones can be treated without surgery in a number of ways. These are some of them:
- Alpha-blockers: These drugs relax the ureter, alleviating painful spasms and helping the stone pass.
- Calcium channel blockers: These drugs widen the ureter, helping the stone pass through.
- Lithotripsy: This procedure uses sound waves to break the stone into smaller fragments that can pass more easily.
Surgery is rarely the first treatment option. Kidney stones greater than 6 mm, on the other hand, necessitate emergency surgery. Large stones can become lodged in the ureter, resulting in infections and kidney damage.
Ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are the two main surgical options for kidney stone removal.
A general anaesthesia is required during ureteroscopy. Using tiny instruments introduced via the urethra, the surgeon removes or breaks up the stone during the surgery. A stent may then be placed into the urethra to keep it open. This makes it easier for any little stone shards to flow through.
The surgeon removes very large stones measuring 10 mm or more during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. A tiny incision in the back is used to remove the stone directly from the kidney. The surgery necessitates a general anaesthesia and a one to two-day stay in the hospital.
The time it takes to recuperate from a kidney stone is determined by how quickly it goes. The pain should go away fast if the stone passes naturally or with minimal medication.
If lithotripsy is performed as an outpatient operation, the patient should be able to return home the same day. The amount of time it takes to recover depends in part on the type of anaesthetic used.
If surgery is necessary, most people are able to resume most of their routine activities within a day of the procedure. People who receive a stent, on the other hand, should avoid high-intensity activities until the stent is removed by a medical practitioner. About a week after surgery, something happens.
Pain medicines may be used throughout recuperation.
Kidney stones are often unpleasant, and passing them through the body’s system might take many weeks. If a person’s stones become very painful or if they suffer other concerning symptoms, they should consult a doctor.
Kidney stones can be treated using a variety of methods. The goal of drug therapy is to relieve pain and suffering while also allowing the stone to pass more freely.
Kidney stones that are too large to pass naturally, on the other hand, may need to be surgically removed. Within a day or two of surgery, most people are able to resume their daily activities.
Uses of vitamin B-12 level test: Normal ranges, and results
The amount of vitamin B-12 in the blood or urine is measured in a vitamin B-12 level test to determine the body’s overall vitamin B-12 reserves.
Vitamin B-12 is required for a variety of body functions, including neuron function, DNA and red blood cell formation.
Treatment is required if a person’s vitamin B-12 levels fall outside of the usual range. Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause neurological symptoms as well as fatigue, constipation, and weight loss. B-12 levels that are too high could indicate liver disease, diabetes, or another condition.
Continue reading to learn more about B-12 testing and what the results indicate.
Purpose of a vitamin B-12 level test
The vitamin B-12 level test determines the amount of vitamin B-12 in your body. Doctors can use the data to see if low vitamin B-12 levels are causing symptoms.
If a person exhibits any of the following symptoms, a doctor may recommend a vitamin B-12 level test:
Vitamin B-12 insufficiency
Vitamin B-12 deficiency is thought to affect up to 15% of people in the United States, according to research. The following are signs and symptoms of a deficiency:
- fast heartbeat
- numbness and tingling in the hands and feet
- poor memory
- a sore mouth or tongue
- difficulty maintaining balance
Vitamin B-12 deficiency in infants can cause them to underachieve. They may have mobility issues in addition to developmental delays.
A vitamin B-12 level test may be required for people who have signs of low iron. Pernicious anaemia is caused by a lack of vitamin B-12 absorption, resulting in poor red blood cell causes.
It usually affects the elderly or people who are deficient in intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor is a gastric material that binds to vitamin B-12 and allows it to be absorbed by the body.
The following are signs and symptoms of pernicious anaemia:
- pale skin
- weight loss
- loss of appetite
High levels of folate in the blood
They can also make you more susceptible to anaemia.
Symptoms of other illnesses
Vitamin B-12 levels that are unusually high can be a symptom of liver disease, diabetes, or certain types of leukaemia. The findings of a vitamin B-12 test may be used by a doctor to help them make a diagnosis.
Vitamin B-12 deficiency is more common in some people than in others, especially those with low stomach acid or other digestive problems. Stomach acid helps the body absorb vitamin B-12 more effectively by separating it from meals.
Low vitamin B-12 levels are more common in the following groups of people than in others:
- people with conditions that reduce vitamin B-12 absorption, including celiac disease and Crohn’s disease
- people who have had gastric bypass surgery
- those who are breast-feeding
- people who are taking medicines such as chloramphenicol, proton pump inhibitors, or H2 blockers
- older adults
- vegans and vegetarians
- people with diabetes
How does the B-12 vitamin level test work?
Vitamin B-12 status is normally determined by a blood test, but home urine tests are now available. Vitamin B-12 levels can be checked as part of a routine blood test by a doctor.
Although fasting is not required before a B-12 test, it may be necessary if the doctor is utilising the test to check at other blood components.
It is important that patients inform their doctors about any medications or supplements they are taking, as some may have an impact on the outcome.
Acknowledging the results
The following are possible results:
- Low. Vitamin B-12 levels below 200 pg/mL are considered low. This indicates that you may have a vitamin B-12 deficiency, pernicious anaemia, or an overactive thyroid. Neurological symptoms are common in people who have low vitamin B-12 levels.
- High. Anything over 900 pg/mL is considered excessively high vitamin B-12 status. This result could indicate problems with the liver or kidneys, diabetes, or certain types of leukaemia.
Because the ranges of results differ from one laboratory to the next, it’s important to talk to a doctor about the results and what they signify.
To rule out vitamin B-12 deficiency, the doctor may measure levels of methylmalonic acid (MMA) and other chemicals. These lab results aid in the early detection of vitamin B-12 deficiency.
Vitamin B-12 deficiency treatment
Vitamin B-12 injections are frequently required by people who have low amounts of the vitamin. These shots are more successful at boosting vitamin B-12 levels than supplements, especially when people have medical issues that make supplements difficult to absorb.
High doses of vitamin B-12 supplements may help some people improve their B-12 status. Supplements are sold in the form of capsules or liquids in pharmacies, supermarkets, health food stores. It may also be beneficial to consume extra vitamin B-12-rich foods.
Treatment for high vitamin B-12 levels
There is no upper limit on vitamin B-12 consumption because high amounts do not cause problems. Having naturally high levels of vitamin B-12 in the body, on the other hand, could be cause for alarm, since it could indicate a serious underlying condition. Doctors will focus on treating the underlying medical condition rather than the vitamin B-12 levels.
Vitamin B-12 foods.
Although low vitamin B-12 levels are frequently caused by absorption problems and other medical conditions, some people may be deficient because they do not acquire enough vitamin B-12 through their food. This is especially true for vegans and vegetarians who have been vegetarian for a long time.
Vitamin B-12-rich foods include:
- fortified plant-based dairy alternatives
- fortified breakfast cereals
- fortified nutritional yeast
- fish and seafood
- dairy products
Vitamin supplements can help vegans and strict vegetarians make up for dietary deficiencies. Older persons should seek to achieve their vitamin B-12 needs through fortified meals and vitamin supplements, as supplements are simpler for their bodies to absorb than naturally occurring vitamin B-12.
Vitamin B-12 dietary recommendations
Vitamin B-12 is required in 2.4 micrograms (mcg) per day for adults and adolescents over the age of 14. During pregnancy, this rises to 2.6 mcg, and breast-feeding raises it to 2.8 mcg.
Vitamin B-12 is an essential nutrient that is necessary for good health. The status of a person’s vitamin B-12 is determined by a vitamin B-12 level test. This test may be recommended by a doctor to people who have symptoms of a deficiency or who are at risk of having low vitamin B-12 levels in their bodies.
Vitamin B-12 deficiency can be avoided by eating a well-balanced diet that includes many sources of the vitamin on a daily basis, or by taking supplements. If they have trouble absorbing vitamin B-12 from food, oral supplements or injections can help them avoid symptoms and consequences.
Uses, benefits, and side effects of vitamin B-12 shots
Vitamin B12 shots are injections that a doctor may recommend to address a nutrient B12 deficiency, particularly if the body has trouble absorbing the vitamin.
A doctor may recommend oral vitamin B12 supplementation or injections if a person’s vitamin B12 levels are low owing to a medical condition.
Injections are typically used by people who have difficulty absorbing vitamin B12 or who have had stomach surgery. Shots allow the body to absorb vitamin B12 without having to pass it thru the digestive system.
The necessity of maintaining proper vitamin B12 levels is discussed in this article, as well as the benefits and risks of vitamin B12 shots.
Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that is important for a variety of biological activities, including:
- nerve cells
- red blood cells
- DNA production
Megaloblastic anaemia can make a person feel fatigued and weak if they don’t get enough vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12 can be found in a variety of foods, including:
- dairy products
- nutritional yeast
- some fortified foods
Vitamin B12 binds to protein molecules in animal-based diets. Stomach acid separates it from the protein during digestion, and a chemical called intrinsic factor causes the bloodstream to absorb it.
A condition known as autoimmune atrophic gastritis causes some people’s bodies to produce insufficient stomach acid or intrinsic factor. Vitamin B12 shots may be required for these people to lower their risk of deficiency, which can develop to pernicious anaemia.
Those who have had gastrointestinal surgery and whose digestive system is unable to absorb vitamin B12 properly may also require shots.
What dosage of vitamin B12 do We require?
The recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for vitamin B12 are listed in the table below. The RDA is the minimal daily quantity required by the majority of healthy people in a certain group.
|0–6 months||0.4 micrograms (mcg)|
|7–12 months||0.5 mcg|
|1–3 years||0.9 mcg|
|4–8 years||1.2 mcg|
|9–13 years||1.8 mcg|
|14+ years||2.4 mcg|
|Pregnant people||2.6 mcg|
|People who breastfeed||2.8 mcg|
A doctor, on the other hand, may provide advice on an individual’s specific needs.
Vitamin B12 shots
Vitamin B12 shots are a type of supplement that contains cyanocobalamin, a synthetic form of vitamin B12.
The shot will be administered by a doctor into the muscle. If they inject it into a vein, the body may lose a high amount of it through urine.
Cyanocobalamin is available in three different forms: liquid, tablet, and capsule. Certain foods, such as cereals, may be fortified with vitamin B12 in a synthetic form.
Who needs vitamin B12 shots?
Vitamin B12 injections can only be obtained with a prescription after a clinical diagnosis of low levels. Because the human liver accumulates vitamin B12 throughout time, low levels are uncommon in most healthy persons.
Some people, however, are at a higher risk of deficiency and may benefit from vitamin B12 injections or tablets.
Those suffering from vitamin B12 deficient symptoms
A doctor should be seen if you have symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency or pernicious anaemia.
The following are some of the signs and symptoms:
- difficulty thinking and remembering
- heart palpitations
- pale skin
- weight loss
- numbness and tingling in the hands and feet
- mood changes
- a sore tongue
- low appetite
Vitamin B12 deficiency risk factors
The following risk factors can increase the chance of developing vitamin B12 deficiency:
- high alcohol consumption
- older age
- pernicious anemia
- atrophic gastritis, which refers to inflammation in the stomach
- Helicobacter pylori infection
- celiac disease
- Crohn’s disease
- a history of gastrointestinal surgery
- following a plant-based diet
- pancreatic insufficiency
- some hereditary conditions that affect vitamin B12 absorption
Those suffering from gastric people
Vitamin B12 release and absorption may be affected by gastrointestinal conditions.
These are some of them:
- pernicious anemia, which can lead to gastric atrophy, or damage to the stomach
- fish tapeworm infestation
- bowel or pancreatic cancer
- folic acid deficiency
- overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine
- celiac disease
- Crohn’s disease
People who have had gastrointestinal surgery, such as weight loss surgery, may have less of the cells that secrete stomach acid and intrinsic factor. Vitamin B12 absorption may be affected as a result of this.
According to research published in 2015, vitamin B12 deficiency is more common in people over the age of 60, and certain people may benefit from vitamin B12 injections.
The researchers discovered that disorders linked to decreased stomach acid production, such as gastric atrophy, are more common in older persons. Low stomach acid also encourages the growth of some bacteria, which depletes vitamin B12 reserves.
Vegans and vegetarians
Because vitamin B12 is mostly found in animal sources, people who eat a plant-based diet are more likely to be vitamin B12 deficient.
In a 2010 study of 689 males, researchers discovered that those who ate a plant-based diet had greater rates of vitamin B12 insufficiency. Compared to just 1% of people who ate meat, over half of vegans and 7% of vegetarians had inadequate vitamin B12 levels.
Vitamin B12 is transferred to the infant through the placenta and breast milk, thus vegetarians and people who are pregnant may need to take supplements or eat fortified foods. If the baby is exclusively breastfed, he or she may not get enough vitamin B12. This can result in long-term and serious neurological problems.
A doctor may propose injections in rare circumstances, but research shows that taking extra vitamin B12 by mouth is just as beneficial as getting an injection in a muscle. It is also less expensive.
Vitamin B12 shots may be recommended by a doctor for people who are at risk of deficiency or its repercussions.
Vitamin B12 injections may help to lower your risk of developing the following conditions:
- heart disease
- neurological disorders
- problems with thinking and memory
- vision loss
- neural tube defects in children born to those with a vitamin B12 deficiency
Because the risk of toxicity or overdose is low, there is no upper limit for vitamin B12 intake. Vitamin B12 injections, on the other hand, may have unintended consequences.
If a person has any of the following symptoms, or if they persist or worsen, they should get medical help:
- pain, redness, or itching at the site of the injection
- mild diarrhea
- a swelling sensation in the body
- temporary itching of the skin
There may also be a risk of:
- pulmonary edema
- congestive heart failure
- peripheral vascular thrombosis, which involves blood clots
- polycythemia vera, which is a type of blood cancer
Anyone experiencing trouble breathing, hives, or swelling should seek immediate medical attention. They could be suffering from anaphylaxis, a life-threatening allergic reaction.
Certain drugs may interact with vitamin B12. Before obtaining a vitamin B12 shot, people should always tell their doctor about all prescription and over-the-counter medications they are taking.
The following are some of the most regularly prescribed drugs that may interact with vitamin B12:
- H2 receptor antagonists
- proton pump inhibitors
Medical disorders and allergies
Before having a vitamin B12 shot, anyone with allergies or medical issues should always consult a doctor.
Shots of vitamin B12 may not be appropriate for those who have a history of:
- hypokalemia, or low potassium levels
- deficiencies in other nutrients, particularly folic acid and iron
- sensitivity to vitamin B12
- Leber’s disease, which affects the optic nerve
- kidney problems
While most people obtain enough vitamin B12 from their diet, some people do not. This could be caused by low intrinsic factor levels in the digestive system, a digestive disease, or eating a plant-based diet.
The American Dietary Guidelines for 2020–2025 propose that vitamin B12 and other nutrients be met first and foremost through food.
If dietary sources are inadequate, a doctor may prescribe supplementation in the form of tablets or injections, depending on the cause of the deficiency.