Connect with us

Biology / Biochemistry

What to know about plague



Plague is a deadly viral disease that affects mammals, including humans. It can spread through animal or human contact.

Many areas of the world, including the United States, are home to the bacteria that cause the plague. The plague can be deadly without treatment.

The history of the plague as well as symptoms, causes, and treatment will be discussed in this article.

What is plague?

What is plague?

Plague is a sickness caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis). Plague bacteria are normally present in small mammals, such as rats, and in fleas that live on them. Infected fleas can transfer plague bacteria on to different mammals that they feed on, including humans.

There are three types of plague:

  • Bubonic plague: The transmission of bubonic plague often happens through flea bites. Bubonic plague bacteria attack lymph nodes, which are small glands that help the body fight infection. The plague bacteria cause the lymph nodes to become tender and swollen. These infected lymph nodes are called buboes.
  • Pneumonic plague: Pneumonic plague is the most harmful form of plague. It affects the lungs and can develop in as little as 24 hours. If not treated quickly, it can be fatal. Pneumonic plague is also the only form of plague that can spread through human contact.
  • Septicemic plague: Septicemic plague symptoms can occur as the first signs of plague, or they can be a result of untreated bubonic plague. A person with septicemic plague may develop black, dying skin tissue.

Origins and history

For thousands of years, plague bacteria have been around. The presence of plague bacteria in their DNA was found in studies performed on two Bronze Age skeletons. The skeletons were about 3,800 years of age.

Historically, the plague bacterium Y. Pestis was responsible for the Justinian plague, the Black Death, and the Southwest China pandemic that broke out in the 19th century.

The Justinian plague

The Justinian plague struck Turkey in the sixth century and extended between 541 C.E. to Asia , Africa, Europe , and the Middle East. 750 C.E. and In just 4 years, between 542 C.E. The Justinian plague, in 546 C.E., killed about 100 million people in Asia, Africa , and Europe.

Death of the Black

In the 14th century, the most infamous plague, the Black Death, took place in Europe. At least a third of the population of Europe died between 1347 and 1352 from the plague, which is approximately 25 million people.

Over the next 400 years, plague outbreaks have resurfaced across Europe. In 1656–1657, two thirds of the population of Naples and Genoa died from the plague. London and Vienna each lost around 100,000 people to the plague between 1665 and 1666. In 1770-1771, Moscow had over 100,000 people who died of the plague.

In total, over 50 million deaths in Europe were caused by the Black Death.

Outbreak in China

There was a plague outbreak in the province of Yunnan in southwest China around 1855. In 1910-1920, the plague eventually spread through trade ships to India, Australia , Japan, and North and South America. By 1959, over 15 million individuals were killed by the plague outbreak.


In the human body, the three forms of plague have differing symptoms. All forms of plague can, however, cause:

  • sudden fever
  • weakness
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • abdominal pain
  • headache
  • body aches

Bubonic plague

A person with bubonic plague will generally notice symptoms within 2 to 6 days after exposure to the plague bacteria, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC).

Bubonic plague symptoms include:

  • one or more swollen, tender lymph nodes
  • muscle pain
  • feeling of discomfort

The buboes formed by bubonic plague are firm and painful and will often appear near the groin, armpit, or neck. If left untreated, these buboes can form into open, pus-filled sores.

Pneumonic or septicemic plague may also develop into untreated bubonic plague.

Pneumonic plague

After exposure to the bacteria, pneumonic plague may develop as fast as 1 day.

Pneumonic plague symptoms include:

  • rapid heartbeat
  • difficulty breathing
  • pneumonia
  • cough
  • chest pain
  • shortness of breath
  • bloody or watery mucus

A pneumonic plague can quickly lead to organ failure, shock, or death if left untreated. Recovery rates for pneumonic plague, however, are high if a person receives treatment within 24 hours of developing symptoms.

Septicemic plague
Septicemic plague can develop from bubonic plague. It can occur independently of other plagues as well.

Symptoms of septicemic plague can include:

  • Fatigue
  • muscle pain
  • bleeding into skin or other organs
  • black, dying tissue, particularly on fingers , toes, and nose

Septicemic plague progresses quickly and, if left untreated, can be fatal.

A person with any symptoms of the plague should seek immediate medical attention.


A bite from an infected flea is the most common cause of plague in humans. There is also a risk that people who come into direct contact with infected fluids or tissues from animals with plague may be affected.

When inhaling droplets breathed out by a person, dog, or cat who has pneumonic plague, plague can also spread to people. The only type that can spread from person to person is the pneumonic plague.

Treatment and prevention

By collecting a person’s blood, sputum, or lymph node tissue sample, doctors can diagnose a plague. It can take up to 2 days to confirm the plague in the laboratory, so a doctor may start treating a person with suspected plague after taking their samples.

With antibiotics, doctors can treat the plague. It may be necessary to place them in an isolation room in the hospital if a person has pneumonic plague.

Although, according to the CDC, the plague can start at any time of year, most cases in the U.S. occur from late spring to early fall. Additionally, in rural areas, such as New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado, plague is most common.

People living in plague-threatened areas should take care to avoid rodents and fleas, such as rats, squirrels, or chipmunks. In these areas , people should also avoid handling animal carcasses.

Today, is there a plague?

The CDC reports that an average of seven plague cases occur each year in the U.S. In the United States, over 80 percent of plague cases have been bubonic plague. People aged 12-45 make up 50 per cent of U.S. cases of plague, although people of any age can be affected by plague.

The majority of human cases of plague between the 1990s and 2018 occurred in Africa, according to the CDC. The CDC also states that, rather than in larger cities, most cases of plague have been found in small towns or villages.

The World Health Organization (WHO) found that the Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, and Peru were the countries with the most prevalent levels of plague in the world in 2017.

Similar illnesses

There are several diseases that have similar symptoms to plague. They include:

  • tularemia, a rare infectious disease passed on from small mammals to humans via infected ticks or flies
  • cat scratch disease, also known as cat scratch fever, which a person can get through a bite, lick, or scratch from an infected cat
  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a bacterial infection spread through a bite of an infected tick
  • elephantiasis, a disease where parasitic worms infect the lymph system
  • brucellosis, an infection that can occur after a person has consumed unpasteurized cheese or milk
  • dengue virus disease, a viral infection spread by mosquitoes
  • streptococcal lymphadenitis, an infection of the lymph nodes


While plague is less common than it once was, there are still parts of the world where it can be obtained by a person. People living in rural U.S. areas should make sure that contact with rodents, fleas, and carcasses of animals is avoided.

Typically, plague is easy to treat with antibiotics. However, when left untreated, it can be fatal.

An individual who notices any signs of the plague should immediately seek medical attention.

Biology / Biochemistry

Rotator cuff: What you need to know



The rotator cuff is a group of muscles that aid in the movement of the arm and shoulder. Rotator cuff injuries are fairly prevalent, but there are a number of effective therapies available.

The supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis are the four muscles that make up the rotator cuff.

Arm movement and shoulder rotation are controlled by these muscles working together. They also aid in the retention of the humerus, or upper arm bone, in the scapula, or shoulder blade, socket. The glenoid is the name for this socket.

Rotator cuff injuries are rather prevalent, particularly among the elderly, sports, and people who work in physically demanding jobs. A medical professional can diagnose a rotator cuff injury and provide the best treatment options.

The structure and function of the rotator cuff, as well as typical injuries that affect this muscle group, are discussed in this article.

Meaning and functions

rotator cuff injury

The rotator cuff, which connects the humerus to the scapula, is made up of four muscles and tendons. These muscles and tendons act as a cuff around the shoulder joint, providing stability.

These muscles have their own distinct movements in addition to their collective function. The supraspinatus, for example, abducts the arm away from the body and aids in the movement of the deltoid muscle in the shoulder. The infraspinatus and teres minor help with lateral rotation, whereas the subscapularis helps with medial rotation.

When to contact a doctor

Anyone suffering from prolonged shoulder pain should consult a physician or orthopedic surgeon. These experts can assess the shoulder, identify the cause of pain, and recommend treatment choices to alleviate symptoms and speed healing.


rotator cuff anatomy

Other components, in addition to the muscle groups that make up the rotator cuff, aid in mobility and function.

These muscles are connected by several nerves, which send important signals throughout the rotator cuff. The subscapular nerve, suprascapular nerve, and axillary nerve are among them. Bursae, which are fluid-filled sacs that separate tissues, are also seen in the rotator cuff. These bursae operate as cushions, minimizing friction and protecting various tissues.

Common conditions

The following are some of the most prevalent rotator cuff injuries:


A rotator cuff tear occurs when one of the cuff tendons is torn. This rip can damage one or more tendons, although the supraspinatus tendon is the most often injured.

A partial or full-thickness tear can occur. The tendon is damaged but not entirely severed in a partial tear, also known as an incomplete tear. A full-thickness, or complete, rip completely separates the tendon from the bone and can result in a hole.

Injury and degeneration are the most common causes of rotator cuff tears. An acute tear occurs when a tendon is torn as a result of trauma or an accident. Most tears, on the other hand, are degenerative, meaning that they develop slowly over time. A degenerative tear can occur as a result of repeated stress on the tendon, a reduction in blood flow as people age, or bone spurs.

To detect a whole or partial tendon tear, medical experts may employ imaging techniques such as X-ray, ultrasound, and MRI.


The inflammation of the rotator cuff tendons is known as rotator cuff tendinitis. This condition can affect people of any age, depending on their level of activity.

Tendonitis is a condition that happens when the tendons are irritated or damaged as a result of sports or repetitive overhead movements. Shoulder impingement, commonly known as swimmer’s shoulder, is a condition in which a tendon or bursa presses against the shoulder blade, creating pain. This type of injury is common in people who participate in sports like baseball and tennis, as well as those who work in construction and painting.

A doctor may perform a physical exam and suggest imaging tests to help confirm the diagnosis after asking about the person’s specific symptoms.


The inflammation of a bursa is referred to as bursitis. When a person moves their arm, these lubricating sacs allow the rotator cuff tendons to slide freely. Bursitis can cause when there is too much friction in the shoulder from repetitive movements or injuries.

To diagnose bursitis of the shoulder, a doctor will often perform a physical exam and use imaging studies, similar to other rotator cuff injuries.

Symptoms of injury

The symptoms of rotator cuff damage differ based on the person and the type of injury. The following are some of the most common injury symptoms:

  • a clicking or popping sound when moving the arm
  • weakness in the shoulder
  • pain or swelling in the shoulder
  • difficulty moving the arm

Tips and treatments

Depending on the nature and severity of the rotator cuff injury, treatment methods may differ. A doctor may suggest the following as part of therapy and recovery:

  • sleeping on the unaffected side or on the back
  • taking warm baths or showers to help relax the muscles
  • taking over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or pain medications to minimize swelling and discomfort
  • applying cloth-wrapped ice packs to the affected area
  • resting and avoiding activities that may irritate the shoulder

When a person can use their shoulder comfortably, a doctor may recommend rehabilitation activities to help with healing. These stretches and exercises may also aid in the prevention of future injuries. Other treatment options may be referred by a doctor to a physical therapist or specialist.

A doctor may recommend surgery in more severe circumstances if nonsurgical methods are unlikely to be beneficial.


The rotator cuff is a collection of four muscles in the shoulder that control arm movement and rotation. Rotator cuff injuries are extremely prevalent because the shoulder joint is very flexible and people utilize it regularly for both sport and employment.

Anyone who is experiencing severe or persistent shoulder pain should see a doctor for a diagnosis. Resting, avoiding intense activities, and practicing moderate stretches are common treatments.



Continue Reading

Biology / Biochemistry

Can you treat cataracts with eye drops instead of surgery?



Cataracts, the most common cause of human blindness, may one day be treated with eye drops rather than surgery.

A study headed by the University of California-San Diego (UCSD) published in the journal Nature illustrates how an eye drop solution containing a natural steroid reduced cataracts in dogs.

Our eyes’ lenses are largely made up of crystallin proteins, which serve two purposes: they allow us to alter focus and they maintain the lens clean. Nobody understands how they accomplish this.

Cataracts arise when the delicate structure of the crystallin proteins is disturbed, causing them to clump together and cloud the lens.


The lens is also high in lanosterol, a substance that is a key component of several important hormones in the body. An enzyme called lanosterol synthase produces lanosterol.

The researchers were interested in lanosterol after discovering that children with an inherited type of cataracts shared the same lanosterol synthase-blocking gene mutation.

They reasoned that in normal eyes, whose lenses are loaded with lanosterol, the clumping of cataract-forming proteins is prevented.

Lanosterol decreased clumping in cataract-forming proteins

Starting with lab cells and advancing to animals, the researchers conducted three sets of studies.

First, the researchers discovered that lanosterol reduced the clumping of cataract-forming proteins in human lens cells. They next demonstrated that treating rabbits with lanosterol decreased cataracts and enhanced lens clarity.

Cataracts: Some Quick Facts

  • Risk factors include too much sun, diabetes, tobacco and alcohol.
  • Most cataracts develop later in life
  • Cataracts account for 51% of world blindness

Learn more about cataracts

Finally, they found that the lanosterol solution – in both injection and eye drop form – had the same impact in decreasing protein clumping in live dogs with cataracts as it did in human lens cells and rabbit lenses: cataracts were decreased and lens transparency improved.

The researchers come at the following conclusion:

“Our study identifies lanosterol as a key molecule in the prevention of lens protein aggregation and points to a novel strategy for cataract prevention and treatment.”

It might be a game changer if lanosterol in the form of eye drops proves to be an effective therapy for cataracts in people.

Cataract surgery is now the only technique to treat them. However, this is not a choice offered to everyone. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there exist restrictions in many countries that prohibit people from receiving treatment, hence cataract remains the major cause of blindness.

Continue Reading

Biology / Biochemistry

How can individuals tell if they’re having a seizure?



Seizures are caused by an abnormal surge of electrical activity in the brain. Seizures can be random, but some people have triggers that might cause them. Being aware of possible triggers can assist to reduce the likelihood of experiencing them.

Seizures are sudden, brief changes in movement, behavior, sensation, or states of consciousness caused by aberrant electrical discharges in the brain. Seizure symptoms range depending on which parts of the brain are affected and how severe they are.

Seizures are classified by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) depending on the kind of onset or where they begin in the brain.

Seizures can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain damage, or underlying illnesses. Seizure triggers do not cause seizures, but they can cause them in people who are prone to them.

Stress, fatigue, and the lack of medications are all typical factors. Knowing what might cause seizures and how to avoid them will help you avoid them.

In this post, we will look at some of the most frequent seizure triggers, the distinction between causes and triggers, and how to detect probable triggers.

Common triggers

Epileptic Patient

Some people with epilepsy, especially those who have experienced recurring seizures, may observe that they happen in predictable patterns or in certain people. These variables, often known as seizure triggers, may increase the likelihood of seizures. Some people with epilepsy, on the other hand, may not have any triggers. Seizures can be triggered by a variety of triggers, including:

Missed medications

Anti-epileptic medications must be taken on a regular basis to maintain a constant amount of medication in the body. A person’s risk of seizures increases if they miss a dosage, and seizures become more severe or occur more frequently as a result.

If you don’t take them as directed, you might develop status epilepticus, a long-term seizure that doctors consider a medical emergency.

Sleep deprivation and tiredness

According to a 2020 research, seizures and sleep have a bidirectional link, with seizures causing sleep deprivation and sleep deprivation triggering seizures. During typical sleep-wake cycles, changes in the brain’s electrical and hormonal activity occur, which may contribute to seizures and affect their intensity and length.


Seizures are frequently triggered by stress. However, the actual nature of their relationship remains unknown. Everyone reacts to stress differently, and stress can take many forms. A person may get stressed as a result of big life events or a pile of everyday annoyances.

Stress may have a physical impact on the body, resulting in a loss of sleep, a shift in dietary habits, and the use of alcohol or other substances, all of which can lead to seizures.


Small quantities of alcohol are unlikely to cause seizures. Even for people who do not have epilepsy, consuming an excessive amount of alcohol in a short period of time might trigger a seizure.

When the effects of alcohol on the body start to wear off, alcohol-related seizures become more likely. They can happen anywhere between 6 and 72 hours after drinking. Alcohol can also impair sleep and interfere with medicines, raising the chance of a seizure.

Flashing lights

Flashing lights or contrasting patterns might trigger a seizure in people with photosensitive epilepsy. Photosensitive seizures affect only around 3% of epilepsy people. This variety appears to be more frequent in females and younger people, according to evidence.

Nutrition and deficiencies

If a diabetic suffers from severe hypoglycemia, which can develop as a result of missing meals, their extremely low blood sugar levels might trigger a seizure.

Vitamin and mineral deficits can also cause seizures in certain people. Vitamin B6 deficiency can trigger seizures in newborns, however it is less prevalent in adults. Mineral imbalances, such as calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium, can cause seizures by altering brain cell electrical activity.

Infection and illness

Seizures might be triggered by illness in certain people. This might be caused by the illness’s physical impact on the body, a lack of sleep, bad dietary habits, certain drugs, or dehydration.

Seizures are frequently caused by a viral infection of the central nervous system. Seizures can be triggered by common ailments like sinus infections or a cold in rare cases.


Catamenial epilepsy is a kind of epilepsy in which seizures become worse or more common during specific people of the menstrual cycle. This is extremely uncommon, and research shows that it is caused by variations in progesterone and estrogen levels.


According to a 2017 research, low pressure and excessive humidity might trigger seizures. Although there isn’t conclusive evidence that weather has an influence on seizure risk.

Seizures are more common in the winter, according to a 2018 research. However, according to a survey conducted by the Epilepsy Society, extreme heat can provoke breakthrough episodes in well-controlled seizures and make uncontrolled seizures more severe and intense. This suggests that extremes in temperature might produce physiological changes that lead to seizures.

Certain medications

Seizures may be triggered by several over-the-counter drugs. Antidepressants, stimulants, tramadol, and isoniazid are among the drugs that have been linked to seizures in certain people, according to a 2016 research.

Triggers vs. causes

The cause of epilepsy is unknown in two out of every three people . It can, however, be caused by genetic problems or brain ailments including stroke, traumatic brain damage, infections, or other neurological diseases.

Although a seizure can be triggered by a trigger, seizure triggers are not the same as seizure causes. A stressful circumstance, for example, might provoke a seizure, but the underlying cause of the seizure could be brain structural damage.

Because seizures are unpredictable, it may be difficult to figure out why they happen, and some people mistakenly believe that triggers like exhaustion are to blame. However, it’s more likely that the person was already predisposed, and the trigger just triggered a seizure in someone who was already vulnerable.

Reflex seizures

Seizures are typically unpredictable and can happen at any time. While some people may identify triggers, many people’s triggers are more general, such as stress or exhaustion. Other people, on the other hand, may have reflex seizures, which are seizures that occur on a regular basis as a result of particular and recognizable stimuli or cognitive processes.

Potential stimuli, such as seeing flashing lights or touching hot water, or interior stimuli, such as feeling particular emotions or going through specific mental processes, can all cause reflex seizures. This is quite uncommon.

How to Recognize Triggers

Identification of a person’s particular seizure triggers can be challenging and time-consuming. A seizure diary can be kept to record actions or events that lead up to a seizure. Over time, a pattern may emerge, exposing likely seizure triggers.

A person should try to manage their condition and prevent or decrease exposure to potential triggers while seeking to identify likely triggers. People can attempt the following suggestions:

  • taking medication as their doctor prescribes
  • getting enough and regular sleep
  • lowering stress


Stimuli that can induce a seizure in some people are known as seizure triggers. Individual triggers vary, but common ones include illness, tiredness, alcohol, and a lack of medication.

Triggers are not the same as causes. Seizures are frequently caused by underlying conditions, whereas triggers simply cause seizures in people who are already predisposed to them.

People may find it difficult to identify their own specific triggers, but maintaining a journal of possible triggers and avoiding certain stimuli may help prevent seizures.



Continue Reading

Copyright © 2022