A feeling of tightness or stiffness in the knee can develop as a result of overuse, injury, or wear and tear age – related.
This article discusses some common causes of knee tightness and the related symptoms. It also offers several treatment options to relieve tightness in the knee.
Here are some common causes of knee tightness.
Within the knee joint, the menisci are two crescent shaped cartilage pads. They help to stabilize the knee joint and allow knee to move smoothly and flexibly.
Menisci injuries or tears may occur during sport, or as a result of general wear and tear.
When your meniscus tears a person can hear or feel a “pop.” Other common Meniscal Tear symptoms include:
- pain, swelling, or tenderness around the knee
- a feeling that the knee locks, gets stuck, or does not fully straighten
- pain when fully bending the knee, such as when squatting
The treatment a doctor provides will depend on a variety of factors, including: According to the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.
- the location and severity of the tear
- the person’s age
- their activity levels
- their symptoms
In some cases, this injury may require surgery.
Ligament or tendon injury
The ligaments and tendons are fibrous connective tissue structures. Ligaments connect bones to other bones, while tendons connect bones to muscles.
Injuries of knee ligaments or tendons most commonly occur during athletics or other athletic exercise.
Ligament or tendon injuries can cause the following symptoms:
- knee pain, knee swelling, or both
- pain when fully straightening or bending the knee
- a feeling that the knee is unstable or about to give way
Therapies for ligament or tendon injuries rely on the extent of the damage. A doctor can prescribe:
- wearing a knee brace to help stabilize and protect the knee joint
- trying muscle-strengthening exercises
- doing gentle stretches
Any ligament and tendon conditions need orthopedic surgical surgery to restore support to the knee joint.
Two major forms of arthritis may cause knee tightness: osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
That happens when the cartilage breaks down and helps strengthen a joint, ultimately allowing bone to rub against bone.
Osteoarthritis usually results in symptoms such as:
- joint inflammation and swelling
- joint pain
- joint stiffness, particularly after sitting or lying down for a period of time
Although there is currently no cure for knee osteoarthritis, the following may help ease the symptoms:
- losing weight (when appropriate) to reduce load bearing on the knee joint
- physiotherapy, which can help strengthen the muscles around the knee joint
- taking medication to help treat joint inflammation and pain, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
If these procedures do not relieve a person’s symptoms, an orthopedic surgeon may prescribe partial or complete replacement of the joint (which is surgery to replace a damaged joint with an artificial joint) or osteotomy (which is surgery involving rearranging the bone either above or below the knee to move the joint’s weight bearing away from the damaged region).
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune condition in which the immune system targets healthy cells inside the body in the wrong direction. This disease mostly affects the joints but it can also affect other tissues of the body.
Rheumatoid arthritis can cause persistent pain and discomfort within joints, according to the CDC. Both knees often get affected by the condition.
Rheumatoid arthritis actually does not get healed. However, medicines called disease-modifying antirheumatic medications can help delay the condition ‘s development.
Furthermore, the following self-help strategies can help alleviate pain and enhance joint function:
- increasing physical activity levels
- losing weight (when appropriate)
- quitting smoking
Knee arthrofibrosis, or stiff leg syndrome, happens when too much scar tissue builds up around the joint in the leg. The disorder can grow after surgery to the knee.
Arthrofibrosis signs include knee joint pain , swelling and hot. People with this disorder can also have a bent knee or a limp walk.
Early on, the manageability of minor symptoms of arthrofibrosis with physiotherapy. However, more advanced cases with greater rigidity also need surgery to remove the scar tissue and increase motion range.
When to seek help
If a person has serious or chronic knee tightness, a doctor may see him. Any other signs which may suggest that medical attention is needed include:
- pain or swelling around the knee joint
- locking or painful clicking of the knee joint
- a feeling that the knee is about to give way
- an inability to bear weight on the affected leg
The doctor will inquire about the symptoms of the victim, and then do a physical knee test. They may also order one of the tests below:
- Imaging tests: An X-ray or MRI scan may help reveal structural irregularities or injuries of the knee.
- Joint aspiration: This is a procedure that involves using a needle and syringe to remove fluid from inside the knee joint. A laboratory technician will then analyze the sample to determine the cause of the knee problem.
- Knee arthroscopy: This is a type of keyhole surgery that involves inserting a tiny camera into the knee joint to examine the cartilage and other tissues inside the knee.
Exercises for tight knees
Strengthening the muscles in the upper legs will help strengthen and secure the knee joint.
Below are a few basic home exercises which can help strengthen the muscles and alleviate knee tightness.
Straight-leg raise (sitting)
To perform the straight-leg raise in a sitting position:
- Sit on a chair and straighten one leg out in front, so that it raises upward.
- Hold the position for 10 seconds.
- Slowly lower the leg back down.
- Repeat these steps 10 times on each leg.
People can also perform this exercise while lying on the floor.
The following exercise may help prevent the loss of full knee extension:
- Lie flat on the floor with one leg straight out in front and the other bent at the knee.
- Place a rolled-up towel beneath the ankle of the straightened leg.
- Push the back of the straightened knee firmly toward the floor.
- Hold for 5 seconds.
- Repeat these steps at least five times on each leg.
This exercise requires the use of stairs or a step platform:
- Step onto the stair or step platform with the right foot, then bring the left foot up to meet it.
- Step down with the right foot, then step down with the left foot.
- Repeat the exercise, but start with the left foot this time.
- Repeat these steps as many times as feels comfortable.
Any home remedies may be helping to relieve tightness and rigidity. The parts below would include a more detailed description of certain home remedies.
PRICE stands for protection, rest, ice, compression, and elevation.
- Protection: This means taking a break from physical activities that could cause further knee strain or injury.
- Rest: This can reduce the risk of further injury and allow damaged tissues to heal.
- Ice: This can help reduce swelling and inflammation. A person should wrap the ice in a cloth before applying it to the skin.
- Compression: This may help limit swelling and inflammation.
- Elevation: Keeping the knee raised above the level of the heart may reduce swelling.
An individual should prefer low-impact physical exercises as much as possible which are more tender on the joints.
Some examples include:
- using an elliptical trainer
- using a rowing machine
- tai chi
Knee tightness can be caused by damage to the tendons , ligaments, or cartilage within the knee. In some cases, it may be a symptom of an underlying health condition.
Anyone feeling tightness of one or both knees should see a specialist for diagnosis and proper care.
Simple strengthening exercises can help muscle build up around the knee joints. This will assist in strengthening the knee and defending against future damage.
Secondary osteoarthritis: What is it?
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of arthritis in which joint cartilage breaks down. There is no known cause of primary OA. Secondary OA, on the other hand, develops as a result of a pre-existing medical condition, joint injury, or abnormality.
Although primary and secondary OA are the same condition, they are caused by different causes.
OA can affect any joint in the body, causing pain, stiffness, and a restricted range of motion.
The symptoms and causes of secondary OA are discussed in this article. We also talk about treatment choices and the outlook for people who have the condition.
What is osteoarthritis (OA)?
OA is the most common type of arthritis, according to the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), and it typically affects elderly people.
OA is a joint condition in which the cartilage in the joints breaks down. It can occur in every joint of the body, however it most commonly affects the:
- lower back
According to the NIAMS, OA symptoms can range from mild to severe and may include:
- limited range of motion in the affected joint
- a loose or unstable-feeling joint
- swelling around the joint, which may worsen after activities that require using that joint
- joint pain, which may get worse at night
- stiff joints, which may occur after periods of rest or after sleeping
Primary vs. secondary OA
People with OA might have either primary or secondary OA. The symptoms of these illnesses are the same, but the causes are not.
There is no known cause of primary OA. Secondary OA, on the other hand, comes as a result of an existing medical condition, abnormalities, infection, or injury.
Secondary OA can be caused by a variety of causes, including:
- hemoglobinopathies, which are conditions affecting red blood cells
- Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
- Marfan syndrome
- inflammatory arthritis
- an existing joint abnormality
- injury or trauma to the joint
- metabolic disorders
- a joint condition present from birth
- infectious arthritis
- osteochondritis dissecans, where bone underneath joint cartilage dies due to a lack of blood supply
- Paget’s disease
- avascular necrosis, where bone tissue dies from a lack of blood supply
Secondary OA treatment seeks to alleviate pain, reduce stiffness, and improve range of motion and joint function. It may also assist to keep the condition from worsening.
Among the treatment options are:
According to research, combining aerobic and resistance activities can help reduce pain and enhance physical function.
Exercise can also assist to build muscle, enhance endurance, and increase flexibility. An OA workout regimen may include:
- Stretching exercises can help you enhance your range of motion.
- Strengthening muscles using weights or exercise bands, which then aids to support joints.
- Exercising to increase balance and agility, which can assist people maintain daily activities
- Exercise in water to alleviate joint tension, or engage in low-impact exercises such as walking, tai chi, or cycling.
People must avoid any activities that aggravate their symptoms or put additional strain on their joints.
Getting rid of excess weight
Losing additional weight can help alleviate joint tension.
In people with knee OA, decreasing one pound (lb) of body weight can ease four pounds of pressure on the knees.
Losing excess weight may also be beneficial:
- slow down progression of OA and cartilage breakdown
- decrease inflammation
- relieve pain and improve physical function
Braces, splints, and walking canes can assist stabilize joints and remove excess pressure.
Furthermore, if joints are misaligned, remedial equipment such as orthotics or knee braces may be beneficial.
Certain drugs may aid with pain relief and inflammation reduction. These could include:
- Anti-inflammatory and pain relievers taken orally
- To reduce pain, administer topical ointments to affected joints.
- Corticosteroids are pain relievers that a doctor may inject into the joint.
- Hyaluronic acid injections into the knee to promote joint lubrication are used to treat knee OA.
- Long-term pain relief with oral selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.
If other therapies are ineffective, a person is suffering from serious joint degeneration, or OA is interfering with a person’s daily life, surgery may be required.
An osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which a physician removes a portion of bone near the injured joint in order to redistribute weight away from that joint.
A partial or whole joint replacement is another surgical option for OA, depending on the level of joint deterioration. This entails removing a portion or all of the joint and replacing it with a synthetic joint composed of plastic, ceramic, or metal.
Secondary OA risk factors include:
- having an abnormal joint structure or unusually aligned bones
- having muscle weakness
- being female
- having a family member with OA
- being over the age of 50 years
- having had a bone fracture, ligament or cartilage tear, or other joint injury
- overly using the same joints, which may happen as a result of certain occupations or sports
- having obesity, as excess body weight can put extra stress on joints and increase inflammation
The prognosis for OA varies from person to person and is determined by which joints are affected, the severity of symptoms, and level of physical function.
OA may be minor in some people, and they may be able to effectively manage their symptoms with treatment.
In other circumstances, people with OA may suffer from significant disability. For some people with severe OA, joint replacement surgery may be the best long-term option.
OA is a joint condition in which joint cartilage degrades, resulting in pain, stiffness, and reduced range of motion in the joints.
Secondary OA is caused by an existing condition, injury, or infection, whereas primary OA has no clear cause.
Treatment may help relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and prevent the condition from progressing.
Exercising, losing excess weight, using support equipment, and taking drugs are all possible treatment strategies. In some circumstances, surgery may be required to relieve joint stress or to replace a damaged joint.
What causes the pain in the back of my knee?
Pain in the back of the knee can be caused by a variety of factors. Some are less dangerous and more prevalent, while others require emergency medical intervention.
The knee is a complicated joint that receives a lot of stress from even routine movements. By avoiding collision and tension on the joint, people may typically decrease or prevent knee injuries.
The treatment for back-of-the-knee discomfort varies widely depending on the reason.
When it comes to diagnosing pain in the back of the knee, it’s important to work closely with a doctor since certain causes require long-term therapy to heal entirely.
The following are some of the probable causes of back-of-the-knee pain.
When muscles become overly tight, cramps occur. It’s possible that the muscle is tight because it’s performing too much effort without being stretched. If it still cramps after stretching, the muscle may be overworked.
Different parts of the knee might be affected by overuse syndrome. A person suffering from this condition may also have a cramp in the thigh or calf around the knee.
The sensation is similar to a sharp, severe muscular spasm. The pain might last a few seconds or minutes, and it can be mild to severe.
Leg cramps can also be caused by the following factors:
- excess toxins in the blood
- nerve problems
- infections, such as tetanus
- liver disease
Leg cramps are a common side effect of pregnancy for pregnant people.
Leg cramps can be relieved for some people by stretching their calves on a regular basis. They might also try decreasing their stride to relieve pressure on the knee and surrounding muscles.
A Baker’s cyst is a fluid-filled pocket at the back of the knee that causes pain and swelling.
Small cysts do not usually cause pain, therefore Baker’s cysts may go unnoticed at first. However, when the cyst expands, it may cause pain by shifting surrounding muscles or putting pressure on tendons and nerves.
Baker’s cysts can grow as large as a table tennis ball. Baker’s cysts produce pressure in the back of the knee, which might result in tingling if the cyst is encroaching on a nerve.
Baker’s cysts are usually not a reason for worry, although they can be treated to alleviate the symptoms.
Osteoarthritis is a condition in which the cartilage in the joints deteriorates over time. This condition can easily result in back-of-the-knee pain.
Other symptoms of osteoarthritis in the knee include decreased range of motion and difficulties bending the knee. The joint may become tight and painful due to inflammation. This soreness may also be felt in other areas surrounding the knee.
The wear and tear on the cartilage in the knee joint is known as runner’s knee. The bones of the knee rub together when the cartilage is gone. This usually causes in a dull, agonizing pain below the knee.
Other signs and symptoms of runner’s knee are:
- a crackling or grinding feeling when the knee bends
- Hamstring injury
- weakness in the knee and leg
- restricted movement in the leg and knee
- the knee giving out or buckling randomly
A hamstring injury occurs when one or more of the muscles at the rear of the thigh are torn or strained. These muscles include the following:
- the semimembranosus
- the semitendinosus
- the biceps femoris
When the muscle pulls too far, it causes a hamstring strain. It may entirely rupture as a result of being tugged too hard, and it might take months to properly recover.
Athletes that run fast and in spurts, such as those who play basketball, tennis, or football, may be more prone to hamstring problems.
On either side of the knee, the meniscus is a piece of cartilage. This cartilage can be torn by twisting actions while squatting or bending the leg. When a maniscus tears, many people hear a pop.
The pain from a torn meniscus may not be noticeable at first, but it usually intensifies over the next few days.
Other symptoms associated with meniscus tears include:
- swelling around the knee
- the knee giving out or locking up when used
- loss of knee motion
- weakness and fatigue in the knee and leg
If a meniscus tear is serious and does not heal on its own, surgery may be required.
Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a band of tissue that runs through the front of the knee joint, connecting the bones and assisting in the stabilization of the joint.
ACL strains are frequently caused by abrupt pauses or changes in direction. A strain in the ACL can generate a popping sound, followed by pain and swelling, similar to meniscus tears.
A torn ACL is a common and dangerous injury that can keep an athlete out for a long time. ACL tears frequently necessitate reconstruction surgery.
Injuries to the posterior cruciate ligament
The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) serves a comparable function to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), however it is less prone to be damaged.
PCL injuries can occur as a result of stressful occurrences like falling straight onto the knee from a great height or being involved in a car accident. The ligament may fully rip if enough power is applied.
Symptoms of PCL injury include:
- difficulty walking
- swelling in the knee
- knee pain
- stiffness in the knee if bending
Resting the knee completely may aid in the healing of a PCL strain. A serious PCL injury, on the other hand, may necessitate surgery.
Deep vein thrombosis
A blood clot is a thrombosis, and a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a clot forms deep within the leg veins.
When people with DVT get up, they often experience additional pain. Some people, though, may experience leg and knee pain all of the time.
Other signs and symptoms of DVT include:
- fatigue in the affected leg
- prominently visible surface veins
- skin that is red or warm to the touch
- swelling in the area
Excess weight, becoming older, and smoking are all risk factors for DVT. People who live sedentary lifestyles are more prone to get DVT.
DVT need medicine and attention, as the clot might grow more dangerous if it breaks free and enters the bloodstream.
It’s usually a good idea to make sure the muscles around the knee are stretched appropriately, especially the quadriceps, calves, and hamstrings. This may not protect against some of the more severe causes of knee pain, but it may improve the muscles’ ability to react to activities.
When an injury occurs, doctors frequently suggest the RICE therapy to help reduce pain and swelling. RICE is an acronym for:
- Resting (the leg)
- Icing (the knee)
- Compressing (the area with an elastic bandage)
- Elevating (the injured leg)
The RICE therapy can help relieve pain and swelling in many circumstances. Dr. Gabe Mirkin, who invented the phrase in 1978, has subsequently claimed that ice treatments might cause injury healing to be delayed. People should speak with a doctor or physical therapist to determine which treatment option is best for them.
NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines) are another option for reducing pain and swelling as the knee heals. Some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen.
A doctor may prescribe steroid injections to alleviate symptoms in some circumstances.
Doctors may use an MRI scan or a CT scan to gain a thorough view of the region with more significant injuries. Depending on the severity of the condition, they may recommend physical therapy or surgery.
Back of the knee pain can sometimes be a sign of a more serious problem. Anyone who has severe symptoms or symptoms that continue more than a few days should seek medical attention.
Following a doctor’s treatment plan can help ensure that the injury heals properly and without problems.
Elbow osteoarthritis: What is it?
Elbow osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis that affects the elbow joint, causing pain, stiffness, and limited motion.
The elbow is a complex joint that allows for a wide range of arm movements, making it an important part of daily living. As a result, elbow osteoarthritis can have a negative impact on a person’s quality of life.
Osteoarthritis is a widespread condition that affects around 1 in every 4 persons in the United States. Although it can affect any joint, it usually does not affect the elbow.
Although there is no cure for osteoarthritis of the elbow, drugs, exercise, and surgery can help a person live a pain-free life with optimal joint function.
Continue reading to discover more about the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoarthritis of the elbow.
Osteoarthritis can damage any joint in the body, but the elbow is usually unaffected because of its solid ligament arrangement, which allows it to withstand large forces. Progressive wear affects the tissues in the joints, particularly the spongy, protecting cartilage that shields the ends of the bones, resulting in the condition. The bones rub against one other, causing pain, swelling, and deformity.
Osteoarthritis is more prone to occur as people get older. It mainly affects people over the age of 50. Certain circumstances, however, can raise an individual’s risk, including:
- family history
- injury or surgery to a joint
- joints that are not well-formed
Furthermore, males are more likely than females to develop elbow osteoarthritis without having previously sustained an injury.
People with elbow osteoarthritis may suffer a variety of symptoms, but the most common are discomfort and limited range of motion, which may or may not occur at the same time.
As the healthy, smooth joint surface wears away, people may experience a grating feeling in their elbow. As loose fragments of bone and cartilage become dislodged and prevent mobility between the moveable joint surfaces, they may feel as though the joint is locking.
As the disease advances, the elbow joint may enlarge, but this is usually not the first sign. People may eventually develop numbness in their ring and little fingers as the elbow swells and compresses the ulnar nerve on the inside of the elbow. Furthermore, if a person’s elbow cannot move through its full range of motion, it may stiffen in a bent posture, exerting pressure on the ulnar nerve.
Doctors diagnose elbow osteoarthritis based on a patient’s symptoms, physical exam, and imaging.
During the physical examination, the doctor searches for evidence of injury and evaluates the elbow’s range of motion and stability. They may then ask for routine X-rays to check for arthritic changes. The majority of people do not require CT or MRI imaging.
The doctor can diagnose osteoarthritis by looking at specific X-ray findings. These are some of them:
- Joint space narrowing: The joint space between the ends of the bones narrows as osteoarthritis tears away the articulate cartilage. As the disease advances, the joint space shrinks until there is no space left and the bones rub against each other.
- Bone spurs: Osteophytes are the medical term for protrusions of bone and cartilage. As cartilage seeks to heal itself as joints degenerate, X-rays can identify bone spurs.
- Subchondral sclerosis: Subchondral bone is the layer beneath the cartilage, and sclerosis indicates that the tissue is hardening. On X-rays, areas of increased bone density near the articular surfaces of the bone indicate subchondral sclerosis.
- Subchondral cyst formation: The hyaluronic acid that lubricates the joints is mostly contained in these fluid-filled sacs that develop at the joints.
- Subluxation: Osteoarthritis can cause partial displacement of a bone as joints become unstable.
Blood tests may be ordered by a doctor to rule out rheumatoid arthritis or other problems.
Surgery and treatment
Osteoarthritis has no known cure. As a result, treatment focuses on reducing the severity of symptoms and the impact of elbow osteoarthritis on a person’s life. If drugs, exercises, and other therapy are ineffective, doctors may propose joint fusion or replacement.
Pain and inflammation can be relieved with over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications. These medications include:
- Analgesics: These pain relievers range from OTC acetaminophen to potent prescription-only opioids.
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): Many people use these medications to relieve pain and inflammation. They include aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen.
- Counterirritants: These OTC products contain ingredients that irritate the nerves, such as capsaicin, menthol, or lidocaine. The purpose is to generate cold or warm feelings to distract from the pain of arthritis.
- Corticosteroids: A doctor can prescribe these anti-inflammatory medications as oral tablets, or they can deliver them via injections at their clinic.
- Platelet-rich plasma (PRP): These injections ease pain and inflammation, but the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not yet approved them. Therefore, a person must discuss the possibility of this therapy with a doctor.
- Other medications: The FDA has approved the antidepressant duloxetine (Cymbalta) and the anti-seizure drug pregabalin (Lyrica) to treat osteoarthritis-related pain.
Physical activity is frequently recommended by doctors as part of an osteoarthritis therapy strategy. An exercise regimen for elbow osteoarthritis should increase joint mobility and reduce stiffness while also strengthening the muscles surrounding the elbows.
The activities below may assist people with elbow osteoarthritis reduce pain and maintain joint mobility:
- Elbow bend: Slowly bend one arm at the elbow until the hand meets the shoulder, then hold for up to 30 seconds with arms by your sides. To create further resistance, hold a weight.
- Wrist flex: Straighten one arm in front of you, palm facing down, and then bend the wrist down. Using the opposite hand, gently press the hand against the body. After 30 seconds of stretching, straighten your wrist. Next, gradually bend the hand up and backward toward the body for 30 seconds while holding it in place with the other hand. For each hand, repeat three times.
- Wrist turn: Hold the hand out with the palm facing up, bending the elbow to form a straight angle. Then, with the palm facing down, turn the wrist. Hold the hand in this position for 5 seconds before releasing it. Increase the number of repetitions to 30 by taking a short pause after each set of ten. This exercise can also be performed with a light weight.
- Palm lift: To push down on the knuckles, place the palm on a level surface and the other hand sideways across them. Lift the fingers of your lower hand and feel the forearm muscles tense up. After then, switch hands and do the exercise again.
If lifestyle changes and medications fail to control an individual’s osteoarthritis-related pain, doctors may propose surgery. Surgery can aid in the improvement of function as well as the reduction of pain.
Elbow surgery can be done in a variety of ways, including:
- Synovectomy: Doctors call the membrane that lines the joint capsule the synovium. During this procedure, a surgeon removes this thin layer of inflamed tissue.
- Arthroscopy: If an individual has bone spurs or loose pieces of bone, a surgeon can remove them during an arthroscopy.
- Arthroplasty: This technique uses a piece of the person’s Achilles tendon to cover the ends of the worn joint surfaces.
- Joint replacement: A surgeon replaces the damaged parts of the elbow with a prosthesis.
The outlook for someone with elbow osteoarthritis is determined on their unique symptoms and the level of joint function loss.
Some people are unaffected by the condition, while others have a significant handicap that makes it difficult for them to function on a daily basis.
Joint replacement surgery may be the best long-term solution for some people.
The typical wear-and-tear process of aging can cause osteoarthritis in the elbow. Pain, restricted movement, and swelling of the joint are all possible symptoms of this condition.
Although there is no cure for osteoarthritis of the elbow, doctors may recommend frequent physical activity as well as drugs such as anti-inflammatories and corticosteroids to help the body cope.
A doctor may offer surgery to help manage pain and maintain joint mobility if other therapy approaches fail.