An aneurysm is an artery enlargement caused by artery wall weakness. There are often no signs but a ruptured aneurysm can result in fatal complications.
An aneurysm refers to a weakening of an artery wall which causes an artery bulge, or distention.
The majority of aneurysms do not display symptoms and are not severe. However, some may burst at their most serious level, leading to life-threatening internal bleeding.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that aortic aneurysms lead to more than 25,000 deaths per year in the United States.
Each year about 30,000 brain aneurysms burst in the U.S. An approximate 40% of those cases would cause death within 24 hours.
Fast facts on aneurysms
- Aneurysms affect a variety of arteries. The most significant aneurysms affect the arteries supplying the brain and the heart. An aortic aneurysm affects the body’s main artery.
- The rupture of an aneurysm causes internal bleeding.
- The risk of an aneurysm developing and rupturing varies between individuals. Smoking and high blood pressure are major risk factors for the development of an aneurysm.
- Some types of aneurysm may need surgical treatment to prevent rupture. Doctors will only operate on others if they are life-threatening.
Aneurysms are categorized according to their position in the body. Brain and heart arteries are the two most prominent locations of a severe aneurysm.
The bulge is capable of taking two primary Shapes:
- Fusiform aneurysms bulge all sides of a blood vessel
- Saccular aneurysms bulge only on one side
The risk of rupture depends on the size of the bulge.
The aorta is the large artery that begins at the heart’s left ventricle and runs through the chest and abdominal cavities. The aorta’s usual diameter is between 2 and 3 centimeters (cm) but with an aneurysm will raise to beyond 5 cm.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the most severe aneurysm of the aorta. This happens inside the portion of the abdomen running through the aorta. Without surgery, a AAA of over 6 cm has an average survival rate of 20 percent.
AAA can quickly become fatal, but those who survive a hospital transfer have a 50 percent chance of overall survival.
Less commonly, the part of the aorta running through the chest may be affected by thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA). TAA has an untreated survival rate of 56 percent and 85 per cent following surgery. It is a unusual disorder, because the chest contains just 25 percent of aortic aneurysms.
Aneurysms of the arteries that supply the brain with blood are known as intracranial aneurysms. Due to their appearance, they are also known as “berry” aneurysms.
A ruptured aneurysm of the brain can be fatal within 24 hours. Forty percent of brain aneurysms are fatal, and around 66 percent of those who survive will experience a resulting neurological impairment or disability.
Ruptured cerebral aneurysms are the most common cause of a type of stroke known as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
An aneurysm can also occur in a peripheral artery. Types of peripheral aneurysm include:
- Popliteal aneurysm: This happens behind the knee. It is the most common peripheral aneurysm.
- Splenic artery aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs near the spleen.
- Mesenteric artery aneurysm: This affects the artery that transports blood to the intestines.
- Femoral artery aneurysm: The femoral artery is in the groin.
- Carotid artery aneurysm: This occurs in the neck.
- Visceral aneurysm: This is a bulge of the arteries that supply blood to the bowel or kidneys.
Rupture of peripheral aneurysms is less likely than aortic aneurysms.
Not all cases of aneurysm that has been unsettled require immediate care. However, emergency surgery is needed when an aneurysm ruptures.
Aortic aneurysm treatment options
When no signs are visible, the doctor can control an untreated aortic aneurysm. Conservative management may include medications and preventive steps, or they may follow successful surgical care.
A ruptured aneurysm requires immediate surgery. Patients have poor chances of survival without immediate repair.
The decision to operate on an unbroken aneurysm in the aorta relies on a variety of factors relating to the particular patient and the aneurysm characteristics.
- the age, general health, coexisting conditions and personal choice of the patient
- the size of the aneurysm relative to its location in the thorax or abdomen, and the aneurysm’s rate of growth
- the presence of chronic abdominal pain or risk of thromboembolism, as these may also necessitate surgery
A large or rapidly growing aortic aneurysm is more likely to need surgery. There are two options for surgery:
- open surgery to fit a synthetic or stent graft
- endovascular stent-graft surgery.
During endovascular surgery, the surgeon accesses a small incision below the hip to the blood vessels. Stent-graft surgery uses a catheter to implant an endovascular graft into the incision. The graft is then placed to seal off the aneurysm into the aorta.
For an open repair of the AAA, a large incision is made to reveal the aorta in the abdomen. A graft for fixing the aneurysm can then be applied.
Endovascular surgery for aortic aneurysm repair bears the risks that follow:
- bleeding around the graft
- bleeding before or after the procedure
- blockage of the stent
- nerve damage, resulting in weakness, pain or numbness in the leg
- kidney failure
- reduced blood supply to the legs, kidneys or other organs
- erectile dysfunction
- unsuccessful surgery that then needs further open surgery
- slippage of the stent
Most of those complications may lead to further surgery, such as bleeding around the graft.
Cerebral aneurysm treatment options
In the case of a brain aneurysm, usually the surgeon should not operate if there is a significant risk of rupture. The future risk of surgical complications arising from brain injury is too high.
As for AAA, the probability of a rupture depends on the aneurysm size and position.
Instead of surgery, patients seek instructions on how to monitor and treat, for example, blood pressure control, the risk factors for a ruptured brain aneurysm.
If a ruptured cranial aneurysm causes hemorrhage of the subarachnoid, surgery is possible. It is a medical emergency.
This treatment will try to close the ruptured artery in the hope that it would avoid another bleed.
Much of the aneurysms clinically stay silent. Symptoms typically do not occur with a ruptured aneurysm.
The unbroken aneurysm, however, will still block drainage to other tissues. These can also form blood clots that can cause blockage of smaller blood vessels. This is a disorder which is called thromboembolism. It can cause ischemic stroke or other serious complications.
Symptoms often correlate with rapidly rising abdominal aneurysms. Many individuals with abdominal aneurysms experience abdominal pain, lower back pain, or a pulsating abdominal sensation.
Additionally, thoracic aneurysms can damage surrounding nerves and other blood vessels, possibly causing trouble swallowing and breathing, and pain in the mouth, throat, and upper back.
Symptoms can also be more relevant to the cause of aneurysm than to the aneurysm itself. Of example, a person may experience fever, malaise or weight loss in the case of an aneurysm caused by vasculitis, or inflammation of the blood vessel.
Complications after rupture may be the first symptoms of a previously undetected aneurysm. Symptoms appear to result from a rupture rather than simply from aneurysm.
Many people who have an aneurysm experience no symptoms at all. However, complications may include, besides thromboembolism and aorta rupture:
- Severe chest or back pain: Severe chest or back pain may arise following the rupture of an aortic aneurysm in the chest.
- Angina: Certain types of aneurysm can lead to angina, another type of chest pain. Angina can lead to myocardial ischemia and heart attack.
- A sudden extreme headache: If a brain aneurysm leads to SAH, the main symptom is a sudden, severe headache.
Any rupture of an aneurysm may cause pain, low blood pressure, a rapid heart rate, and lightheadedness. Most people with an aneurysm will not experience any complications.
An aneurysm can occur in any part of the body. A compromised arterial wall will more quickly distend the blood pressure.
Further work is needed to validate why the aneurysm causes an artery wall to collapse. Many aneurysms are present as an arterial defect from birth but they are less common.
One known cause of aortic aneurysm is aortic dissection. There are three layers to the arterial wall. Blood will spill through a hole in the artery’s damaged wall, breaking those layers. The cavity around the heart will then be filled up.
When the tear happens on the arterial wall’s innermost layer, the blood flow enter and weakens the wall, raising the likelihood of rupture.
Individuals with aortic dissection often experience pain in the chest that is sudden and appalling. This pain will move along the aorta as dissection continues. It can radiate backwards, for example.
Dissection causes compression. Compression impedes the return of blood to the heart.
There are some options in lifestyle and physical features which may increase an aneurysm’s risk.
Smoking is by far the most common risk factor especially in AAA cases. It has been shown that tobacco use not only increases cardiovascular disease and the risk of an aneurysm but also increases the risk of rupture once an aneurysm is successful.
Sometimes the aneurysms remain undetected. The screening aims at finding individuals who need to be monitored or treated.
The US Task Force on Preventive Services (USPSTF) suggests ultrasound screening for AAA symptoms for all men aged 65 to 75 years who have smoked 100 or more cigarettes in their lives.
For adults, whether they have smoked or not, the task force does not recommend regular screening because adults have a lower risk of AAA.
If there are signs, an MRI scan can detect an aneurysm that has not yet ruptured. CT scans are typically preferred for ruptured aneurysms, particularly when there is a chance that the brain may bleed.
In cases of a serious or ruptured brain or heart aneurysm requiring emergency surgery, an angiogram can determine the exact area that requires repair. Under local anesthetic, a catheter is placed into a blood vessel in the thigh and the catheter is then threaded through to the appropriate part of the body.
The doctor adds a dye, which helps to locate the heart or brain region that needs treatment.
A person can live with, and not know, an unbroken aneurysm. This can be life-threatening though if it bursts.
It can lead to:
- hemorrhagic stroke
- long- or short-term brain damage
Vasospasm is the leading cause of disability or death after burst aneurysm.
Factors impacting the chance of full recovery include the nature and severity of the aneurysm, the person’s general health prior to rupture and how rapidly they undergo treatment.
Approximately 40 percent of ruptured aneurysm cases will be fatal within the first 24 hours. Complications can be fatal within 6 months in up to 25 per cent of cases.
This is not always possible to avoid an aneurysm, as some are congenital, meaning they are present from birth.
Some lifestyle decisions, however, can affect the risk:
Smoking is a risk factor for both aortic aneurysms and an aneurysm rupture anywhere in the body. Quitting smoking will lower the risk of severe aneurysm.
Managing blood pressure can reduce the risk of an aneurysm too. You can maintain good blood pressure through dietary changes, daily exercise, and medication.
Obesity: may place extra pressure on the heart so it is necessary to take these measures to reduce stress on the walls of the artery.
Someone who has an aneurysm diagnosed and recommended a conservative care plan should consult with a health professional to correct any risk factors.
Symptoms, causes, and treatment of transient ischemic attack (TIA)
A transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a ministroke, happens when the brain’s blood supply is interrupted for a short period of time.
Although the diminished blood flow normally only lasts 5 minutes, a TIA is still a medical emergency. It could be a precursor to a massive stroke.
Because the symptoms of a TIA resolve fast, many people do not seek medical care. However, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than one-third of people who don’t get treatment for a TIA will have a severe stroke within a year.
According to statistics, 20% of persons who have a TIA will have a stroke within three months, and half of these will happen within two days of the TIA.
Knowing the signs and symptoms of a TIA and seeking care as soon as possible can help you avoid a more serious and perhaps life-threatening incident.
In this article, you’ll learn more about what a TIA entails and what to do if one arises.
What is a TIA?
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) has symptoms that are similar to those of a stroke, but it causes only a few minutes. The decreased blood flow normally only lasts a few seconds, but the symptoms can last for several minutes. They can last for a few hours on rare occasions.
TIAs occur when a blood clot stops blood flow to the brain cells for a brief period of time, preventing oxygen from reaching the cells. The symptoms usually go away when the clot breaks up or moves on. These events do not stay long enough to cause brain cells permanently.
People should not dismiss a TIA since it could be an indication of a big stroke, according to the American Stroke Association.
According to statistics, TIAs afflict about 2% of the population in the United States.
When the supply of oxygen to the brain is interrupted, a TIA ensues. This could be as a result of:
- atherosclerosis, in which fatty deposits cause the arteries to become harder, thicker, narrower, and less flexible
- blood clots due to heart disease, cardiovascular disease, or an irregular heart rhythm
- blood clots due to a blood condition, such as sickle cell disease
- an embolism or blood clot that has traveled from elsewhere in the body
- an air bubble in the bloodstream
The symptoms of a TIA are determined by which area of the brain isn’t getting enough blood.
The acronym FAST (facial, arms, speech, time) might help people recall the symptoms to look for, just as it can with a severe stroke:
- F = face: The eye or mouth may droop on one side, and the person may be unable to smile properly.
- A = arms: Arm weakness or numbness might make it hard to raise one or both arms or keep them raised.
- S = speech: The person’s speech may be slurred and garbled.
- T = time: Someone should call the emergency services at once if a person has one or more of these symptoms.
The person may also have:
- numbness or weakness, especially on one side of the body
- sudden confusion
- difficulty understanding what others are talking about
- vision problems
- problems with coordination
- difficulty walking
- a very bad headache
- a loss of consciousness, in some cases
TIA symptoms are only present for a short time. They can last anywhere from a few minutes to several hours, and they normally go away after 24 hours.
However, if anyone experiences symptoms that could signal a TIA, they should seek medical care right away because a massive stroke could result.
The same variables that cause temporary blood flow insufficiency in a TIA can cause a stroke, which can result in irreversible brain damage owing to a longer-lasting blood flow deficit.
Conditions with symptoms that are similar
A TIA’s symptoms can be similar to those of other diseases, such as:
- multiple sclerosis
- a hemorrhagic stroke or ischemic stroke
- fainting due to low blood pressure
Even if the symptoms of the TIA have subsided, getting an accurate diagnosis can assist a person get the proper treatment to help minimise the risk of a future stroke.
- having a family history of stroke or TIA
- being 55 years or above
- being assigned male at birth
- being Black or Hispanic, compared with being non-Hispanic white
- having high blood pressure
- having cardiovascular disease
- smoking tobacco
- having diabetes
- getting low levels of exercise
- having high cholesterol levels
- eating a diet that is high in unhealthy fats and salt
- having high homocysteine levels
- having overweight or obesity
- having a type of heartbeat known as atrial fibrillation
Treatment options will be determined by the cause of the TIA. The parts that follow will go over some of the possibilities.
A doctor may recommend medicine to reduce the risk of a second blood clot and catastrophic stroke.
The treatment options will vary depending on the cause of the TIA, however they usually include:
- anti-platelet drugs to prevent clotting, such as include aspirin, ticlopidine (Ticlid), and clopidogrel (Plavix)
- anticoagulants such as warfarin (Coumadin) and heparin, which also help prevent clotting
- medications to manage high blood pressure, or hypertension
- drugs to help manage cholesterol levels
- medications to manage heart disease and regulate irregular heart rhythms
All of these medications can cause side effects and may interact with other medications.
As a result, people should tell their doctor about any other prescriptions they’re taking, including over-the-counter drugs, supplements, and herbal therapies.
If a person has negative side effects while taking a medication, they should consult a doctor. It’s possible that another option exists.
A doctor may propose surgery to remove a blockage or a portion of a damaged artery in some instances.
Preventive actions and lifestyle changes
A risk of lifestyle changes can help minimise your chances of having a TIA or stroke. These are some of them:
- avoiding or quitting smoking
- avoiding exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke
- eating a nutritious and varied diet, with plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables
- managing one’s intake of salt and unhealthy fats
- getting regular exercise
- avoiding the use of recreational drugs
- managing body weight, if appropriate
- following any treatment plan for heart disease, diabetes, or other conditions
Before making any major lifestyle changes, such as beginning a new workout plan, it is best to consult with a healthcare practitioner to determine the best course of action.
Anyone who has signs or symptoms of a TIA should seek medical help right away to figure out why it happened and how to avoid a recurrence or a more serious occurrence.
Symptoms can fade fast, and by the time the person sees a doctor, they may be gone. A witness who was present at the time, on the other hand, may be able to assist the individual in explaining the situation to the doctor.
The doctor will likely:
- ask what happened and ask about any ongoing symptoms
- ask how long the symptoms lasted for and how they affected the person
- consider the individual’s personal and family medical history
- carry out a neurological examination, which may include memory and coordination tests
If the doctor suspects the patient suffered a TIA, he or she may be referred to a neurologist for further evaluation.
The following are some examples of possible tests:
- blood tests to check blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and clotting ability
- an electrocardiogram to measure the electrical activity and rhythms of the heart
- an echocardiogram to check the pumping action of the heart
- a chest X-ray to help rule out other conditions
- a CT scan to reveal any signs of an aneurysm, bleeding, or changes to blood vessels in the brain
- an MRI scan to help identify damage to the brain
The doctor may also request that the patient wear a Holter monitor for a few days or weeks in order to track their heart rhythms over time.
The symptoms of a TIA can last anywhere from a few minutes to several hours. However, it is critical to seek medical help because a TIA can be a symptom of a massive stroke.
A TIA is marked by weakness and numbness on one side of the body, facial drooping on one side, and difficulty speaking. If you or someone you know is experiencing these symptoms, call 911 right away.
Following a TIA, lifestyle changes and the use of medicine to lower the risk of future blood clots are two choices for treatment.
What is an echocardiogram?
An echocardiogram is an ultrasound image of the heart. It can help doctors diagnose a range of heart problems.
Doctors use echocardiograms to help them diagnose heart problems, such as damaged cardiac tissue, chamber enlargement, stiffening of the heart muscle, blood clots in the heart, fluid around the heart, and damaged or poorly functioning heart valves.
In this article, we explain how doctors use echocardiograms, what to expect during the test, and how to interpret the results.
What is it?
Ultrasound waves are used in echocardiography to create a picture of the heart, which is referred to as an echocardiogram (echo).
It is a minimally invasive medical technique that emits no radiation and has few negative effects.
A doctor can see the following things during an echocardiogram:
- any blood clots in the heart
- areas of damaged or weak cardiac muscle tissue
- the size and thickness of the chambers
- how the valves of the heart are functioning
- problems affecting the pericardium, which is the fluid-filled sac around the heart
- causes of a stroke
- the direction of blood flow through the heart
What is the procedure?
Echocardiograms are simple, noninvasive procedures that require little preparation.
We’ll go over what to expect before, during, and after an echocardiography in the sections below.
The person does not need to prepare if the echocardiogram is taken from the outside of the body by a healthcare expert.
A doctor will advise people who are getting a transesophageal echocardiography to avoid eating or drinking anything for at least 6 hours before the procedure. Following the local anesthetic wears off, people can resume eating and drinking 1–2 hours after the echocardiography.
During the test
The transthoracic (external) echocardiography will be performed by a sonographer. Sonographers are medical practitioners who specialize in producing images and movies for diagnostic purposes utilizing ultrasound instruments.
The person getting the echocardiography will take off their clothes from the waist up throughout the procedure. If they want to be covered during the exam, they can wear a hospital gown.
The sonographer will then urge the patient to lie on their back or left side on a table. They may inject a saline solution or dye into the veins of the patient to make the heart seem more distinct on an echocardiogram.
The type of echocardiography determines the procedure. Consider the following example:
The sonographer will apply a gel to the chest if a doctor has ordered a transthoracic echocardiogram. After that, the sonographer will move the transducer across the chest to obtain various images of the heart.
The sonographer may ask someone to change positions or take or hold a deep breath throughout the examination. To gain a better view of the heart, they could press the transducer into the chest.
If a clinician wants more detailed or sharper images of the heart than a transthoracic echocardiogram can provide, they may perform a transesophageal echocardiogram.
The person may be given a small sedative to help relax the muscles in their throat and a topical anesthetic to block the gag reflex during a transesophageal echocardiogram.
A doctor will guide a small transducer on the end of a long tube down the throat and esophagus until it reaches the back of the heart once the sedative and local anesthetic have taken effect.
As the doctor moves the transducer around the esophagus, the sonographer will record images of the heart. After swallowing the probe, the user should not feel the transducer or tube in their esophagus.
After the test
After a transthoracic echocardiography, most people can resume their normal activities.
After a transesophageal echocardiography, people may be required to stay at the hospital or healthcare center for a few hours. They may have a sore throat at first, but it should go away within a day or two.
If you were given a sedative prior to the exam, you should not drive for many hours afterward.
What does it diagnose?
Echocardiograms allow doctors to see the size, structure, and activity of different parts of the heart.
This allows them to identify heart abnormalities, assess the need for additional tests, decide their next actions, and monitor changes and improvements.
Doctors may use this approach to examine for signs or symptoms that could indicate the following:
- Heart attack: The test can look for anomalies in the heart muscle tissue’s blood supply, as well as wall irregularities and blood flow, all of which can signal a heart attack.
- Blood clots (thrombus) or tumors: In a study published in 2021, echo was proven to be a viable alternative to cardiac magnetic resonance in detecting thrombosis. According to a 2020 study, it is also an important noninvasive method for detecting heart masses such as malignancies.
- Atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD): While an echo cannot detect artery blockages, narrowing and obstructed arteries can impair the heart’s ability to pump blood and disrupt the heart’s wall motion. This is more noticeable during times of stress, making a stress echo a useful diagnostic tool.
- Aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection: An echo can detect a wide, weaker aorta, as well as unruptured aneurysms and their size, as well as fibrosis and thrombus formation in the vessel.
- Cardiomyopathy: The test can determine the size and function of the heart and link it to factors such as wall thickness, weak heart muscle, leaky heart valves, heart failure, and high blood pressure.
- Pulmonary hypertension: The test can measure heart pressure, which can indicate the presence of pulmonary hypertension and aid doctors in determining the following steps in the diagnosis.
- Congenital heart disease: In newborns and early children, the test can detect congenital cardiac problems such as septal defects and holes.
- Heart valve disease: The test checks for leakage, constriction, infection, and blockage in heart valves, as well as irregular cardiac blood flow.
- Problems with the pericardium: The test can determine whether the pericardium (the sac that surrounds the heart) is inflamed (pericarditis) or has become filled with fluid or blood (pericardial effusion).
- Heart failure: It can detect cardiac muscle that is weak, stiff, or thickened, which can be a symptom of heart failure.
Doctors frequently utilize the test to determine the cause of an abnormal electrical heart test, known as an electrocardiogram (EKG).
The method is also used to track how effectively the heart responds to various heart treatments, such as heart failure, drugs, prosthetic valves, and pacemakers.
If a doctor suspects a patient has cardiac abnormalities, an echocardiography will be ordered. The following are signs and symptoms that could suggest a cardiac condition:
- an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
- shortness of breath
- high or low blood pressure
- leg swelling
- abnormal EKG results
- unusual sounds between heartbeats, known as heart murmurs
Types of echocardiogram
Different types of echocardiograms are available, all of which use high-frequency sound waves. The following are some of the most frequent types.
The most common form of echocardiography is the transthoracic echocardiogram.
An ultrasound wand called a transducer is placed on the outside of the chest, near the heart, for this test. Sound waves are sent through the chest and into the heart via the device.
Sound waves move more easily when a gel is applied to the chest. These waves bounce off the heart and appear on a screen as images of the heart’s architecture.
A thinner transducer attached to the end of a lengthy tube is used in a transesophageal echocardiogram. The tube will be swallowed and inserted into the esophagus, which connects the mouth to the stomach and runs behind the heart.
Because it gives a “close up” view of the heart, this type of echocardiography produces more detailed images of the heart than the typical transthoracic echocardiogram.
Doppler ultrasounds are used by doctors to check blood flow. They accomplish this by producing sound waves at specified frequencies and observing how the waves bounce off and return to the transducer.
Color doppler ultrasounds can be used by doctors to map the direction and velocity of blood flow in the heart. The blood flowing toward the transducer shows red, while the blood flowing away appears blue. It can also tell you how bad the blockages are.
A doppler ultrasound can detect issues with valves or holes in the heart’s walls, as well as let doctors examine how blood flows through it.
A detailed 3D image of the heart is created through a 3D echocardiography. 3D echocardiograms can be used by doctors to:
- plan heart valve or structural interventional surgery
- image complex structures within the heart
- assess valve functionality in people who have heart failure
- assess the function of the heart in 3D
- diagnose heart problems in infants and children
A doctor can order an echocardiogram as part of a stress test. A stress test involves physical exercise, such as walking, jogging on a treadmill, or riding a bike.
During the test, the doctor will keep track of your heart rate, blood pressure, and electrical activity in your heart.
Before and after the activity, a sonographer will do a transthoracic echocardiogram.
Stress tests are used by doctors to diagnose:
- heart failure
- problems affecting the heart valves
- ischemic heart disease
- coronary heart disease
Point-of-care (POC) echocardiogram
A POC echocardiogram is a type of echocardiogram that can be performed at a patient’s bedside by a clinician. These can assist a doctor in answering specific inquiries about possible differential diagnoses.
Limited and focused POC echo are the two types of POC echo.
A limited echocardiogram aids a clinician in determining the cause and repercussions of a heart injury. A focused echo is used by a doctor to assist narrow down the list of other possible diagnoses or to answer a specific query.
With each heartbeat, a POC echocardiogram can determine how well the left or right ventricles pump blood.
A fetal echocardiogram allows doctors to see the heart of an unborn baby. This check is normally done between 18 and 22 weeks of pregnancy. Because echocardiograms do not involve radiation, they are safe for both the mother and the infant.
Interpreting the results
The echocardiographic images will be sent to the doctor who requested the test by the sonographer after the exam. The doctor will examine the photos for indicators of cardiac disease, such as:
- abnormal chamber size
- poorly functioning valves
- chamber size
- masses in the heart, such as blood clots or tumors
- damaged heart muscle tissue
- pumping function of the heart
- thick or thin ventricle walls
What can it miss?
Echocardiograms are very useful in detecting structural heart abnormalities. They may, however, not be the ideal way to check the coronary arteries.
Blockages can cause the structure of the heart. Changes in cardiac function, weak muscles, or thinner heart walls are frequently detected by doctors, prompting them to order additional tests such as a coronary angiogram.
Echocardiograms cannot detect conduction disorders or electrical difficulties that impact the heart’s rhythm, but they can measure the effects of these abnormalities on the heart.
Echocardiogram vs. electrocardiogram
An echocardiogram should not be confused with an electrocardiogram, or EKG, which is another diagnostic procedure. The electrical impulses or waves that flow through cardiac muscle tissue are measured by an EKG.
The electrical activity in the heart causes the heart muscle tissues to contract and relax, resulting in the rhythmic heartbeat that a stethoscope can detect.
Electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, or legs by a qualified technician, nurse, or doctor. These electrodes capture electrical activity and transfer it to a computer, which translates it into a graph that a doctor may see.
Are there any side effects?
An echocardiogram has a very minimal risk of problems or side effects. When the sonographer guides the tube down the throat during a transesophageal electrocardiogram, the person’s gag reflex may be triggered. After the exam, some people may experience a sore throat.
A significant consequence, such as injury to the throat, vocal cords, or esophagus, can occur very rarely as a result of the transesophageal echocardiogram.
Some people may have an adverse reaction to local anesthetics, sedatives, contrast dyes, or saline used during the exam. Only use contrast dyes if absolutely essential when pregnant.
The following are some of the potential negative effects of contrast dyes:
During a stress test, some people may experience changes in blood pressure or a reduction in oxygen delivery to the heart. In the event that a person has any issues during the assessment, a stress test will be performed in a fully equipped medical facility.
When a person is given sedatives, the stomach contents have a risk of entering the lungs. To avoid this, the patient will be asked to come to the surgery on an empty stomach.
Doctors utilize echocardiography to diagnose heart-related issues. A doctor will assess how well a person’s heart pumps blood during the test.
Doctors can also use echocardiography to check for indicators of cardiac disease such weak heart muscle, blood clots inside the heart, or malfunctioning heart valves.
An echocardiogram may be ordered by a clinician if a patient exhibits symptoms of heart disease, such as:
- heart murmurs
- irregular heartbeat
- shortness of breath
- abnormal blood pressure
- leg swelling
The test has a low risk of serious problems or side effects in general. However, some people may have discomfort, and other people may be allergic to the contrast material or anesthesia.
What to know about cerebrovascular disease
Cerebrovascular disease is a term that encompasses a variety of ailments, diseases, and disorders that affect the brain’s blood arteries and blood flow.
If the brain cells are deprived of oxygen due to a blockage, malformation, or hemorrhage, brain injury can occur.
Cerebrovascular disease can be caused by a number of causes, including atherosclerosis, in which the arteries narrow; thrombosis, or embolic arterial blood clot, in which a blood clot forms in a brain artery; and cerebral venous thrombosis, in which a blood clot forms in a brain vein.
Cerebrovascular disease is the sixth leading cause of mortality in the United States. In 2017, it resulted in 44.9 deaths per 100,000 people, totaling 146,383 deaths.
People can, however, take actions to lower their risk of acquiring cerebrovascular disease. We’ll go through the symptoms, kinds, and treatments for these major health issues, as well as how to avoid them, in this post.
Cerebrovascular disease can be caused by a number of factors.
If a blood artery in the brain is damaged, it will be unable to provide enough or any blood to the brain region it serves. The absence of blood obstructs the supply of necessary oxygen to brain cells, which causes them to die.
Damage to the brain is irreversible. Emergency assistance is critical in reducing the likelihood of long-term brain damage and increasing a person’s chances of life.
Cerebrovascular disease is mostly caused by atherosclerosis. This happens when high cholesterol levels combine with inflammation in the brain’s arteries, causing cholesterol to form a thick, waxy plaque that narrows or blocks blood flow.
This plaque can restrict or totally block blood flow to the brain, resulting in a cerebrovascular event such as a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
Cerebrovascular disease includes stroke, transient ischemic attack, and subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Aneurysms and hemorrhages can be dangerous to one’s health. A blockage can occur when blood clots develop in the brain or migrate there from other parts of the body.
Cerebrovascular disease comes in a variety of forms, including:
Ischemic stroke: A blood clot or atherosclerotic plaque stops a blood artery that provides blood to the brain, resulting in a stroke. A clot, or thrombus, can develop in an already narrowed artery.
A stroke happens when the brain cells die due to a lack of blood flow.
Embolism: The most frequent form of ischemic stroke is an embolic stroke. When a clot from elsewhere in the body breaks off and goes to the brain, it blocks a smaller artery.
Arrhythmias, or irregular heart people, increase the risk of embolism.
Ischemic stroke can be caused by a rupture in the lining of the carotid artery in the neck. The rip allows blood to travel between the carotid artery’s layers, narrowing it and limiting blood flow to the brain.
Hemorrhagic stroke: When a blood artery in a portion of the brain becomes weak and breaks open, blood leaks into the brain.
The leaking blood puts pressure on the brain tissue, causing edema and brain tissue damage. Nearby parts of the brain may also lose their supply of oxygen-rich blood as a result of the hemorrhage.
Cerebral aneurysm or subarachnoid hemorrhage: These can be caused by structural issues with the brain’s blood arteries. An aneurysm is a weakened area of the artery wall that can burst and cause bleeding.
When a blood artery ruptures and bleeds between two membranes covering the brain, it is known as a subarachnoid hemorrhage.
The leakage of blood has the potential to harm brain cells.
Learn more about a thrombus, which can lead to an embolism, in this article.
The symptoms of cerebrovascular disease vary depending on where the blockage is located and how it affects brain tissue.
Different events may have different consequences, however the following are frequent symptoms:
- losing vision on one side
- loss of balance
- becoming unconscious
- paralysis of one side of the body, or hemiplegia
- weakness on one side, also known as hemiparesis
- a severe and sudden headache
- difficulty communicating, including slurred speech
Response to an emergency
The American Stroke Association promotes public awareness of the F.A.S.T. acronym as a tool for detecting and responding to stroke warning signs:
- Face drooping
- Arm weakness
- Speech difficulty
- Time to call 911
If somebody displays symptoms of a cerebrovascular stroke, they should get medical help right away since it can have long-term consequences including cognitive damage and paralysis.
The most frequent form of cerebrovascular incident is a stroke.
Stroke risk rises with age, especially if a person or a close family has already experienced a cerebrovascular event. Between the ages of 55 and 85, this risk doubles every ten years.
A stroke, on the other hand, can strike at any age, including infancy.
Stroke and other kinds of cerebrovascular disease are caused by a number of factors, including:
- poor diet, and lack of exercise
- blood cholesterol levels of 240 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) or higher
- hypertension, which the American College of Cardiology define as blood pressure of 130/80 mm Hg or higher
A person’s chances of developing a cerebral aneurysm are increased by the same circumstances. People who have a congenital abnormality or have had head trauma, on the other hand, may be at a higher risk of developing a cerebral aneurysm.
Cerebral venous thrombosis, a blood clot affecting a vein in the brain, can also be increased by pregnancy.
Other cerebrovascular disease risk factors include:
- a vein of Galen malformation, an arterial disorder that develops in a fetus during pregnancy
- venous angiomas, which affect around 2% of the U.S. population and rarely bleed or cause symptoms
- Moyamoya disease, a progressive condition that can lead to a blockage of the cerebral arteries and their major branches
Certain medications and medical conditions can cause blood to clot more easily, increasing the risk of ischemic stroke.
In people who currently have atherosclerosis or carotid artery disease, hormone replacement treatment (HRT) may raise the risk of a heart attack.
A cerebrovascular episode need immediate medical attention. Because a person must get stroke drugs within a specified time frame from the beginning of symptoms, rapid assessment and treatment are critical.
In the event of an acute stroke, the emergency team may deliver tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a drug that dissolves the blood clot.
A brain hemorrhage requires the attention of a neurosurgeon. They may do surgery to relieve the increased pressure caused by a bleed.
A carotid endarterectomy is a procedure that includes cutting a hole in the carotid artery and removing plaque. This re-establishes blood flow. The artery is then repaired with stitches or a graft by the surgeon.
Carotid angioplasty and stenting, which includes a surgeon putting a balloon-tipped catheter into the artery, may be necessary for some people. The balloon will subsequently be inflated to reopen the artery.
The surgeon next inserts a thin metal mesh tube, known as a stent, into the carotid artery to increase blood flow in the previously occluded artery. After the treatment, the stent keeps the artery from collapsing or shutting up.
People may endure temporary or permanent incapacity as a result of a cerebrovascular accident, which can cause lasting brain damage.
As a result, they may need a variety of supportive and rehabilitative therapies in order to maintain as much function as feasible.
These might include the following:
- Occupational therapy: This can assist a person in gaining access to resources that will enable them return to employment and daily life.
- Psychological therapy: Physical disabilities might result in unforeseen emotional demands that need extensive retraining. If a person feels overwhelmed following a cerebrovascular incident, they may benefit from seeing a psychiatrist, psychologist, or counselor.
- Physical therapy: This seeks to improve limb function, mobility, and flexibility.
- Speech therapy: After a stroke or a cerebrovascular episode, this may help people speak more effectively and restore speech.
Reducing the risk of stroke
Blood platelet inhibitors like Dipyridamole, Ticlopidine, and Clopidogrel can help prevent strokes before they happen. These can help prevent stroke in people who have had a stroke before or who have a high risk of developing one
Doctors used to suggest that people take aspirin every day to lower their risk of heart attack or stroke. Current guidelines, on the other hand, recommend that people take aspirin only if they are at high risk of a cardiovascular event and have a low risk of bleeding.
This is due to the fact that aspirin raises the risk of bleeding.
Statins are drugs that are prescribed by doctors to lower and control high cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of ischemic stroke and heart attack.
Any cerebrovascular incident is a medical emergency, and anybody who notices the symptoms should call 911 for assistance. The importance of early detection in preventing brain injury cannot be overstated.
A doctor will inquire about the patient’s medical history and look for particular neurological, motor, and sensory problems, such as:
- abnormal eye movements
- muscle weakness
- changes in vision or visual fields
- decreased sensation
- reduced or altered reflexes
A vascular abnormality, such as a blood clot or a blood artery defect, can be detected using a cerebral angiography, vertebral angiogram, or carotid angiogram. Injecting dye into the arteries reveals any clots and allows CT or MRI imaging to show their size and form.
Because it can distinguish between blood, bone, and brain tissue, a CAT scan can aid in the diagnosis and detection of hemorrhagic strokes. However, especially in the early phases of an ischemic stroke, it does not always detect damage.
Even early-stage strokes can be detected with an MRI scan.
A cardiac arrhythmia, which is a risk factor for embolic strokes, can be detected by an electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG).
The following are some methods for lowering the risk of cerebrovascular disease:
- getting at least 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity every week is recommended
- maintaining a healthy body weight by consuming a balanced diet that promotes vascular health, such as the DASH diet, as recommended by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
- stop smoking
- managing blood cholesterol and blood pressure with diet and medications if necessary
People who have heart arrhythmia should talk to their doctor about whether or not they should take a blood thinner to avoid strokes.
Although stroke and other cerebrovascular events can result in death, full or partial recovery is possible with prompt medical intervention. To lower the risk of a stroke, people with cerebrovascular disease should follow healthy lifestyle advice and their doctor’s instructions.
The outlook is determined by the sort of occurrence, its intensity, and the speed with which a person receives care.
Cerebrovascular disease can kill someone or leave you disabled for a long time. Some people, on the other hand, will fully recover.
The greatest approaches to enhance a person’s outlook with cerebrovascular disease are prompt treatment and a lifestyle that decreases the chance of stroke.