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What you need to know about Psoriasis

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Psoriasis is an autoimmune condition which causes the rapid development of cells on the skin. This overgrowth can result in dense, scaly plaques, which can itch or cause discomfort.

Various types of psoriasis differ, depending on the size of the scales and their position on the body. More than 8 million people in the USA have psoriasis.

Environmental causes also cause the psoriasis symptoms to flare up. Although a person can not cure such symptoms, recent developments in the treatment of psoriasis mean they can reduce the number of flares and their frequency.

In this article we describe the various types of psoriasis, their symptoms and how to treat them.

Symptoms

Psoriasis has the potential to cause extreme scratching and discomfort.

Psoriasis ‘ main symptoms are red, flaky, crusty spots, which may cover them with easy-shed, silvery scales. These could also trigger an extreme scratching or burning sensation.

Symptoms of psoriasis develop in flares that occur as these clear up for different lengths of time with periods of remission in between. The duration of remission last an average of 1–12 months at a time.

Though, the length of both flares and recovery cycles can be difficult to predict.

Symptoms range from mild to severe, and may occur differently depending on the psoriasis type.

According to the National Psoriasis Foundation:

  • mild psoriasis covers less than 3% of the body
  • moderate psoriasis covers 3–10% of the body
  • severe psoriasis covers in excess of 10% of the body

Plaques may grow anywhere but commonly occur on the elbows, knees, lower back and scalp as small patches.

Types

Many types of psoriasis exist, as listed below.

Plaque psoriasis

Plaque psoriasis occurs in about 80–90 percent of people with psoriasis. This usually shows red lesions as swollen, inflamed, lined with silvery, white scales, mostly on the elbows, knees, scalp, and lower back.

Inverse psoriasis

Inverse psoriasis develops in the following areas:

  • the armpits
  • the groin
  • under the breasts
  • other skin folds, such as around the genitals and buttocks

Inverse psoriasis has red lesions, usually without the psoriasis in plaque sizes. The lesions could be smooth and glittering.

Irritation caused by rubbing and sweating can worsen this form of psoriasis because of its position in skin folds and tender areas. It is more common in overweight people, and those with deep skin folds.

Erythrodermic psoriasis

Erythrodermic psoriasis is an particularly inflammatory but uncommon form which can cause large areas of fiery redness across the body’s surface.

People with unstable plaque psoriasis can develop erythrodermic psoriasis, where lesions don’t have clearly defined edges. Exfoliation, or skin peeling, serious itching, and discomfort may also be present.

The erythrodermic psoriasis interferes with the chemical balance of the body. This intervention can result in loss of protein and fluid, which can lead to severe illness.

There may also be edema, or swelling due to fluid retention. The complication should probably develop around the ankles. It may be difficult for the body to regulate its temperature which can induce shivering.

Erythrodermic psoriasis can also lead to congestive heart failure and pneumonia.

The symptoms of psoriasis erythroderma can be severe. Anyone showing signs of this condition will see a doctor immediately.

If symptoms are serious, people with erythrodermic psoriasis may spend time at hospital.

Guttate psoriasis

Guttate psoriasis frequently starts in infancy or adolescence. It appears on the skin as tiny, red, single spots. Typically the patches are not as dark or crusty as the plaque psoriasis lesions.

There are a number of conditions that may cause guttate psoriasis including:

  • upper respiratory infections
  • streptococcal infections
  • tonsillitis
  • stress
  • injury to the skin
  • certain medications, including antimalarials, lithium, and beta-blockers.

Guttate psoriasis can resolve and never return without treatment.

Pustular psoriasis

Pustular psoriasis affects adults more than children, and represents less than 5 percent of cases of psoriasis.

This occurs as white pustules, or non-infectious pus blisters, which cover red skin. Of example, it can impact certain areas of the body, the hands and feet, or most of the body. It is not an illness, but infectious.

Pustular psoriasis appears to have a period in which skin reddening is accompanied by the development of pustules and scaling.

Although psoriasis can develop anywhere on the human body, some of the most common areas are described below.

psoriasis sites

Complications

Psoriasis can give rise to other health problems. While some people believe it to be a skin disease, psoriasis can also affect bones, muscles, and the metabolic system.

Psoriatic arthritis

Up to 30 percent of psoriasis patients experience joint inflammation with arthritis symptoms, known as psoriatic arthritis.

This form of psoriasis causes the joints to become inflamed and increasingly weakened. It most often occurs when people are between the ages of 30 and 50 years.

Other complications

Those with psoriasis can experience social exclusion, problems with their appearance and low self-esteem. This can affect on their overall quality of life along with the physical discomfort, scratching, and pain of psoriasis.

Depression and anxiety may contribute to the social and physical demands of this chronic disease. People with psoriasis are at twice as high a risk of depression as those who don’t have the disease.

Psoriasis may also lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including cancers of the head and neck, and digestive tract tumours.

Causes

While it is still uncertain the cause of psoriasis, scientists believe it is an autoimmune disease.

Autoimmune diseases affect the immune system, which develops T cells against infectious agents to protect the body.

In people with psoriasis, triggers that contribute to their genes giving the immune system instructions to destroy the wrong cells. T cells respond to a stimulus like they fight an infection or heal a wound. They make chemicals which cause inflammation.

This autoimmune condition, in psoriasis, contributes to excessive skin cell growth. Skin cells typically take about 21–28 days to replace themselves. They take about 2–6 days, however, for people with psoriasis.

In each patient with psoriasis, triggers will be different but common triggers include:

  • stress and anxiety
  • injuries to the skin
  • infections
  • hormonal changes

Medications that can trigger a psoriasis flare include:

  • lithium
  • antimalarials
  • quinidine
  • indomethacin

Several people associate psoriasis with allergies, diet, and environment but these ideas have not yet been supported by any evidence.

Psoriasis is not infectious, substantially. Understanding this can help people with the disease deal with the more difficult socializing sections.

Risk factors

Some factors increase the risk of a person developing psoriasis.

These factors include:

  • having cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome
  • trauma to the skin
  • family history of the condition

Approximately 1 in 3 individuals with a close relative having psoriasis will also acquire the disease. When one parent has psoriasis, the risk of their child having the disease is 10 percent. If both parents have psoriasis, this risk increases to 50 percent.

This familial connection suggests a genetic dimension underlying it. The disease’s signs may not appear, however, unless an environmental factor causes it to become active. At least 10 percent of the population may have the psoriasis-causing gene, but only 2-3 percent of people do develop it.

Psoriasis can flare up among younger people following an infection, especially strep throat. Symptoms will become apparent in 33–50 per cent of young people with psoriasis 2–6 weeks after an earache or respiratory infection. Common infections with the respiratory system include strep throat, bronchitis and tonsillitis.

Psoriasis is common in both males and females alike. It can start at any turn but between 15–35 years it is most popular. The average start time is 28 years.

About 10–15% of people with psoriasis develop the disease before they age 10.

Diagnosis

Blood tests can not prove psoriasis.

A person who has a recurring rash that doesn’t cure psoriasis with over- the-counter (OTC) treatments may want to talk to a doctor. Recognizing and treating symptoms early on often improves long-term psoriasis outcomes.

A doctor will examine the symptoms and ask about family history and personal history. You may also have a skin biopsy done to rule out other diseases, such as eczema.

Treatement

If a doctor discovers a psoriasis, the form and severity of the disorder may depend on the diagnosis. Medications and phototherapy are main choices.

People with psoriasis should use emollients when taking other medications, to keep the skin moisturized. Such measure may help to reduce scratching and discomfort, and may reduce the number of lesions or plaques that occur.

Medications

In people with psoriasis there is a variety of topical, oral, and injected drugs.

Many OTC remedies that help to relieve the very mild psoriasis symptoms. Including:

  • Oal tar: This may help to soothe plaque psoriasis, scratching, and scalp, palm and sole lesions. People may use coal tar alone or in addition to another treatment.
  • Creams with hydrocortisone: These reduce inflammation and soothe itching.
  • Salicylic acid: This, often in people with scalp psoriasis, can help reduce swelling and dissolve scales.
  • Anti-itch agents: products containing calamine, hydrocortisone, camphor or menthol may be included.

Topical therapies

People directly apply the topical treatments to the skin. Usually, it is the first-line treatment for mild to moderate symptoms aimed at slowing the growth of skin cells, reducing inflammation and calming itching or discomfort.

All treatment are available on prescription or over the counter and include nonsteroids and steroids.

  • Corticosteroids: They have been used by people for decades to combat psoriasis. Many different steroids, such as gels, foams, creams, sprays, and ointments are available. Here the National Psoriasis Foundation provides a guide to recognizing the effects of corticosteroids.
  • Synthetic vitamin D: This is often used as a corticosteroid by humans. It can help flatten plaques, slow skin cell development and remove scales.
  • Retinoids: This is synthetic vitamin A, which can help slow skin cell growth, minimize redness and soothe itching. Tarazotene, a topical retinoid, is commonly combined with corticosteroid medication, or UVB light therapy.
  • Pimecrolimus cream and tacrolimus ointment: These are eczema remedies that may be prescribed by a doctor to help with symptoms of reverse and plaque psoriasis. Users also pair these with a steroid course.

Systemic therapies

Systemic treatments operate through the entire body system, and are prescribed by doctors for people with moderate to severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. They diminish the severity of sickness and the regularity of flares.

Biologics: These are medicines focused on proteins that are derived from living cells. Biologics target the psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis induced T cells and inflammatory proteins.

At least 10 biologics have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Those include etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab.

Biology is successful, and its benefits far outweigh its risks.

When pursuing biological care, however, people should consider costs, and it is wise to speak to an insurance provider about possible protection.

Methotrexate: Doctors prescribe this for psoriasis that is extremely severe and limits everyday activity and does not lead to any other medications. Methotrexate is involved in the treatment of psoriatic arthritis, erythrodermic, palmoplantar, and nail psoriasis.

Cyclosporine: This is usually prescribed by doctors to avoid organ rejection following transplants. But it can also help people with severe psoriasis presentations of the following types:

  • plaque
  • guttate
  • erythrodermic
  • generalized pustular
  • palmoplantar

Oral retinoids: People with severe psoriasis can take a drug called acitretin which works against the bodywide effects of the disease. It does not impair immune function, making acitretin healthier for HIV-positive people also with severe psoriasis.

People with psoriasis of all forms except the inverse psoriasis may benefit from oral retinoids.

Off-label medications

Doctors may prescribe certain off-label drugs if symptoms have not been resolved by the standard FDA-approved drugs, or if the individual has another condition that prevents the use of specific drugs.

Active off label psoriasis solutions include:

  • azathioprine
  • 6-thioguanine
  • fumaric acid esters
  • hydroxyurea
  • tacrolimus

Phototherapy

Phototherapy requires daily exposure of the skin under medical supervision to ultraviolet light. The light will slow the growth of cells, suppress immune activity and decrease irritation.

People can use a lightbox or handheld device to conduct phototherapy at home, if their initial treatment is successful.

Before exposure some people might need to take psoralen pills to make their skin more sensitive to light.

Phototherapy should not be used by anyone who has coexisting conditions that make them sensitive to light, such as lupus or previous cases of skin cancer.

Home remedies

Psoriasis flares can not be prevented, but some techniques can help to reduce the likelihood of incidence of a flare.

Tips include:

  • reducing stress with yoga, exercise, meditation, or all of these
  • eating a balanced diet and maintaining a healthy weight
  • recognizing and avoiding food triggers
  • joining a support group or blog to talk to others with similar experiences
  • not smoking or drinking alcohol to excess

Home remedies for reducing itching include:

  • Keeping the skin moisturized. A dermatologist can recommend a suitable product.
  • Taking a cold shower for up to 10 minutes or using a cold pack. Avoid hot showers, as they can dry the skin

While psoriasis can be isolating and painful, people have many ways to control symptoms and improve the disease’s immune response.

Q:

Is psoriasis similar to eczema? How do I know the difference?

A:

Eczema and psoriasis may seem similar in their early stages with each appearing to be swollen, inflamed areas of the skin that itch.

With time, it will become very clear what kind of disease you have, because psoriasis will manifest in specific areas, such as the elbows and knees, as well as forming silvery scales. Eczema tends to get inflamed due to an irritant and will not develop the silvery scales typical of plaques with psoriasis.

In either case, people should find a dermatologist for diagnosis and treatment as the emotional toll of scratching, sleeplessness and appearance can affect not only the daily life but may also make the condition worse.

Answers represent the opinions of our medical experts. All content is strictly informational and should not be considered medical advice.

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Bipolar

What to know about unipolar depression

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Major depressive disorder is also known as unipolar depression. The term “unipolar depression” refers to a type of depression that does not cycle through other mental states like mania. Bipolar disorders, on the other hand, cause in times of both depression and mania.

Unipolar depression, on the other hand, does not imply that a person is always depressed. People who suffer from major depressive disorder may go through periods of remission followed by periods of depression relapse. They may also feel better when their circumstances change, especially if they have atypical depression, a kind of major depressive disorder.

One of the most prevalent mental health diagnoses is unipolar depression. It can cause physical symptoms as well as substantial trouble managing everyday tasks and relationships, in addition to a melancholy or gloomy mood. In the United States, 7.8% of all people had at least one major depressive episode in 2019.

Continue reading to learn more about the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for unipolar depression.

What is unipolar depression? 

unipolar depression

Major depressive disorder is also known as unipolar depression. This mental condition has an impact on both mental and physical health.

The following are the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder:

At least five of the following symptoms must be present:

  • Concentration issues: A person may find it difficult to concentrate, pay attention, or think coherently. It’s possible that some people will have cognitive fog.
  • Thoughts of death or suicide: An individual may experience intrusive thoughts of death, self-harm, or suicide.
  • Depressed mood: On most days, a person feels sad or depressed for the most of the day. They can be feeling empty, hopeless, melancholy, or unsure about the future. These symptoms can appear in youngsters as behavioral difficulties or irritability.
  • Loss of pleasure: Activities that a person used to enjoy may now provide little or no pleasure.
    Weight or appetite changes:. Without attempting to gain or lose weight, a person may gain or lose 5% or more of their body weight, or suffer changes in appetite, such as eating too much or too little.
  • Sleeping issue: A person may sleep excessively or insufficiently.
  • Fatigue: When a person is physically and emotionally weary, it might affect their motivation and ability to complete everyday chores.

Only if a person’s depression symptoms are not caused by bipolar disorder or another medical condition will they be diagnosed. Their symptoms must be distressing and not be the result of medication or a physical ailment. They must also have never gone through a manic episode.

Secondary symptoms can cause as a result of depression’s symptoms, such as:

  • trouble studying or excelling at school
  • difficulties with self-care
  • trouble getting or keeping a job
  • relationship conflict

People who are depressed have a distorted vision of the world, which can affect how they think and feel about other people and themselves. Interpersonal difficulties, low self-esteem, rejection sensitivity, and other issues may arise as a result.

Causes

Major depressive illness is a multifaceted condition with genetic, psychological, social, and interpersonal causes. Depression is caused by the interaction of several factors. For example, a person may have a genetic predisposition to depression, which is subsequently activated by trauma or stress, resulting in symptoms.

Researchers aren’t sure what causes sadness, but they do know that changes in brain chemicals known as neurotransmitters play a part. Antidepressants work by affecting brain chemicals including serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, implying that these chemicals play a role in mood.

The following are some of the risk factors for developing unipolar depression:

  • some medical conditions, including thyroid disorders
  • family history of depression
  • trauma and adverse childhood experiences

How does it differ from other forms of depression?

The main distinction between unipolar depression and bipolar depression is that a person with unipolar depression simply has depression rather than the cycles of depression and mania that bipolar illness, or bipolar depression, is known for.

People who suffer from bipolar depression have bouts of depression comparable to those who suffer from major depressive illness, but they also have moments of mania, when their mood is extremely elevated. A person may be unusually happy during manic episodes. They could make rash or hazardous judgments, such as overspending money.

People who suffer from unipolar depression are not constantly depressed. Some people may look to be cheerful, act to be happy, or have periods when their depressive symptoms improve.

Atypical depression, a subtype of major depressive illness, is more likely to be persistent. It does, however, respond better to changes in circumstances, which means that when a person’s position improves, they may be happy and have less symptoms. This is not to be confused with the mood cycling seen in bipolar depression.

Depression does not always take the form of major depressive disorder. Other types of unipolar depression that don’t entail manic episodes include:

  • Postpartum depression: Following the birth of a child, this type of depression develops.
  • Seasonal affective disorder: This sort of seasonal depression is more common in the winter.
  • Persistent depressive disorder: The symptoms of this chronic form of depression are usually milder than those of major depressive disorder.
  • Psychotic depression: A person suffering from this sort of depression causes psychotic ideas. Delusions and hallucinations are examples of psychotic beliefs that are divorced from reality.

Symptoms

A low and depressed mood is a symptom of major depression. A person’s perception of the world may be largely negative, resulting in cognitive distortions that negatively impact their relationships, work, and school performance.

The following are some of the signs and symptoms of depression:

  • unexplained weight gain or weight loss
  • trouble sleeping or sleeping too much
  • low energy
  • feelings of worthlessness or guilt
  • feeling hopeless about the future
  • being unable to get pleasure from hobbies, relationships, or other previously enjoyed activities
  • trouble thinking clearly or making decisions
  • slowed movements or speech
  • feeling restless or pacing
  • brain fog
  • thoughts of self-harm or suicide
  • eating too much or too little

Secondary difficulties, such as unemployment or low school performance, might cause as a result of depression symptoms.

Treatment

Antidepressants come in a variety of forms, with the best option dependent on a number of criteria. These are some of them:

  • the subtype of major depression
  • the side effects the person feels they can tolerate
  • the person’s overall health

Before getting relief from their symptoms, a person may need to take many drugs or different dosages of the same prescription. Working with a skilled psychiatrist and discussing side effects and other treatment problems may speed up the relief process.

Psychotherapy techniques, particularly those developed to treat depression, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy, can assist a person in better coping, implementing positive lifestyle changes, and managing life with depression.

Therapies that directly stimulate the brain, such as electroconvulsive therapy, vagus nerve stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation, may also help, especially if other treatments are ineffective.

Some people find that changing their lifestyle, such as exercising more, eating a well-balanced diet, practicing meditation, or taking up a new activity, is beneficial.

Outlook

Depression is difficult to cure and often chronic, thus a person may go through periods of remission before relapsing.

A complete depression treatment plan that combines medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes may help a person manage better through relapses of depression.

According to a 2019 study, several characteristics boost the chances of depression remission. These are some of them:

  • less chronic depression
  • not experiencing complicated grief
  • not having a history of childhood adversity
  • a better quality of life
  • less severe depression
  • employment
  • less anxiety

Conclusion

Major depressive disorder is also known as unipolar depression.

It can have an impact on a person’s relationships, profession, education, and sense of self, among other things. Myths about depression might make it difficult for people to get help or seek it.

Although significant depression is difficult to treat, it is possible to achieve remission, especially when a person has access to thorough and experienced care.

People who are depressed should get mental health treatment as soon as possible. A person can often be referred to a qualified and supportive mental health practitioner by their primary care physician.

Sources:

  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559078/
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519712/table/ch3.t5/
  • https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0278584618300514
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK558998/
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/unipolar-depression
  • https://www.dovepress.com/atypical-depression-current-perspectives-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-NDT
  • https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/major-depression
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4991044/
  • https://www.dbsalliance.org/education/depression/types-of-depression/
  • https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/depression/what-is-depression
  • https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ajp.2018.18091079

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Depression

Depression support groups: All to know

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Depression support groups come in a variety of forms. There are several unstructured internet forums. A moderator can also be found in online and in-person groups to help steer the discussion.

Support groups give an emotionally safe space for people to vent their thoughts, share ideas, and learn useful knowledge. Many of them are available for free.

Some high-quality data shows that internet support groups are useful in reducing depressive symptoms, according to a 2017 research. People who have used them have said that they:

  • Reduce isolation.
  • improve daily functioning.
  • This increases the likelihood of seeking professional help.

Depression is frequent in the United States, affecting around 4.7 percent of people aged 18 and over.

This article examines the benefits of depression support groups, including online, in-person, and speciality groups. Other types of assistance are also discussed.

Depression support groups

Online groups

A few online support groups for depression are included below, along with some of its advantages.

Anxiety and Depression Association of America

An anonymous peer-to-peer support group for people suffering from depression and anxiety is offered by the Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA). Individuals and their families may share their stories and interact with others in a secure environment.

Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance

For people suffering from depression or bipolar illness, the Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance (DBSA) offers online peer-led sessions. After registering with DBSA, individuals can attend planned sessions to learn coping techniques and provide hope to one another. A updated list of meetings for each day is available on the website.

Mental Health America

MHA (Mental Health America) is an online forum where people may talk about a variety of mental health issues, including depression. It is available to persons who have the condition as well as their carers.

Depression Forums

Volunteer moderators who have either experienced depression or have a loved one who has it moderate the Depression Forums. The forums cover a wide range of topics, including medicines and relationships. There’s also a “water cooler” where members may talk about whatever they like and get to know one another.

Depression Understood

People with depression may use Depression Understood to communicate with others in a variety of ways. These include live chat rooms that are available 24 hours a day, as well as forums where people may post messages for others. In addition, Depression Understood gives people the tools they need to launch their own blogs.

Livewell Foundation

People with depression are welcome to attend peer-led Zoom meetings hosted by the Livewell Foundation. On the website, it displays the weekly meetings and subjects, and members may attend the ones that interest them.

The Livewell Foundation does have some attendance limitations, such as a “no observer” policy, which means that family members and caregivers are not permitted to attend.

In-person support groups

In-person support groups provide all of the advantages of online support groups, plus the added benefit of face-to-face connection. A person’s doctor is an excellent source of information about local in-person support groups.

Some of the most well-known mental health organizations have ties to the following in-person choices. Each website provides a search function for finding a group in a certain location.

Anxiety and Depression Association of America

The ADAA maintains local and online support groups, although they are not available in every state. If a local group is not already accessible in a certain location, the organization also provides information on how to create one.

Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance

In-person groups are offered by the DBSA in a variety of places. During the COVID-19 epidemic, however, many of the organizations turned to social media, email, and online meeting spaces to stay in touch.

Mental Health America Affiliates

In addition to online support groups, the MHA provides in-person support groups. Some groups are led by peers, while others are led by mental health professionals.

Specialist groups

There are a variety of organizations that offer help for certain forms of depression or to specific demographics. There are additional groups for carers and family members. Here are a few to think about.

Postpartum Support International

People who experience depression during pregnancy or after childbirth can join Postpartum Support International‘s online support groups. It also has a section for people who are having trouble conceiving or have had a miscarriage.

National Alliance on Mental Health Family Support Group

Any adult who has a loved one with a mental health condition is welcome to join the National Alliance on Mental Health Family Support Group. Once a week, once a month, or twice a month, the groups meet for 60–90 minutes. They offer a number of advantages, including assisting members in developing stronger coping abilities.

OK2TALK

OK2TALK is a platform for young people and teens with mental illnesses to speak with one another. It’s a safe place to talk about your challenges, your rehabilitation, and your hope.

Daily Strength

DailyStrength (DS) is a support group for people suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a mental condition that can lead to despair. With approximately 9,000 members, the DS community is rather active.

How to choose a group

Finding a support group that a person loves is a very individual experience. Before attempting one, people should think about if they prefer:

  • a group that helps people with any type of depression, or a specialized group
  • a group that allows family members and caregivers, or one that only allows people with depression
  • an online or in-person group
  • a group that is free-form, or one that is moderated by a mental health professional

It may take some trial and error to figure out what works best for you. It’s fine to quit one group and join another if it doesn’t seem right.

Other options

Support groups can be a beneficial supplement to a person’s treatment, but they are not a substitute for treatment. Doctors usually prescribe talk therapy, medication, or a combination of the two for this.

Talk therapy can assist a person in processing their emotions and learning to regulate them in a healthy manner. It can also educate someone coping techniques or assist in the discovery of the condition’s underlying root causes.

There are many different sorts of talk therapy, so just because a person doesn’t like one style or one therapist doesn’t imply it won’t help. Finding a therapist with whom a person can form a positive relationship is important.

Depressive symptoms may be alleviated with medication. People may take these to make it easier to start talking therapy. People may find it beneficial to continue taking them indefinitely in some cases.

Depression medications can have negative effects, and they usually take 2–4 weeks to work. Symptoms such as suicidal thoughts may temporarily rise in young people under the age of 25. In the first few weeks after starting these drugs, it’s important to keep a careful eye on young people who are taking them.

Even if a person’s symptoms are severe, depression is generally curable. People can talk to a doctor about their alternatives in order to determine the best strategy for them.

Conclusion

In conclusion, depression support groups may provide people with friendship, empathy, and a secure place to talk about their feelings. Although in-person groups are not available in every place, anybody with an internet connection may participate in online groups.

Support groups offer various advantages, but physicians advise using them as a supplement to treatment rather than as a replacement.

Sources:

  • https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression
  • https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/depression.htm
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/depression-support-groups
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5608809/

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Abortion

After an abortion: Here’s how to look after yourself

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After an abortion, proper self-care is important for physical and mental health.

According to one estimate, approximately one out of every four women will have an abortion before the age of 45.

Abortion is a relatively risk-free operation when conducted by a medical practitioner. People should, however, be mindful of what to expect physically and mentally later.

Continue reading to learn more about what to expect following an abortion, how to care for yourself, and when to seek medical help.

Gender and sex exist on a spectrum. This article will use the terms “male,” “female,” or both to refer to the sex assigned at birth. To learn more, visit here.

Symptoms after an abortion

Symptoms after an abortion

Abortion can come in a variety of forms. A doctor will advise on the best method for a person’s medical needs and pregnancy stage. Abortion comes in a variety of forms, including:

  • the abortion pill
  • vacuum aspiration
  • dilation and evacuation, or D&E

A person’s regular menstrual period should return in 4–8 weeks after the procedure. They may, however, experience irregular spotting or bleeding at first.

In the days and weeks after an abortion, some people experience powerful emotions and mood swings. This can be caused by a sudden change in hormones, as well as a person’s feelings regarding their abortion or pregnancy.

Abortion can be a difficult emotional event, and people may need support from close friends in the days and weeks following the surgery.

When a woman ovulates, she has a chance of becoming pregnant. This might happen before the first menstruation or shortly after an abortion. If a person wants to avoid pregnancy, he or she should utilize contraception or refrain from sex.

Symptoms that commonly occur after an abortion

Regardless of the form of abortion, people may experience symptoms. However, if a woman has an abortion later in her pregnancy, the symptoms may be more severe.

Following an abortion, you should expect to experience the following symptoms:

  • light vaginal bleeding or spotting
  • pain and cramping
  • painful or swollen breasts

How to care for yourself after an abortion

A person may feel exhausted and depleted in the days following an abortion.

Physical care

Pain from cramping — similar to menstrual cramps — is common.

After the procedure, people should be driven home by a friend or family member. They may wish to take the next day or two off work if feasible to ensure that they get enough rest. They should strive to stay away from physically and emotionally challenging activities.

The cervix takes some time to close after an abortion, putting the person at risk of infection. They should avoid the following for two weeks to limit the risk of infection:

  • using tampons
  • having penetrative sex
  • putting anything in the vagina
  • using swimming pools

It is equally important to look after oneself following an abortion. Although the operation is generally fast, physical recovery can take several days or weeks. It is possible to try:

  • massaging the stomach and lower back
  • using a heat pack
  • taking over-the-counter pain relievers, such as ibuprofen (Advil) or acetimenophen (Tylenol)
  • attending follow-up appointments

Emotional support

Making the decision to have an abortion is a difficult one, and it may be an emotionally draining affair.

Hormonal shifts worsen this following the surgery, resulting in mood changes. The levels of progesterone and estrogen in a person’s body gradually drop after an abortion. This can result in poor mood and mood changes.

Hormone levels will normalize once a person’s menstrual cycle returns to normal.

However, some people have continuing emotional issues that should not be overlooked. Abortion is linked to increased risks of depression, anxiety, sleep difficulties, and other mental health issues.

Additionally, people with a history of mental health issues may be more susceptible to these side effects.

If someone is experiencing mental health people, they should take time from work, talk to family and friends, and see a doctor.

Rrecovery time

The time it takes to heal from an abortion varies from person to person.

If an abortion is performed in the first trimester with no complications, the patient will most likely recover in a few days.

Late-term abortions may take longer to recover from. Recovery may take many weeks if complications arise. However, this is improbable, given just 2% of people experience difficulties as a result of an abortion.

Medical attention following an abortion

In a few weeks, most people who have had abortions will have a follow-up appointment. Further medical attention will not be required if there are no signs of problems.

People who are experiencing any symptoms of problems should see a doctor very once. Some abortion complications may necessitate a trip to the emergency room, though this is uncommon.

When should you see a doctor?

Many abortion clinics offer a 24-hour advising line to help people figure out if their symptoms require medical attention. If you have any of the following symptoms, call the advice line, your local emergency services, or go to the emergency room:

  • have increased or excessive bleeding
  • experience severe back or abdominal pain
  • are feeling dizzy or faint
  • have a fever
  • have foul-smelling discharge
  • experience nausea and vomiting

Outlook

For the vast majority of people, abortion is a simple medical procedure with no long-term consequences.

Some people are concerned that abortion will have long-term consequences. Doctors, on the other hand, largely agree that having an abortion has no effect on a person’s future chances of becoming pregnant or on the probability of pregnancy difficulties.

Abortion is a tough decision, and it is natural to feel a variety of emotions as a result. If a person is experiencing emotional or physical problems as a result of an abortion, they should see a doctor.

It’s important to remember that having an abortion can be both mentally and physically challenging. The abrupt change in hormone levels, along with the emotional stress of deciding to have the surgery, can make recuperation difficult for many people.

During this period, people should seek support from close friends and family members. They can also seek help from close relatives and friends, as well as an abortion support group.

Summary

Abortion can be a physically and emotionally demanding procedure. While most people recover in a few days, there are several issues to be aware of.

They should also seek assistance from family and friends, as having an abortion can be emotionally draining.

Sources

  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC6207970/
  • https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/full/10.2105/AJPH.2017.304042
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322533
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK304195/
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430793/

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