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Sexual Health / STDs

Best methods to treat chancroid?

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Chancroid is a sexually transmitted infection that occurs in the genital area causing painful open sores, or chancroids. The lymph nodes in the groin can also often swell and become painful.

Chancroid is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the Haemophilus ducreyi bacteria. North America and Europe rarely do.

Having chancroid also increases the risk of developing other STIs, as the sores damage the skin barrier and the immune system.

People with chancroid will seek medical treatment as soon as symptoms become evident. Anyone diagnosed with or suspected of having chancroid should also notify recent sexual partners so that they can be checked as quickly as possible.

In most cases antibiotics can treat chancroid.

What are the symptoms of chancroid?

A doctor should assess any suspected symptoms of chancroid.
A doctor should assess any suspected symptoms of chancroid.

Most people with chancroid begin to notice symptoms within 3 to 10 days of the infection.

Some individuals have no visible Chancroid symptoms.

The most common symptoms of chancroid in the genital region are tender, red-colored bumps, which become ulcerated, open sores.

The ulcer base can appear grey or yellow.

Chancroid sores are often very painful in men but in women, they are less noticeable and painful.

Additional Chancroid related symptoms include:

Additional symptoms associated with chancroid include:

  • urethritis, or inflammation of the urethra
  • abnormal vaginal discharge
  • pain and bleeding of the sore
  • dysuria, a condition caused by urethral inflammation

Diagnosis

A doctor must recognise the presence of H to make a definitive diagnosis of chancroid. Ducreyi in ulcer-bearing fluids.

A definite diagnosis, however, is not always possible, as some of the substances needed to identify the bacteria are not widely available in the USA. In any case, less than 80 percent of the time these tests are reliable.

A doctor will ask a person questions about his / her symptoms, sexual history, and travel history to diagnose chancroid. Typically, if a person’s symptoms match standard chancroid symptoms, a doctor may make a chancroid diagnosis, and they test negative for other STIs.

Risk factors

The number one risk factor for contracting chancroid is through touch with an person who has chancroid’s open sores.

Additional risk factors for contracting chancroid include:

  • unprotected sexual contact or intercourse
  • multiple sexual partners
  • sexual contact or intercourse with a sex worker
  • substance abuse
  • rough intercourse
  • anal intercourse
  • being sexually active
  • living in some developing nations, such as parts of Africa and the Caribbean

How is it treated?

Usually, a doctor would prescribe antibiotics to clean off the infection.

One round of antibiotic therapy to treat chancroid is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):

  • azithromycin: 1 gram (g) orally once daily
  • ceftriaxone: 250 mg intramuscular (IM) once daily
  • ciprofloxacin: 500 mg orally twice daily for 3 days
  • erythromycin base: 500 mg orally three times a day for 7 days

It is necessary to take all medicines prescribed by a doctor. Chronic or untreated chancroid infections are harder to treat because the bacteria may spread to other body areas.

After administering antibiotic therapy a doctor will monitor chancroid symptoms for 3 to 7 days. If there are any symptoms left, a doctor could:

  • reassess their diagnosis
  • ensure a person is taking their medications properly
  • test for other STIs, including HIV
  • explore whether the strain of H. ducreyi is resistant to the antibiotic prescribed

Chancroid recovery time also depends on the severity of the infection and the extent of sores. Large chancroid ulcers can take more than two weeks to fully heal.

Prevention

Condoms
Using protection during sex may prevent chancroid.

The only sure way to avoid chancroid is to avoid both intercourse and touch. However, for the majority of people total celibacy is not a realistic lifestyle choice.

Other methods of reducing the risk of chancroid development include:

  • limiting or reducing the number of sexual partners
  • using protection during sexual contact or intercourse at all times
  • regularly checking the genital region for signs of abnormal bumps, sores, or swollen lymph nodes
  • talking with sexual partners about testing for STIs or their STI status before engaging in sexual contact
  • asking sexual partners about any unusual sores or bumps in their genital region
  • talking with a doctor about unexplained groin pain
  • getting regular STI testing
  • avoiding or limiting alcohol use and avoiding recreational drug use as these may impair judgment in making healthy choices

Takeaway

In many cases basic antibiotics can be used to treat chancroid.

If left untreated, chancroid can grow into a more severe, hard to treat infection.

Talk to a doctor or health care provider as soon as possible after getting chancroid symptoms.

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Cancer / Oncology

What is cervical cancer screening: Who should get it?

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Cervical screening allows for the detection and treatment of cervical cancer in its early stages. To detect changes in the cells of the cervix and identify associated viruses, doctors utilise two major tests.

Cervical cancer occurs in the tiny area where the uterus meets the top of the vaginal canal at the lower end of the uterus. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in roughly 99 percent of cervical cancers, while most HPV instances do not progress to cancer. The most important risk factor for cervical cancer is having HPV.

Cervical cancer screening consists mostly on the Pap test and the HPV test.

Regular screening, according to the National Cancer Institute, lowers the risk of getting or dying from cervical cancer by 80% Trusted Source.

Because of advancements in testing and treatment, the incidence of deaths from cervical cancer in the United States is decreasing by about 2% per year.

We’ll look at how a pap test works, who should get one, and how to interpret the findings in this post.

Screening tests

cervical cancer screening

Cervical cancer screening may include HPV testing or the Pap test. At the same time, the doctor may perform a physical examination of the pelvis.

Pap smear

A healthcare expert expands the vagina using a tool they call a speculum to gain access to the cervix. They next extract a sample of cells from the cervix. They will send the cell sample to a laboratory for evaluation under a microscope.

The laboratory technicians check at the appearance of the cells. If they appear abnormal, it may be a sign that cervical cancer is in the early stages of development, known as precancer.

Early treatment can rectify these cellular alterations and prevent the emergence of cervical cancer.

HPV test

A doctor will perform the HPV test to discover the virus underlying many aberrant cellular changes that could lead to cervical cancer.

However, the HPV DNA test may identifiy numerous infections that specialists do not relate to cancer. A positive HPV test often does not guarantee that a person will go on to get cancer.

Screening criteria and recommendations

The American Cancer Society provide advice for regular cervical cancer tests in females of all ages.

21–29 years

Between these ages, a woman should receive Pap tests at 3-year intervals. HPV testing is not necessary at this point. However, a doctor may follow up a Pap test with HPV testing if results are abnormal.

In one study, 86.7 percent of people who tested positive for HPV did not acquire cancer in at least the following 10 years.

30–65 years

Doctors prescribe the following for people of these ages:

  • co-testing, or a combination of both tests, every 5 years
  • a Pap test every 3 years

The American Cancer Society warn that a combined HPV and Pap test can lead to more false positives, additional testing, and more intrusive treatments.

Over 65 years

Women who have had regular screening in the last 10 years with clean findings throughout can stop screening at this age.

However, if a test within the last 20 years has showed indicators of a dangerous precancer, screening should continue until 20 years following this precancer finding.

Women with a high risk of cervical cancer

Those who have a greater risk of cervical cancer should have more frequent testing.

This includes females with a compromised immune system, such as those with HIV or a recent organ transplant. People might also have a high risk if they received exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic type of oestrogen, before birth.

After a total hysterectomy, which involves removal of the uterus and cervix, screening is no longer necessary. However, if a doctor did the hysterectomy to treat cancer, screening should continue.

Females who have gotten an HPV vaccination should continue get tests.

A person who has current or past cervical cancer or precancer will have their own screening and treatment regimen, as well as individuals with HIV infection.

A false positive result may not only cause stress but might lead to unneeded procedures that may have long-term risks. For this reason, doctors do not advocate yearly screenings.

Interpreting results

Cervical screening test results can be normal, ambiguous, or abnormal.

Normal: There were no alterations in the cells of the cervix.

Unclear: The cells appear like they could be abnormal, and the pathologist could not discover alterations that could suggest precancer. These aberrant cells could relate to HPV, an infection, pregnancy, or life changes.

Abnormal: The lab technicians identified alterations in the cervical cells. Abnormal cells do not usually signify cancer. The doctor will typically request more tests and treatment to evaluate if the alterations are turning malignant.

In an uncertain outcome, cell alterations have occurred, but the cells are very near normal and are likely to resolve without treatment. The doctor will likely order a repeat test within 6 months.

Younger people are more susceptible to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) that commonly heal without therapy.

Cervical erosion, which doctors sometimes refer to as an ectropion, may potentially lead to an uncertain result. Cervical erosion means that the cells of underlying glands can be visible on the surface of the cervix.

Erosions are widespread, especially among those individuals who are using the contraceptive pill, teenagers, or someone who is pregnant. Slight bleeding could also occur after sex.

Most occurrences of erosions resolve without therapy.

What to do following abnormal results

An abnormal result signifies that the pathologist discovered alterations in the person’s cervix. This result does not necessarily suggest that the individual has cervical cancer. In most cases, there is no cancer.

The aberrant alterations in the cervical cells are commonly attributable to HPV. Low-grade changes are mild whereas high-grade changes are more significant. Most low-grade alterations resolve without treatment.

It generally takes 3–7 years for “high-grade,” or severe, abnormalities to become cervical cancer.

Cells showing more serious alterations may potentially turn malignant unless a specialist eliminates them. Early intervention is crucial for treating cervical cancer.

Doctors will need to undertake more testing to confirm abnormal Pap or HPV test results.

Rarely, test results could reveal the presence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (CIN). This word signifies that the screening discovered precancerous cells, but not that the individual has cervical cancer.

The findings may show the following:

  • CIN 1 (mild cell changes): One-third of the thickness of the skin that covers the cervix has abnormal cells.
  • CIN 2 (moderate cell changes): Two-thirds of the thickness of the skin that covers the cervix has abnormal cells.
  • CIN 3 (severe cell changes): All the thickness of the skin that covers the cervix has abnormal cells.

A doctor will need to confirm these results by requesting a biopsy.

Test difficulties

While both routine cervical screening tests are typically reliable and useful, confusing or abnormal results may represent a problem with the examination rather than the existence of altering cells.

A person may have to repeat the test due to a “inadequate” sample, implying that their results were inconclusive.

An insufficient sample could be due to:

  • too few cells being available from the test
  • the presence of an infection that obscures the cells
  • menstruation, which can make viewing the cells hard
  • inflammation of the cervix, which may obstruct the visibility of the cells

If you want to get a cervical cancer screening, you should first take care of any infections or irritation in your cervix.

Conclusion

The Pap test and the HPV test are medically recommended tests for cervical cancer. These tests reveal either cell alterations or the presence of the HPV virus, both of which indicate a higher risk of cervical cancer.

Screening is frequently quite effective, allowing for early treatment. However, the results may be ambiguous, necessitating further testing.

Every three years, females over the age of 21 should have a Pap test.

It is possible that screening will be pricey. Many insurance, on the other hand, cover testing. This site can be used by people who don’t have access to cervical cancer screening to see if they qualify for free testing under the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP).

References

  • http://www.nccc-online.org/hpvcervical-cancer/cervical-cancer-overview/
  • http://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Cervical-Cancer-Screening
  • https://www.cancer.gov/types/cervical/hp/cervical-screening-pdq#_1
  • https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/cervical/statistics/
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/254577
  • https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/hormones/des-fact-sheet
  • https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/nbccedp/
  • https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/pap-tests.htm
  • https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2697704
  • https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/cervical/basic_info/test-results.htm
  • https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/cervical/basic_info/test-results.htm

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Dermatology

Cold sores: What to know

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Cold sores are little blister-like lesions that appear on the lips, chin, and cheeks, as well as in the nostrils. They are less common on the gums and the roof of the mouth.

Before they burst and crust over, cold sores usually cause pain, a burning sensation, or itching. They’re also known as fever blisters.

The herpes simplex virus type 1 is the most prevalent cause of cold sores (HSV-1). These sores can also be caused by an infection with a different strain of the herpes simplex virus, known as herpes simplex virus type 2. (HSV-2).

HSV-1 is carried by 48.1 percent of all 14–49-year-olds in the United States, making them more prone to cold sores.

Although there is no method to cure or prevent cold sores, there are steps that can be taken to lessen the frequency and duration of outbreaks.

The causes

causes of cold sores

HSV-1 and HSV-2, the viral strains that cause cold sores, are highly contagious and spread rapidly during close contact, such as sexual contact.

Following the virus’s entry into the body, a person may experience the following symptoms:

  • sores around the genital area, in some cases
  • sores in or around their mouth or in their nostrils
  • flu-like symptoms

If transmission occurs during oral sex, oral herpes blisters, often known as cold sores, can develop around the genitals.

Without therapy, a cold sore outbreak usually lasts 1–2 weeks before the virus is suppressed by the body’s immune system.

The virus does not leave the body, and while it is usually dormant, it can reactivate to cause cold sores on occasion.

The majority of people with oral herpes are unaware of their infection until they develop cold sores or other symptoms. Because the virus remains dormant, some people only experience one outbreak with no recurrence.

Others may experience recurrent outbreaks that last for years.

What is the definition of genital herpes?

The symptoms

Some people with oral herpes have no symptoms, while others develop them after their initial infection.

Despite this, at least 25% of people with oral herpes have recurrent outbreaks. Cold sores occur in the same places over and over again in this example.

The following are some of the first signs of an HSV-1 infection that may develop 2–20 days after introduction to the virus:

  • swollen lymph nodes
  • lesions on the tongue, mouth, chin, cheeks, or in the nostrils
  • mouth or tongue pain
  • lip swelling
  • a high body temperature
  • headaches
  • dehydration
  • nausea
  • difficulty swallowing
  • a sore throat

Gingivostomatitis, an infection of the mouth and gums, may also be present. This lasts 1–2 weeks and does not happen again.

With the initial oral herpes infection, adults may develop pharyngotonsillitis, an infection of the throat and tonsils.

Symptoms of cold sores at various stages

When a cold sore recurs, it goes through various stages.

  • The sores break and produce fluid.
  • A yellow crust forms on the sores.
  • The crust comes off, revealing pink skin that heals in 3–4 days.
  • A tingling, itching, or burning sensation around the mouth often indicates the start of an outbreak.
  • Painful, fluid-filled sores appear, usually around the mouth.

Most cold sores heal in 1–2 weeks without treatment and do not leave a scar.

Diagnosis

Recurrent outbreaks can be managed at home by recognising the people and taking medication.

Consult a doctor if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • The signs and symptoms are severe.
  • Within ten days, a cold sore does not begin to heal.
    Gums swell up.
  • The person’s immune system is compromised.
  • Other signs and symptoms are alarming.

A doctor can typically diagnose the problem based on the symptoms and a visual inspection, but in some situations — such as if the patient has a weaker immune system — a blood test or a sample of the sore’s fluid may be ordered.

HIV, drugs after an organ transplant, certain types of cancer, and various cancer treatments are all factors that might decrease the immune system.

Treatment

Without therapy, most cold sore breakouts go away in 1–2 weeks.

Some over-the-counter and prescription treatments, on the other hand, can shorten the duration of an outbreak and alleviate any discomfort or pain, though they do not remove the virus from the body.

Treatments should be used as soon as the first signs of an outbreak show in most cases.

Creams with antiviral properties

Antiviral lotions sold over the counter can help to decrease the duration of an epidemic. Acyclovir or penciclovir is found in most creams, including Zovirax and Soothelip.

For 5 days, the cream should be applied to the affected area every 2–3 hours.

Antiviral medicines taken orally

The following are some examples of antiviral drugs that can be taken by mouth:

  • valacyclovir (Valtrex)
  • acyclovir (Zovirax)
  • famciclovir (Famvir)

If a person has a weaker immune system or has frequent breakouts, a doctor may prescribe one of these drugs.

It is taken once or twice a day.

These drugs can help to decrease the duration of an outbreak and prevent it from happening again.

Pain relief

Analgesics like benzocaine or lidocaine are used in over-the-counter solutions. They do not hasten the healing process, although they can help to alleviate pain.

The following are some cold sore pain relief medications:

  • Orajel
  • Blistex
  • Cymex
  • Anbesol

People should use a Q-tip to dab these ointments, lotions, or gels onto the sores, and they should not share these goods.

If a person uses their finger to apply the drug, they should wash their hands before and after.

Alternative drugs include ibuprofen (Advil) and acetaminophen (Tylenol).

At home remedies

Some people find relief from cold sore symptoms by using the following home care techniques:

  • using petroleum jelly to keep the skin moist, preventing cracking
  • dabbing the area with diluted geranium, lavender, or tea tree oil
  • applying cold, soaked tea bags to the area every hour

There is no scientific proof that these therapies are effective or safe.

Complications

Oral herpes can cause difficulties in some people, especially those with compromised immune systems.

Complications that may arise include:

  • If the sores make it difficult to drink, you may be dehydrated.
  • Herpetic whitlow is a painful infection caused by a wound on the skin that causes blisters on the fingers.
  • Herpetic keratoconjunctivitis is a secondary infection that can cause eye swelling and irritation, as well as sores on the eyelids and vision loss if left untreated.
  • If the infection spreads, encephalitis (brain swelling) may ensue.

Encephalitis is a life-threatening condition.

Preventive tips

When you have sores, attempt to:

  • Kissing and other skin-to-skin contact with the affected area should be avoided.
  • During oral sex, use a dental dam or a condom.
  • Personal things, such as towels and lip balm, should not be shared.
  • Use proper handwashing practises.
  • Avoid touching regions including the eyes, mouth, nose, and genitals where sores can form.
  • If it’s necessary to touch the sores, wash your hands with soap and warm water before and after.

Conclusion

Oral herpes can cause painful and inconvenient cold sores.

Many people have no problems and may treat outbreaks at home with over-the-counter or prescription medications.

If you experience cold sores or any other oral herpes symptoms, you should see a doctor very away if you have a weakened immune system.

Recognizing early signs of an outbreak and acting quickly to treat it can assist. Cold sores usually resolve after 1–2 weeks without treatment.

Sources:

  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526068/
  • https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/cold-sores/
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK525782/
  • https://herpes.org.uk/cold-sores/
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/172389
  • https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/encephalitis-herpes-simplex/
  • https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/herpes-simplex-virus
  • https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/a-z/herpes-simplex-overview
  • https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db304.htm
  • https://www.ashasexualhealth.org/oral-herpes/
  • https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/herpes-keratitis
  • http://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1101/p1075.html
  • http://www.aapd.org/media/Policies_Guidelines/RS_CommonMeds1.pdf

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Sexual Health / STDs

Orgasms: What to know

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Many individuals consider orgasm to be the pinnacle of sexual pleasure. It’s a strong sense of pleasure and sensation in the body. Researchers still don’t know everything there is to know about orgasm, and beliefs regarding the orgasm’s nature have altered throughout the last century.

This article discusses what an orgasm is and how it affects people of various sexes. It also examines the causes of orgasms and clarifies some common misunderstandings.

Gender and sex exist on a spectrum. This article will use the terms “male,” “female,” or both to refer to the sex assigned at birth. To learn more, visit here.

What is it?

Orgasms

An orgasm occurs when a person reaches the pinnacle of pleasure, according to the American Psychological Association. The perineal muscles, anal sphincter, and reproductive organs contract regularly when the body releases stress.

When males attain orgasm, they generally ejaculate, while females have vaginal wall contractions. Females may also ejaculate during sexual activity or an orgasm.

Orgasm models

Orgasms have been characterized by sex researchers as a tiered model of sexual response. Although the orgasm process varies widely from person to person, in most cases, some fundamental physiological changes occur.

The following models represent patterns that may be found in any type of sexual response, not just penile-vaginal intercourse.

Master and Johnson’s 4-phase model

Researchers William Masters and Virginia Johnson proposed a four-phase model in 1966:

  1. excitement
  2. plateau
  3. orgasm
  4. resolution

Kaplan’s 3-stage model

Kaplan’s model varies from most others in that it includes desire, whereas most others do not. It’s also important remembering that not every sexual behavior is preceded by desire. This model consists of three stages:

  1. desire
  2. excitement
  3. orgasm

What happens during an orgasm?

People may feel great pleasure in their genitals and throughout their bodies during an orgasm. Orgasms can take on a variety of forms for various people.

The face, neck, or chest may flush after an orgasm. Due to the release of endorphins, people may feel tired, calm, or pleased afterward.

For females

The muscles in the vaginal and anus of females may contract once each second for five to eight times. It’s possible that your heart rate and breathing rate will increase.

The vagina may become wet before and during an orgasm, and it may even ejaculate this fluid. According to studies, the percentage of females who ejaculate might range from 10% to 70%.

The clitoris may feel more sensitive or painful to touch right after an orgasm.

For males

Males’ penis and anus muscles contract around once every second, or five to eight times every second. It’s possible that your heart rate and breathing rate will increase.

Around 1–2 teaspoons of semen can be released from the penis. Although some people do not ejaculate during orgasms, they frequently happen at the same time.

The head of the penis may feel more sensitive or painful to touch right after an orgasm.

How long does it last?

According to a 2016 study, female orgasms can last anywhere between 20 and 35 seconds.

orgasm’s health benefits

Orgasms have been shown to improve sleep quality in certain people. According to 2019 research, orgasms shared with a partner result in better sleep. Masturbation-induced orgasms improved sleep quality and shortened the time it took to fall asleep.

During an orgasm, the body produces the hormone oxytocin. Oxytocin may provide a number of health advantages, including:

  • reducing the risk of cancer, such as ovarian cance
  • reducing the risk of heart disease
  • regulating anxiety

Furthermore, some research suggests that frequent ejaculation in men may lower the risk of prostate cancer. According to research, doctors discovered prostate cancer less commonly in men with high ejaculation rates.

Types

Orgasms come in a variety of forms, some of which are listed below:

  • Clitoral orgasm. This is when the clitoris is stimulated, causing an orgasm. According to a 2019 study, clitoral stimulation is responsible for 60% of female orgasms.
  • Vaginal orgasm: This is when vaginal stimulation causes an orgasm. Vaginal orgasms are linked to the indirect stimulation of the clitoris during sex, according to the American Psychological Association.
  • Blended orgasm: This happens when clitoral and vaginal orgasms happen at the same time.
  • Anal orgasm: During anal sex, some females have orgasms.
  • G-spot orgasm: The stimulation of the G-spot might result in an orgasm.
  • Multiple orgasms: A person can have a series of orgasms in a short period of time. Females have a shorter refractory (recovery) period than males, allowing them to have several orgasms in a shorter amount of time, according to Masters and Johnson.
  • Imagery-induced: Orgasms can occur in the absence of physical stimulus in reaction to visuals. Orgasms can be triggered by self-initiated images, according to a 1992 study. Mental imaging affects the brain areas linked to orgasm, reward, and physiological pleasure, according to newer study from 2016.
  • Nipple orgasm: An orgasm can be induced only by stimulating the nipples. The region of the brain that is activated by nipple stimulation is likewise activated by vaginal stimulation.

The list above is by no means complete, and study into the many sorts of orgasms that people can have is still underway.

Can males experience multiple orgasms?

Males can have several orgasms, according to a 2016 research analysis.

This is not, however, a regular occurrence. They affect less than 10% of people in their 20s and less than 7% of those aged 30 and over.

Male multiple orgasms might be sporadic or compacted, according to the study.

The intervals between sporadic multiple orgasms will be a few minutes. Condensed multiple orgasms are characterized by two to four orgasmic bursts occurring within seconds to minutes.

More study is needed to determine what elements influence a person’s capacity to have numerous orgasms.

Orgasm in females

The Masters and Johnson four-phase model will be used to describe the physiological process of female orgasms in the genitals.

Excitement

Female stimulation dilates the blood vessels in the genitals, either physically or mentally. Fluid passes through the vaginal walls as a result of the increased blood flow, causing the vulva to swell and become damp. The apex of the vagina increases internally.

Heart rate and respiration accelerate, and blood pressure rises during this period. The individual may seem flushed as a result of blood vessel dilatation, especially on the neck and chest.

Plateau

The introitus (vaginal opening) gets firm when blood flow to it approaches its limit. Increased blood flow to the areola causes the nipples to seem less erect, and breasts might grow in size. The clitoris appears to vanish when it draws back toward the pubic bone.

Orgasm

Rhythmic contractions of the genital muscles, including the uterus and vaginal opening, occur every 0.8 seconds. The female orgasm usually lasts longer than the male orgasm, about 20–35 seconds on average.

Females, unlike males, do not have a recovery time after stimulation, therefore they can have more orgasms with repeated stimulation.

Resolution

The body slowly returns to its previous state. Swelling decreases when the heart rate and breathing rate drop.

Orgasm in males

The Masters and Johnson four-phase model is used to describe the physical process of male orgasms in the genitals.

Excitement

An erection can be induced by physical or psychological stimulation of the male body. The corpora (spongy tissue that runs the length of the penis) receives blood, causing the penis to expand and become hard. As the scrotum tightens, the testicles come closer to the body.

Plateau

The glans and testicles grow in size as the blood capillaries in and around the penis fill with blood. Thigh and buttock muscles tense up, blood pressure rises, pulse quickens, and breathing rate quickens.

Orgasm

A sequence of contractions in the pelvic floor muscles, the prostate gland, the seminal vesicles, and the vas deferens allow sperm to reach the urethra.

In a process known as ejaculation, contractions in the pelvic floor muscles and prostate gland drive the semen out of the penis.

Resolution

The man is presently in a stage of temporary recuperation. The refractory phase lasts for a certain amount of time and varies from person to person. It may last anywhere from a few minutes to a few days, and it gets longer as a man gets older.

The penis and testicles recover to their previous size during this period. The pulse will be high and the breathing will be heavy and quick.

Causes

Orgasms are a common feature of the sexual response cycle. They frequently occur as a result of the stimulation of erogenous zones such as the genitals, anus, nipples, and perineum on a regular basis.

Orgasms are triggered by one of two fundamental reactions to continuous stimulation:

  • Vasocongestion: This is the process through which blood fills up bodily tissues, causing them to grow in size.
  • Myotonia: This is the act of tensing muscles, which includes both voluntary and involuntary contracting.

People can get orgasms through stimulation other than the vaginal region, such as the ears or nipples, according to a 2017 report. Orgasms can be induced by even mental stimulation.

Disorders

Both the individual experiencing the symptoms and their sexual partner may experience difficulty, frustration, and feelings of humiliation as a result of orgasmic disorders.

Despite the fact that orgasms occur in both men and women, healthcare experts tend to categorize orgasm diseases into gendered categories.

Female orgasmic disorders

Female orgasmic disorders are characterized by the lack of or a considerable delay in orgasms after adequate stimulation.

Anorgasmia is the medical term for the lack of orgasms. This word can relate to when a person has never had an orgasm (primary anorgasmia) or when a person who has previously had orgasms can no longer have them (secondary anorgasmia) (secondary anorgasmia). The condition might manifest itself in a broad sense or in specific circumstances.

Physical causes, such as gynecological diseases or the use of certain drugs, as well as psychological causes, such as anxiety or depression, can cause female orgasmic disorders.

Male orgasmic disorders

A chronic and repeated delay or absence of orgasm following appropriate stimulation is known as male orgasmic dysfunction (male anorgasmia).

Male anorgasmia is a condition that can last a lifetime or develop after a period of normal sexual function. The condition might manifest itself in a broad sense or in specific circumstances.

Male anorgasmia can develop as a result of medical issues like low testosterone, psychological issues like anxiety, or the use of certain drugs like antidepressants.

Premature ejaculation

In males, ejaculation is intimately linked to orgasm. Premature ejaculation is a typical sexual issue in which a man ejaculates before he wants to.

Premature ejaculation can be caused by a mix of psychological and biological causes, such as shame or fear, as well as hormonal imbalances or nerve injury.

Common misconceptions

The significance that society places on sex, along with our lack of understanding of the orgasm, has resulted in a number of frequent misunderstandings.

Orgasm has been elevated in sexual culture, and it is frequently seen as the sole objective of sexual relations.

Orgasms, on the other hand, are neither as easy or as prevalent as many people believe.

In a 2016 research, 14% of women under the age of 35 said they had never had an orgasm through sexual activity. According to the same research, 9% of women polled, regardless of age, have never had an orgasm via sexual intercourse.

According to the study’s findings, just 38% of young women have an orgasm during intercourse on a regular basis, while 43% have orgasms infrequently.

In the United States, one in every three guys aged 18 to 59 years old has had premature ejaculation at some point in their life.

Orgasms aren’t typically regarded as the most important component of a sexual experience, according to research. According to the Kinsey Institute, both males and females were more likely to express sexual satisfaction when they had:

  • higher sexual functioning
  • more frequent sex
  • frequent kissing and cuddling
  • sexual caressing from partner

Another common misunderstanding is that penile-vaginal stimulation is the primary people of eliciting orgasm. While this is true for many people, many more women feel increased sexual desire as a result of clitoris stimulation.

Orgasms can happen in a variety of ways. As illustrated by cases of exercise-induced orgasm, orgasms do not always have to include the genitals or be linked to sexual desires.

Another prevalent misunderstanding is that following gender reassignment surgery, transgender people are unable to orgasm.

The effects of gender affirming surgery (GAS) on orgasm were investigated in a 2018 study.

After having sexual intercourse after having GAS with penile inversion vaginoplasty, 55.8% of participants said their orgasms were more intense than before the procedure. Twenty-eight percent of the participants said there was no change.

In a 2014 research, 97 people who had single-stage metoidioplasty were studied. The researchers discovered that no one who underwent the operation had trouble getting an orgasm.

According to Johns Hopkins, orgasm can be achieved after phalloplasty.

The path to orgasm is a very personal experience with no single, all-encompassing term. Experts often advise avoiding comparisons to other people or preconceived notions of what an orgasm should be.

Conclusion

Orgasms varies from person to person and are not always triggered by sexual stimulation.

Orgasms may occur in people of all genders, and transgender people can orgasm following gender affirmation surgery. Endorphins are released during orgasms, which can cause to feelings of relaxation or contentment.

Orgasm problems, such as premature ejaculation or inability to orgasm, can affect people of either gender. People might chat with a doctor or a sex therapist if they have any worries about their orgasms.

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