Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are medical disorders which have certain similar symptoms, but which can have significant variations. The bipolar disorder causes mood, energy levels and thinking shifts. Schizophrenia causes an individual to appear to be losing touch with reality.
People with bipolar disorder may experience mania and depression episodes which are often separated by periods of relative stability.
Despite of some differences in symptoms it may be difficult to get the correct diagnosis. A person may also have both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder which may make diagnosis more complicated.
Some people have schizoaffective disorder involving a combination of symptoms of schizophrenia and those of a mood disorder.
We are looking into the similarities and differences between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in this article. We also discuss diagnostic methods and treatment options.
Symptoms of bipolar disorder
Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia signs differ, and can differ in type and severity.
They can get worse, then improve significantly or leave for a while, which some doctors call remission.
Individuals with bipolar disorder undergo mood swings. Doctors may identify “highs” as mania or hypomania while “lows” mean a reduction in mood and sometimes depression.
Individuals experience a less severe form of mania, known as hypomania, in some forms of bipolar disorder. The signs are the same but they ‘re less severe in hypomania. Nevertheless, they do influence the life and relationships of a person.
A manic episode is what it takes to diagnose bipolar I, while hypomania preceding or following a major depressive episode is required to diagnose bipolar II. A person also experiences irregular periods of relative stability.
Symptoms of mania
Mania can involve:
- anger or irritability
- difficulty sleeping or less need for sleep
- excessive energy and restlessness
- high self-esteem
- inability to concentrate or make decisions
- increased engagement in pleasurable activities, such as sexual activity or drug use
- intense excitement
- racing thoughts
- reckless behavior, such as overspending
Depressive symptoms are the same in a person with bipolar disorder as those with the major depressive disorder.
Symptoms of depression
The primary symptom is a negative or helpless feeling that lasts for 2 weeks or longer.
Other symptoms include:
- changes in appetite
- changes in sleep habits
- fatigue and low energy
- a loss of interest in things once enjoyed
- low self-esteem
- physical aches and pains without an apparent cause
- suicidal thoughts or behaviors
Anxiety and psychotic episodes may also trigger bipolar disorder, during which a person loses contact with reality.
Nearly half of all diagnosed with a bipolar disorder experiences psychotic hallucinations or delusions.
Doctors may be uncertain if people show psychotic symptoms whether they have bipolar disorder or schizophrenia.
Symptoms of schizophrenia
Symptoms of schizophrenia influence the feelings, emotions and behaviors of an individual. They cover:
These are false assumptions, which are encountered by most people with schizophrenia.
Of example, people might believe they are popular or different in some way, they ‘re being threatened or stalked, or something bad is about to happen.
People see, hear, or smell objects that aren’t there, during a hallucination. The most common form includes listening voices.
Disorganized thinking and speech
When talking with others people can not make sense. They may offer irrelevant answers to questions or the people around them may find their sentences meaningless.
For example, people with schizophrenia can exhibit erratic behaviour by making childlike acts, odd postures or repetitive movements.
Inability to function regularly
Schizophrenia can impair a person’s ability to take care of his or her personal health, participate in socially appropriate ways with others, or conduct everyday activities.
A bipolar disorder or schizophrenia can show the following symptoms:
Such hallucinations or delusions occur for certain people with bipolar disorder during serious periods of mania or depression.
This is typical in people with schizophrenia but during mania episodes people with bipolar disorder can tend to have disorganized thoughts. They can struggle to concentrate on one idea or task at a time.
Symptoms of depression
Individuals with either disorder may be experiencing a lack of interest in activities they once enjoyed during times of depression. Many people do not feel at ease or have trouble focusing or making decisions
Drug usage problems
For people with schizophrenia , bipolar disorder, or depression, some studies record high levels of drug and alcohol abuse.
When an individual has substantial overlap of symptoms, they can be diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder, which is a related but different mental health condition.
Bipolar disorder is frequenter than schizophrenia.
Approximately 2.8 percent of people in the United States develop bipolar disorder in a given year, and 4.4 percent develop it at some stage in their lives, according to the National Institute of Mental Health.
82.9 percent of them have extreme disability due to their symptoms and 17.1 percent have mild disability.
The disease begins on average at age 25, and occurs in males and females at an equal pace.
0.3–0.7 percent of people worldwide have schizophrenia, making it the most common psychiatric disorder, according to a report in American Family Physician.
That’s also slightly more common in males, and between late adolescence and a person’s mid-30s symptoms begin to occur first.
Diagnosis of the two disorders involves the same procedures. A physician or mental health professional would typically do the following:
A physical examination
It helps to decide whether the psychological effects cause medical problems. Even a doctor can ask for different tests, such as:
A psychological evaluation
A doctor, most likely a psychiatrist, will examine the signs and symptoms of an individual, including those influencing feelings , emotions and behaviours.
They will also inquire about family and personal mental health background, and may have a psychological self-assessment form completed for the individual.
The doctor will also observe the behavior and conduct of the individual during this examination and check for symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
They will also equate the person’s symptoms with the guidelines set out in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association, often referred to as the DSM-5.
Diary of symptoms and moods
Maintaining a regular diary of thoughts, moods, and sleep patterns can help. The doctor can look at this to identify behavior patterns and other hints that may inform diagnosis and treatment.
Both conditions require lifelong treatment to manage symptoms.
Treatment for bipolar disorder
Most people suffering from bipolar disorder require medication to regulate their mood.
These may include:
- lithium, a mood stabilizer that may significantly help prevent relapse in the long term
- antipsychotic drugs
- anti-anxiety medications
- sleeping pills
Psychotherapy is an important part of bipolar disorder management. It may take place individually or with a group or the person’s family.
Therapy can help people manage their thoughts and emotions, establish a routine, and identify triggers.
Those who do not respond to medications or psychotherapy may benefit from electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The goal is to alter the brain’s chemistry by sending electrical currents through the brain, causing a seizure.
Other strategies that can help people with bipolar disorder include:
- avoiding alcohol and drugs
- eating a balanced diet
- establishing a daily routine
- exercising regularly
- getting enough sleep
- identifying triggers and taking steps to prevent or lessen manic or depressive episodes
- managing stress
- seeking help and support from family, friends, and others
Treatment for schizophrenia
In certain people with schizophrenia, antipsychotic drugs are a critical part of treatment. Doctors believe they change the chemistry of the brain and lessen symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions.
Some people may need other prescription medications, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety drugs. A doctor can prescribe ECT for people who don’t respond to medicine, which may improve psychotic symptoms.
People with schizophrenia usually benefit from psychiatric and social therapies when the symptoms of psychosis are under control. These may include:
- psychotherapy, both in individual and family settings
- social skills training, to improve interactions with others
- employment support, to help a person secure or perform a job more easily
- daily living support, to help people find housing and manage daily responsibilities
Other coping strategies include:
- avoiding alcohol and drug use
- joining a support group
- learning about schizophrenia
- making certain healthful lifestyle choices, such as eating a balanced diet, exercising, and maintaining a sleep schedule
- managing stress through meditation, exercise, and yoga
- seeking help from family and friends
While there are similarities between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, there are also major differences, particularly about severity of symptoms and treatment.
Individuals with bipolar disorder usually vary between low and high mood cycles while those with schizophrenia normally lose contact with reality when they experience hallucinations and delusions.
An individual who has either condition can control their symptoms with medication and that the effect it has on their lives.
Usually, bipolar disorder becomes more manageable if a person is given adequate treatment. Schizophrenia is more difficult to manage and it appears to require more support from those who do.
What to know about unipolar depression
Major depressive disorder is also known as unipolar depression. The term “unipolar depression” refers to a type of depression that does not cycle through other mental states like mania. Bipolar disorders, on the other hand, cause in times of both depression and mania.
Unipolar depression, on the other hand, does not imply that a person is always depressed. People who suffer from major depressive disorder may go through periods of remission followed by periods of depression relapse. They may also feel better when their circumstances change, especially if they have atypical depression, a kind of major depressive disorder.
One of the most prevalent mental health diagnoses is unipolar depression. It can cause physical symptoms as well as substantial trouble managing everyday tasks and relationships, in addition to a melancholy or gloomy mood. In the United States, 7.8% of all people had at least one major depressive episode in 2019.
Continue reading to learn more about the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for unipolar depression.
What is unipolar depression?
Major depressive disorder is also known as unipolar depression. This mental condition has an impact on both mental and physical health.
The following are the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder:
At least five of the following symptoms must be present:
- Concentration issues: A person may find it difficult to concentrate, pay attention, or think coherently. It’s possible that some people will have cognitive fog.
- Thoughts of death or suicide: An individual may experience intrusive thoughts of death, self-harm, or suicide.
- Depressed mood: On most days, a person feels sad or depressed for the most of the day. They can be feeling empty, hopeless, melancholy, or unsure about the future. These symptoms can appear in youngsters as behavioral difficulties or irritability.
- Loss of pleasure: Activities that a person used to enjoy may now provide little or no pleasure.
Weight or appetite changes:. Without attempting to gain or lose weight, a person may gain or lose 5% or more of their body weight, or suffer changes in appetite, such as eating too much or too little.
- Sleeping issue: A person may sleep excessively or insufficiently.
- Fatigue: When a person is physically and emotionally weary, it might affect their motivation and ability to complete everyday chores.
Only if a person’s depression symptoms are not caused by bipolar disorder or another medical condition will they be diagnosed. Their symptoms must be distressing and not be the result of medication or a physical ailment. They must also have never gone through a manic episode.
Secondary symptoms can cause as a result of depression’s symptoms, such as:
- trouble studying or excelling at school
- difficulties with self-care
- trouble getting or keeping a job
- relationship conflict
People who are depressed have a distorted vision of the world, which can affect how they think and feel about other people and themselves. Interpersonal difficulties, low self-esteem, rejection sensitivity, and other issues may arise as a result.
Major depressive illness is a multifaceted condition with genetic, psychological, social, and interpersonal causes. Depression is caused by the interaction of several factors. For example, a person may have a genetic predisposition to depression, which is subsequently activated by trauma or stress, resulting in symptoms.
Researchers aren’t sure what causes sadness, but they do know that changes in brain chemicals known as neurotransmitters play a part. Antidepressants work by affecting brain chemicals including serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, implying that these chemicals play a role in mood.
The following are some of the risk factors for developing unipolar depression:
- some medical conditions, including thyroid disorders
- family history of depression
- trauma and adverse childhood experiences
How does it differ from other forms of depression?
The main distinction between unipolar depression and bipolar depression is that a person with unipolar depression simply has depression rather than the cycles of depression and mania that bipolar illness, or bipolar depression, is known for.
People who suffer from bipolar depression have bouts of depression comparable to those who suffer from major depressive illness, but they also have moments of mania, when their mood is extremely elevated. A person may be unusually happy during manic episodes. They could make rash or hazardous judgments, such as overspending money.
People who suffer from unipolar depression are not constantly depressed. Some people may look to be cheerful, act to be happy, or have periods when their depressive symptoms improve.
Atypical depression, a subtype of major depressive illness, is more likely to be persistent. It does, however, respond better to changes in circumstances, which means that when a person’s position improves, they may be happy and have less symptoms. This is not to be confused with the mood cycling seen in bipolar depression.
Depression does not always take the form of major depressive disorder. Other types of unipolar depression that don’t entail manic episodes include:
- Postpartum depression: Following the birth of a child, this type of depression develops.
- Seasonal affective disorder: This sort of seasonal depression is more common in the winter.
- Persistent depressive disorder: The symptoms of this chronic form of depression are usually milder than those of major depressive disorder.
- Psychotic depression: A person suffering from this sort of depression causes psychotic ideas. Delusions and hallucinations are examples of psychotic beliefs that are divorced from reality.
A low and depressed mood is a symptom of major depression. A person’s perception of the world may be largely negative, resulting in cognitive distortions that negatively impact their relationships, work, and school performance.
The following are some of the signs and symptoms of depression:
- unexplained weight gain or weight loss
- trouble sleeping or sleeping too much
- low energy
- feelings of worthlessness or guilt
- feeling hopeless about the future
- being unable to get pleasure from hobbies, relationships, or other previously enjoyed activities
- trouble thinking clearly or making decisions
- slowed movements or speech
- feeling restless or pacing
- brain fog
- thoughts of self-harm or suicide
- eating too much or too little
Secondary difficulties, such as unemployment or low school performance, might cause as a result of depression symptoms.
Antidepressants come in a variety of forms, with the best option dependent on a number of criteria. These are some of them:
- the subtype of major depression
- the side effects the person feels they can tolerate
- the person’s overall health
Before getting relief from their symptoms, a person may need to take many drugs or different dosages of the same prescription. Working with a skilled psychiatrist and discussing side effects and other treatment problems may speed up the relief process.
Psychotherapy techniques, particularly those developed to treat depression, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy, can assist a person in better coping, implementing positive lifestyle changes, and managing life with depression.
Therapies that directly stimulate the brain, such as electroconvulsive therapy, vagus nerve stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation, may also help, especially if other treatments are ineffective.
Some people find that changing their lifestyle, such as exercising more, eating a well-balanced diet, practicing meditation, or taking up a new activity, is beneficial.
Depression is difficult to cure and often chronic, thus a person may go through periods of remission before relapsing.
A complete depression treatment plan that combines medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes may help a person manage better through relapses of depression.
According to a 2019 study, several characteristics boost the chances of depression remission. These are some of them:
- less chronic depression
- not experiencing complicated grief
- not having a history of childhood adversity
- a better quality of life
- less severe depression
- less anxiety
Major depressive disorder is also known as unipolar depression.
It can have an impact on a person’s relationships, profession, education, and sense of self, among other things. Myths about depression might make it difficult for people to get help or seek it.
Although significant depression is difficult to treat, it is possible to achieve remission, especially when a person has access to thorough and experienced care.
People who are depressed should get mental health treatment as soon as possible. A person can often be referred to a qualified and supportive mental health practitioner by their primary care physician.
Hyperarousal: What to know
People with post-traumatic stress disorder may develop hyperarousal, which is a collection of symptoms. What are the symptoms of hyperarousal and how can individuals deal with them?
Anxiety is common in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This might make them more sensitive and unduly reactive to stimuli and occurrences in their environment. Hyperarousal refers to a condition of enhanced sensitivity.
We’ll look at the signs and symptoms of hyperarousal, as well as how to deal with it, in this post. We also look at ways individuals might assist loved ones who are suffering from hyperarousal manage better.
One of the symptoms of PTSD is hyperarousal. Hyperarousal may cause a person to:
find it difficult to go to sleep or remain asleep.
experience anger and quickly lose their temper.
find it difficult to focus.
- feel constantly on-guard (hypervigilance)
- be a little more impulsive than normal
- feel as though their muscles are stiff in a different way than normal
- more readily experience pain
- feel as though their heart is racing a little quicker than normal
- feel jittery and easily startled
- Breathe faster or more slowly than normal.
- have flashbacks of a horrific incident
Hyperarousal may be caused by a variety of factors
A traumatic event causes PTSD, which is a mental health disease. PTSD may be caused by a variety of circumstances, including:
- domestic abuse
- a robbery
- a sexual assault
- childhood abuse
- a car crash
- military experiences
- a fire
- a natural disaster
- a terrorist attack
Many additional incidents may raise the likelihood of acquiring PTSD. Not everyone who has been through a stressful incident, however, will develop PTSD or hyperarousal.
How to cope
Experiencing hyperarousal symptoms, as well as other PTSD symptoms, may be upsetting. If a person detects these symptoms in themselves or someone else, they should consult a physician.
A person suffering hyperarousal may act in a self-destructive manner at times. This may involve things like driving too fast or drinking too much. It is critical for persons suffering from hyperarousal to get therapy in order to ensure their safety and the safety of others.
A person with hyperarousal might attempt a variety of coping tactics in addition to the therapies that their doctor may offer. The following are some strategies for dealing with various hyperarousal symptoms:
Having trouble sleeping
- If you have hyperarousal and are having trouble sleeping, consider the following:
- not consuming alcohol in the 6 hours before bed
- exercising during the day
- creating a calm atmosphere in the bedroom
- sticking to regular bedtime and waking times
- avoiding naps during the day
- avoiding caffeine after midday
- getting up to do something relaxing when unable to sleep for more than 30 minutes, then returning to bed once drowsy
- reducing screen time, such as watching TV or using a laptop, in the bedroom
- wearing an eye mask and earplugs to block out light and sound
- practicing deep breathing before bed
- practicing mindfulness, meditation, or yoga
Hyperarousal may make it difficult to maintain control over one’s emotions. The following coping techniques may be beneficial:
- Instead of shouting, cry as a release
- doing vigorous exercise or dancing
- punching a pillow or something else soft
- talking to an empathetic friend or family member
- writing things down
- creating expressive artwork
- practicing deep breathing
- practicing mindfulness, meditation, or yoga
Individuals with hyperarousal who have trouble focusing may benefit from the following strategies:
- trying to improve sleep quality
- practicing mindfulness exercises
- removing or turning off distractions, such as their mobile phone
- improving concentration by working in short bursts and gradually increasing these periods by 5 minutes at a time
- focusing on one task at a time
What can you do to support a loved one who suffers from hyperarousal?
Making a loved one aware of the following coping methods is one approach to help someone who is suffering hyperarousal.
Offering to attempt some of these practices with them, such as mindfulness, deep breathing, or meditation, may also be beneficial.
It’s crucial not to overreact to any hyperarousal-related behaviour. Being available to listen in a nonjudgmental, empathic manner may also be beneficial.
The most crucial thing you can do to support a loved one who is suffering hyperarousal is to make sure they’ve seen a doctor and gotten an accurate diagnosis. This will guarantee that patients get the appropriate therapy.
There are a variety of hyperarousal therapies available to assist patients control their symptoms:
- Exposure therapy: This sort of treatment allows a person with PTSD to relive terrible events and memories in a secure setting, reducing anxiety and panic.
- Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): This is used in conjunction with exposure treatment and involves eye exercises that change how a person responds to a certain memory.
- Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT): This is used in conjunction with exposure treatment and involves eye exercises that change how a person responds to a certain memory.
To assist treat hyperarousal and other PTSD symptoms, the doctor may prescribe the following drugs in addition to these therapies:
- anti-anxiety medication
Hyperarousal is a typical sign of PTSD, which may be a long-term disease. People may, however, adopt a variety of coping skills to lessen the effect hyperarousal has on their everyday lives.
With the correct therapy, medications, and continuing support, PTSD may be effectively treated. If someone is having hyperarousal or PTSD symptoms, they should see a doctor for an appropriate diagnosis and treatment plan.
Furthermore, if someone is worried about a coworker, friend, or family who may be suffering from hyperarousal or PTSD, they could urge them to get medical help or even volunteer to accompany them.
Similarly, if a person is concerned about a colleague, friend, or relative who may be experiencing hyperarousal or PTSD, they should encourage the person to speak with a doctor or even offer to accompany them.
Different types of mental health professionals
There are many types of professionals involved in mental health, including psychiatrists and psychologists. Depending on the condition a person has and its severity, the role of a mental health professional will vary.
Mental health is a wide-ranging and complex problem that requires various kinds of support or treatment.
There are different kinds of professionals who provide various services for mental health.
This article discusses various kinds of professionals in mental health, their services, and how to access them.
Visit our dedicated hub to discover more research-backed information to help support the mental well-being of you and your loved ones during this difficult time.
Assessment and therapy
To evaluate and diagnose mental health conditions and provide therapy, the following mental health professionals have the training and qualifications required.
Psychologists specialize in evaluating and providing psychotherapy and psychodiagnostic assessments of mental health concerns. They are not medical doctors and as treatment they do not prescribe medications.
In clinical psychology, psychologists typically have a Ph.D. and specialize in understanding the mind and human behavior. To practice, they also require a license.
There are many sub-fields of psychology, such as child or addiction psychology.
In diagnosing and treating mental health conditions, clinical psychologists have specialist training.
Psychologists can provide psychotherapy, using interventions such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavior therapy ( DBT), to anyone with mental health symptoms.
Counselors and psychotherapists are terms used interchangeably by some people. Nevertheless, although both professionals can provide talking therapy without drugs, they are different.
Counselors are clinicians of master level who provide advice and support to individuals with particular problems.
Some counselors specialize in mental illness treatment. Other counselors may address mental health related problems, such as marriage or addiction counselors.
Clinical social worker
The aim of social workers is to protect individuals ‘ rights and well-being. Depending on the setting, their roles can vary.
Some social workers specialize in the provision of support for mental health, while others offer more services for case management.
To promote emotional wellness, they can evaluate the mental health of a person and use therapeutic techniques.
Usually, they work with individuals who have complex needs. For example, after discharge, a social worker may work in a psychiatric hospital to provide psychotherapy or help individuals reintegrate back into the community.
Social work is a broad field and can in various ways support individuals with mental health issues. Some social workers, for instance, specialize in domestic abuse. To provide assistance, they may work with other mental health professionals.
Those able to prescribe medication
Medications can be prescribed by the following mental health professionals.
Psychiatrists are medical doctors that specialize in psychiatry.
A range of different types of treatments are provided by psychiatrists, including prescribing medications and psychotherapy.
A psychiatrist’s treatment can also provide general medical treatment. Many individuals with mental health conditions also have physical health issues that can be helped by psychiatrists. They will, however, typically refer individuals to other general healthcare specialists and providers.
All types of mental health conditions are treated by psychiatrists, including but not limited to:
- personality disorders
- post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
- obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
- eating disorders
- addictions, including substance abuse disorder and alcohol misuse
- bipolar disorder
They will adapt treatments for each person. For instance, in individuals with bipolar disorder, they might recommend psychotherapy to relieve symptoms of depression.
Some prefer to specialize in sub-fields, such as psychiatry for teenagers or forensics.
In several places, including private practices and hospitals, they will work.
Psychiatric nurse, or mental health nurse practitioner
Depending on their level of training and qualification, psychiatric nurses may provide assessment , diagnosis, and counseling for different mental health conditions.
They can prescribe medicine in some states.
For someone who performs psychotherapy, ‘Psychotherapist’ is a protected title in some jurisdictions. It is an umbrella term that includes all talking treatments and the many approaches and methods of therapy. For instance, to provide psychotherapy, a psychiatrist or psychologist must undergo training.
Different kinds of psychotherapy exist. Some individuals, for instance, prefer to specialize in psychoanalysis, which aims to understand unconscious behavioral drivers.
A GP ‘s role in mental health
Although general practitioners (GPs), or family doctors, do not specialize in psychiatry, they can still support individuals with mental health problems, according to the American Academy of Family Physicians.
People with any mental health disorder should discuss their symptoms with a family doctor.
For several individuals, the first point of call for treatment is family physicians. They may understand the signs of a mental health condition and work together to provide treatment or counseling with other mental health practitioners.
Some drugs can be administered by family physicians, such as antidepressants. They can also, with another mental health professional, recommend psychotherapy.
Choosing a mental health professional
When choosing a mental health professional, a person should consider:
- their qualifications and experience
- the area they specialize in
- the techniques they use
- whether or not they prescribe medication
Talking to a family doctor first to get recommendations on the best choices will help.
People with mental health problems should know what kind of therapies are most helpful.
For several conditions, including depression and anxiety disorders, psychotherapy is a common method of treatment. Psychologists or psychologists may be certified psychotherapists.
Psychotherapy is now commonly available online. Via video conferencing tools or other channels, these interactive approaches seek to provide therapy. They are easy and convenient ways of accessing timely assistance for mental wellbeing.
Some individuals often take drugs, such as antidepressants, to assist with mental health problems. These drugs may be administered by a family doctor or psychiatrist.
Counseling should be considered for individuals who are having unique challenges they need help with. Counseling, for example, may assist couples with relationship problems that can affect their mental health.
Depending on the kind of mental health care, the cost varies. But this can be costly.
The cost of mental health care can be covered by health insurance policies. This could include health policies for families or employees.
Medicaid cover can also be given to those with a limited income. Online therapy can be a cheaper option for some people.
Seeking help from a mental health professional
Mental Health America highlight some warning signs that might indicate a mental health problem:
- long periods of depression
- extreme mood swings
- disproportionate fear, worry, or anxiety
- difficulty socializing
- extreme changes in appetite and sleep
- suicidal thoughts
- strong feelings of anger
If you know someone at immediate risk of self-harm, suicide, or hurting another person:
- Ask the tough question: “Are you considering suicide?”
- Listen to the person without judgment.
- Call 911 or the local emergency number, or text TALK to 741741 to communicate with a trained crisis counselor.
- Stay with the person until professional help arrives.
- Try to remove any weapons, medications, or other potentially harmful objects.
If you or someone you know is having thoughts of suicide, a prevention hotline can help. The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline is available 24 hours per day at 800-273-8255. During a crisis, people who are hard of hearing can call 800-799-4889.
An individual may be helped to understand and recover from mental health problems by many practitioners. Medications and psychotherapy may be offered by psychologists and other medical doctors. Psychologists and other mental health professionals can provide psychotherapy or counseling, but not medication.
When selecting a mental health provider, people should ask what kind of treatment they want to get. The nature of the mental health condition is also important. A family practitioner will help you through this.