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Headache / Migraine

Things you should know about aspirin



Aspirin, or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is widely used for mild aches and pains as a pain reliever and for fever control. This is also an anti-inflammatory drug which can be used as a thinner to the blood.

People with a high risk of blood clots, stroke, and heart attack can use aspirin in low doses over the long term.

Aspirin contains salicylate, from the willow bark. Its use was first recorded in the time of Hippocrates around 400 BCE, when people chewed willow bark to alleviate inflammation and fever.

Patients are also treated shortly following a heart attack to avoid further clot formation and death of cardiac tissue.

Fast facts on aspirin

Below are a few key points on aspirin. More specifics are given in the main article.

  • Aspirin is one of the most widely used medications in the world.
  • It comes from salicylate, which can be found in plants such as willow trees and myrtle.
  • Aspirin was the first non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) to be discovered.
  • It interacts with a number of other drugs, including warfarin and methotrexate.

What is aspirin?

What is aspirin?
Aspirin has a range of uses, including the treatment of pain and inflammation and reduction of blood clotting.

Aspirin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).

NSAIDs are medications with the following effects:

  • Analgesic: Relieves pain without anesthesia or loss of consciousness
  • Antipyretic: Reduces a fever
  • Anti-inflammatory: Lowers inflammation when used in higher doses

These are not steroidal meaning these are not hormones. Steroids also have similar advantages but can have adverse side effects.

NSAIDs appear to be non-narcotic, as analgesics. This means they don’t trigger stupor or insensitivity. Aspirin was the first discoverable NSAID.

Salicylate has been used for over 2,000 years in the shape of a willow bark. Some people also use willow bark to treat headaches and mild aches and pains as a more natural cure.

Aspirin has been around in its present form for over 100 years. This remains one of the world’s most commonly used drugs. About 35,000 metric tonnes of aspirin are expected to be consumed annually.

Aspirin is a trademark belonging to Bayer, a German pharmaceutical corporation. The word aspirin generic is the acetylsalicylic acid (ASA).


Aspirin is one of the medications most commonly used to treat mild to severe pain, migraines and fever.

Popular uses include headaches, menstrual pains, colds and flu, sprains and strains, and long-term conditions like arthritis, for example.

It is used alone, for mild to moderate discomfort. This is also used for mild to extreme pain, along with other analgesic opioids and NSAIDs.

This can relieve or help the the effects in high doses of:

  • rheumatic fever
  • rheumatic arthritis
  • other inflammatory joint conditions
  • pericarditis

In low doses, it is used:

  • to prevent blood clots from forming and reduce the risk of a transient ischemic attack (TIA) and unstable angina
  • to prevent myocardial infarction in patients with cardiovascular disease by preventing clot formation
  • to prevent a stroke, but not to treat a stroke
  • to prevent colorectal cancer

Aspirin and children

Aspirin is typically not appropriate for those under the age of 16, as it may raise the likelihood of Reye’s syndrome that might occur after a illness, such because a cold, flu, or chicken pox. This may cause permanent damage to the brain or death.

However, if they have Kawasaki disease, a specialist can prescribe aspirin for a child under care, and to prevent the formation of blood clots following heart surgery.

More commonly, acetaminophen (paracetamol, Tylenol) and ibuprofen are used instead.

Low-dose aspirin

A low dose of aspirin, at 75-81 milligrams (mg) per day, can be used as an antiplatelet medication, to prevent blood clots from forming.

This may be given to patients following:

  • a coronary artery bypass graft operation
  • a heart attack
  • a stroke
  • atrial fibrillation
  • acute coronary syndrome

Patients can also take low-dose aspirin if they have the following risk factors and if the doctor suspects heart disease or stroke is likely:

Others who may be advised to take low-dose aspirin include:

  • those with damage to the retina, or retinopathy
  • people who have had diabetes for over 10 years
  • patients who are taking antihypertensive medications

The United States (U.S.) Task Force on Preventive Services officially recommends routine low-level use of aspirin to prevent cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer in adults 50 to 59 years of age who:

  • have a 10 percent or higher risk of cardiovascular disease
  • who do not have a high risk of bleeding
  • are likely to live at least another 10 years
  • are willing to take the dose for at least 10 years

For all these cases the patient will usually continue to take low-dose aspirin regularly for the rest of their life.


Aspirin is not recommended for individuals who:

  • have a peptic ulcer
  • hemophilia or any other bleeding disorder
  • a known allergy to aspirin
  • an allergy to any NSAID, such as ibuprofen
  • are at risk of gastrointestinal bleeding or hemorrhagic stroke
  • drink alcohol regularly
  • are undergoing dental or surgical treatment, however small

Those with the following conditions should take aspirin cautiously, and can do so only if the doctor agrees:

  • asthma
  • uncontrolled hypertension
  • a previous peptic ulcer
  • liver problems
  • kidney problems

Aspirin is not offered during a stroke, since a clot is not responsible for all strokes. Aspirin can in some cases make the stroke worse.

Anyone planning to undergo surgery will inform their doctor whether they are taking aspirin regularly. We will need to avoid taking the medication at least seven days before surgery.

Patients who are pregnant or breast-feeding can take aspirin in low doses but only under the supervision of a doctor. It is not advised to take high-dose aspirin.

Interactions Often one drug may make another drug less successful, or the combination may increase the patient’s risk. This is called an interaction between drugs.

The most common medications which can interact with aspirin are:

  • Anti-inflammatory painkillers such as diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, and indomethacin. If taken in conjunction with aspirin, this can increase the risk of stomach bleeding.
  • Methotrexate, which is used in cancer therapy and some autoimmune diseases. Aspirin can make removing methotrexate harder for the body, leading to elevated and potentially harmful levels of methotrexate in the body.
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine, and sertraline, are antidepressants. These, taken with aspirin, will increase the risk of bleeding.
  • Warfarin, an anticoagulant, or a blood thinner that prevents clotting in the blood. If aspirin is taken with warfarin, the anticoagulant effects of this medication can be decreased and the risk of bleeding increased. However, in some cases a doctor may prescribe aspirin along with warfarin.

These are not the only drugs which can not be used with aspirin. Anyone taking aspirin should tell their doctor, as other medications can also interfere with each other.

Side effects

The most common side effects of aspirin are:

The following adverse effects are possible, but less common:

  • worsening asthma symptoms
  • vomiting
  • inflammation of the stomach
  • stomach bleeding
  • bruising

Hemorrhagic stroke is one unusual side effect of low-dose aspirin.

Aspirin can be effective in preventing and treating a variety of conditions, but anyone taking aspirin should first talk with a doctor. Aspirin would usually not be taken by someone under the age of 16, except in exceptional circumstances and under medical supervision.

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Ear, Nose and Throat

Are sinus infections contagious?



Sinus infections, often called sinusitis, are sometimes confused with the highly contagious common cold.

However, just because sinus infections and colds have similar symptoms does not mean that all sinus infections are as contagious as a cold.

It depends on the cause of a sinus infection whether it is communicable or not.

What is it?

sinus infection

Sinuses are hollow cavities that can be found in the cheeks, on either side of the nose, behind the nose, and in the forehead.

Normally, these spaces are airy and bordered by a thin coating of mucus.

When the tissues around these hollow spaces enlarge or become infected by bacteria, fungus, or a virus, a sinus infection results.

Are sinus infections contagious?

Sinus infections can be caused by a variety of causes, some of which are communicable.

A virus-caused sinus infection is infectious and rapidly spreads from person to person.

Sinus infections caused by a deformity, nasal obstruction, or allergies are not communicable.

Sinus infections are classified into several categories.

Sinus infections are divided into different categories based on how long they last.

The following are some of them:

  • Acute – Infections that persist for four weeks or less
  • Subacute – Infections that last between 4 and 12 weeks
  • Chronic – Infections that continue longer than 12 weeks
  • Recurrent – infections that recur on a yearly basis

Furthermore, each form of sinus infection can be caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or fungi.

Because of blockages in the nasal passages or malformations in the sinus cavities, some forms of sinusitis simply cause swelling and irritation. Sinus infections can also be caused by allergies and long-term exposure to pollution.


Sinus infections are frequently mistaken for a nasty cold. People may find it difficult to tell the difference between a cold and a sinus infection. Some of the symptoms are similar to those of a cold. These are some of them:

  • pain in the teeth
  • pain in one or both ears
  • fatigue
  • fever
  • pressure in the sinus cavities
  • bad breath
  • cloudy nasal discharge
  • stuffiness of the nose
  • cough
  • postnasal drip
  • sore throat

Bacterial sinus infections have a few additional symptoms. These signs and symptoms include:

  • facial pain
  • symptoms lasting longer than a week
  • pus-like or thick nasal discharge


The majority of sinus infections are treated solely for symptom relief. There are numerous alternatives for alleviating annoying symptoms.

These are some of them:

  • oral steroids for more severe infections
  • nasal irrigation to reduce mucus drainage and remove irritants
  • medicated nasal sprays containing corticosteroids that reduce inflammation

A doctor would usually prescribe medicines to destroy the bacteria in cases of bacterial sinusitis. Antibiotics may be required for up to two weeks if a person has bacterial sinusitis.

Treatment for chronic or recurring sinus infections will also seek to address the underlying cause and shorten the length or frequency of infections.

A doctor may recommend injecting steroids straight into the nasal passages to relieve inflammation in these circumstances.

A doctor may recommend surgery to open up the sinus passages and give them more room to drain in cases of chronic sinusitis that are resistant to treatment. A doctor may provide allergy shots in the case of chronic sinus infections caused by allergies.\

Home remedies

A person may choose to self-treat a sinus infection at home in some instances. Until the sinus infection clears up, people can take over-the-counter drugs to treat their symptoms.

The following are some of the most frequent over-the-counter remedies for sinus infections:

  • Acetaminophen: Pain and tenderness caused by enlarged nasal passages are reduced.
  • Decongestants: reduce the amount of mucus that is produced
  • Cold medications: Drugs that treat a wide range of symptoms, such as congestion, pain, and cough

Additional therapies may be beneficial in conjunction with at-home treatment. Steam or a humidifier, for example, can assist cleanse nasal passages.

Some people use nasal irrigation at home to eliminate extra mucus and clear their airways.

Essential oils can be used by people who are interested in herbal or natural remedies.

Lemon oil, lavender oil, and eucalyptus oil are some oils that may aid with sinus strain. Essential oils should be used with caution because they are not regulated or controlled by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

When should you see a doctor?

Anyone who has been experiencing pain and pressure in their sinuses for more than a week should contact a doctor. If a chronic fever or cough does not improve with time, they should be addressed.

A doctor will examine a person who exhibits these symptoms. A physical examination and a determination of the individual’s history of sinus infections will be part of the evaluation.

The following indicators of sinus infection will be looked for by a doctor:

  • bad breath
  • tenderness of the face
  • swelling of nasal passages and tissues
  • greenish mucus
  • redness in the nasal passages

A doctor might also inquire about your pain. Pain in the ears, teeth, and areas surrounding the nasal passages are typically of interest to doctors.

If a sinus infection has lasted more than a week and the doctor suspects a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed.

Antibiotics aren’t always required because infections might be caused by viruses, allergies, or nasal abnormalities.



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Headache / Migraine

What is status migrainosus?



Status migrainosus is a type of migraine that is difficult to treat. It’s a migraine that lasts more than 72 hours.

Treatments for migraines may not be effective in treating status migrainosus. However, there are a number of options for dealing with it.

The episodes can become debilitating and interfere with daily life. A person may require hospital treatment to break the cycle of symptoms.

In this article, we’ll look at what causes status migrainosus, how it differs from other types of migraine, and how to alleviate symptoms.

What is it?

status migrainosus
Status migrainosus symptoms extend longer than those of a regular migraine attack.

A severe migraine attack that lasts more than 72 hours is known as status migrainosus. The same symptoms that characterize a person’s usual migraine attacks may be present, but they may be more severe.

The main sign of status migrainosus is the persistent headache and accompanying symptoms. When traditional methods of symptom management, such as rest and medication, fail, hospitalization may be required.

The majority of migraine attacks follow a distinct pattern. A warning period may precede this, which may include visual problems or other sorts of aura.

Following that, during the attack phase of a migraine episode, a person may have a headache and:

  • sensitivity to light and noise
  • fatigue
  • nausea and possibly vomiting

The person may feel a migraine “hangover” as these symptoms fade, which can last hours or even days.

A person can distinguish a migraine episode from other forms of headaches based on the sequence of symptoms.

The headache phase of status migrainosus lasts for at least 72 hours, or three days.


The pain and nausea of status migrainosus are so intense for some people that they must spend time in a hospital.

The symptoms are comparable to those of other migraine types, but they linger longer and are more severe.

Migraine symptoms can also differ from person to person and episode to episode, although they typically look like this:

Phase of the prodrome

Mood swings, food cravings, nausea, difficulty sleeping, concentration, sensitivity to light and sound, and other symptoms may occur. They can persist anywhere from a few hours to several days.


If a person goes through this phase, their eyesight may change – lights or strange forms may appear in their field of view. On one side of the body, a person may experience numbness and tingling.

This stage could last anywhere from 5 minutes to an hour.

Phase of a headache

It’s possible that the headache will be severe and throbbing. It usually affects one side of the head, although it can also affect the other.

The migraine must include the following symptoms to be diagnosed as status migrainosus:

  • pain that is debilitating, rather than jus
  • a headache that lasts longer than 72 hours

A person with status migrainosus may also experience the following symptoms:

Changes in consciousness: Difficulty concentrating and communicating, as well as confusion and sleepiness, are all possible symptoms.

Vomiting and nausea: It’s possible that a person won’t be able to eat or drink, putting them at risk of dehydration and other symptoms.

Other symptoms: These may include weakness and tingling, nasal congestion, pain and stiffness in the neck, anxiety, and low mood.

The pain may temporarily ease with medication, rest, or both.


There is no reliable test for migraine. Whether a person sees a doctor during or after an episode, the doctor may do the following:

  • perform a physical examination
  • do other tests to rule out, for example, a stroke or brain injury
  • ask about symptoms
  • take a medical history

Only migraine people develop status migrainosus.

A doctor may investigate whether a person’s medical history includes the following items to help determine whether they have status migrainosus:

  • at least five previous migraine episodes that each lasted 4–72 hours and occurred without an aura
  • two previous episodes of migraine with an aura

They may also conduct neurological tests or order an MRI to rule out other problems.


Although there is no cure for migraine, drugs can help to reduce the duration of status migrainosus symptoms.

Pain, nausea, and other symptoms are treated with standard therapy. Among the possibilities are:

It’s important to preventing vomiting since dehydration can induce migraines and make symptoms worse.

A doctor may employ specialty medications to assist interrupt the cycle of symptoms in an emergency situation. The following therapies are possible:

  • steroids
  • muscle relaxants
  • antipsychotics
  • in rare cases, opioids
  • triptans, which tighten the blood vessels
  • anti-seizure medication
  • antihistamines

The doctor can inject these drugs if the patient is vomiting.


There are methods for avoiding migraine attacks and status migrainosus. There are additional methods for reducing the severity or frequency of episodes.

Among the options are:

  • anti-seizure drugs
  • Botox injections
  • antihypertensive drugs
  • calcitonin gene-related peptide, or CGRP, pathway monoclonal antibodies
  • antidepressants

Acupuncture, biofeedback, and relaxation techniques are some non-drug treatments that may help.

Living with status migrainosus

Living with migraine can be challenging, particularly for those who are prone to status migrainosus.

Migraine can have long-term social, financial, and psychological consequences in addition to the immediate symptoms.

Life with migraine can be tough due to anxiety about an episode occurring, irritation over unmet plans, and a variety of other issues.

Support groups may be beneficial. They also give people the chance to share and learn new ways to deal with symptoms. The Move Against Migraine online group, for example, is run by the American Migraine Foundation.

Counseling may also assist a person in coping with the pain and anxiety that might accompany a chronic condition.

Find more tips for coping with migraine here.

Avoiding triggers

Many migraine people have noticed that certain triggers might set off attacks.

By keeping account of what happened in the days leading up to a migraine attack, including dietary, emotional, and environmental aspects, a person can learn to identify their triggers. The next stage is to figure out how to cut down on your exposure to these triggers.

The following are common status migrainosus triggers:

  • weather changes
  • infections, such as a cold or the flu
  • surgery on the head or face
  • hormonal imbalances
  • stress
  • changes in medication, such as antidepressants or birth control pills
  • injuries to the neck or head
  • changes in sleeping or eating patterns

Keeping hydrated and getting enough rest can help to lessen the number of episodes you have. Drinking at least 60–80 ounces of water each day is recommended.


The condition known as status migrainosus can be frightening and painful. Understanding what triggers these episodes and taking actions to avoid them might help reduce anxiety and keep the problem from recurring.

A tailored treatment strategy may also assist to avoid or lessen the severity of attacks.

After having status migrainosus, a person should seek further evaluation and counsel from a neurologist who specializes in migraine.


  • monoclonal-antibodies/

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Complementary Medicine / Alternative Medicine

Is magnesium effective in the treatment of migraines?



Migraines are difficult to treat with standard medicine, so many people seek out other methods to prevent them. Magnesium is one possible treatment.

Magnesium is a naturally occurring mineral that aids in blood pressure control, heart health, neuron and muscle function regulation, and the formation of bone, DNA, and protein. Headaches and migraines may be caused by a magnesium deficiency.

Magnesium is used by some people to treat and prevent migraine symptoms such as severe migraines, visual abnormalities, sensitivity to light and sound, nausea, and vomiting.

Magnesium and migraines


Taking a magnesium supplement, according to some study, may be an effective method to prevent headaches. Other research has revealed that during a migraine, a person’s brain magnesium levels may be low.

To avoid migraines, the American Migraine Foundation recommends taking a 400–500 mg magnesium oxide supplement daily.

Magnesium’s effectiveness as a migraine preventive, according to some researchers, increases when a person takes higher dosages — over 600 (mg) — for at least 3 to 4 months.

Taking high dosages of magnesium as a supplement, on the other hand, may cause side effects in some people.

For people with migraines that include an aura or visual abnormalities, using magnesium may be more beneficial.

How to Treat Migraines with Magnesium

Magnesium oxide, in the form of a tablet, can be taken by migraine people to enhance their magnesium intake.

If a person is having trouble absorbing magnesium sulfate, a doctor may inject 1–2 grams (g) of it intravenously.

Magnesium can also be found in the following forms:

  • magnesium citrate
  • magnesium chloride
  • magnesium carbonate

The body absorbs these different types of magnesium at different rates. Magnesium is difficult to absorb unless it is bonded to something else, thus magnesium supplements frequently include other nutrients, such as amino acids, that have additional health advantages.

Some people prefer to increase their magnesium intake by eating more.

Magnesium can be found in the following foods:

  • mackerel, tuna, and Pollock
  • low-fat yogurt or kefir
  • bananas
  • figs
  • dark chocolate
  • cereals
  • spices
  • cocoa
  • nuts and grains
  • black beans and lentils
  • tea and coffee
  • green leafy vegetables
  • avocado
  • seeds, such as pumpkin or squash seeds
  • almonds

Magnesium is suggested in daily doses of 310–320 mg for women and 400–420 mg for males.

Risks and side effects

Magnesium is found in a variety of foods. There appear to be no hazards connected with increasing magnesium levels by consuming more of these foods.

Taking too many magnesium supplements, on the other hand, might cause unpleasant side effects such as diarrhea, cramping, and vomiting.

If a person develops diarrhea as a result of taking a magnesium supplement, they should stop using it immediately. Staying hydrated is also critical for a person suffering from diarrhea.

People should also avoid taking magnesium supplements if they are using aminoglycoside antibiotics. Combining these medications can cause in muscular weakness and other issues.

Magnesium can also interfere with how antibiotics are absorbed. As a result, any essential antibiotics should be taken at least 2 hours before or 4 to 6 hours after taking these supplements.

Magnesium also helps to reduce blood pressure. People who take magnesium supplements while taking blood pressure medicine may be at risk for hypotension, which is when blood pressure drops dangerously low.

An overabundance of magnesium in the body can have serious consequences, including:

  • coma
  • slowed breathing
  • an irregular heartbeat

Supplementing of magnesium may cause additional negative effects in people who have specific medical conditions, such as:

  • kidney problems, including kidney failure
  • gastrointestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or a stomach infection
  • bleeding disorders
  • diabetes

Anyone considering taking magnesium supplements should consult with a physician first. A doctor can tell you if the supplement is safe for you depending on your medical history.

Before using a magnesium supplement, pregnant women should visit their doctor. They should also avoid taking high amounts of magnesium sulfate intravenously because it can cause bone thinning in the fetus.


Magnesium, if administered correctly, could be a safe therapeutic choice for migraine people. Its risk of negative side effects is lower than that of some established medical therapies.

Magnesium oxide may be especially beneficial for people who have a history of aura.

Magnesium supplements should be discussed with a doctor first, as they may combine with a person’s medication or exacerbate symptoms of an existing condition.

Magnesium supplements can be found in a variety of pharmacies and health food stores.



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