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Blood / Hematology

What to know about type 2 diabetes

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The most prevalent form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes. It occurs when blood sugar levels are rising due to insulin use or production problems.

It may occur at any age but it is more likely to happen after 45 years of age.

According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), it affects more than 30 million Americans, and accounts for 90–95 percent of cases of diabetes.

This article discusses the early signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes, the risk factors and the possible complications involved.

What is type 2 diabetes?

A male adult drinking water
Some symptoms of type 2 diabetes may include fatigue, increased hunger, and increased thirst.

People with type 2 diabetes do not make or use insulin correctly.

Insulin is a hormone that regulates the movement of blood glucose, or sugar, into cells, which use it as energy.

When sugar cannot enter cells, this means:

  • too much glucose collects in the blood
  • the body’s cells cannot use it for energy

A doctor may diagnose diabetes if a person’s blood sugar levels are 126 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) or above after fasting for 8 hours.

Symptoms

High blood sugar signs of type 2 diabetes tend to show up slowly. In the early stages not everybody with type 2diabetes will have symptoms.

If a person has symptoms they will consider the following:

  • Frequent urination and increased thirst: When excess glucose builds up in the bloodstream, the body will extract fluid from tissues. This can lead to excessive thirst and the need to drink and urinate more.
  • Increased hunger: In type 2 diabetes, the cells are not able to access glucose for energy. The muscles and organs will be low on energy, and the person may feel more hungry than usual.
  • Weight loss: When there is too little insulin, the body may start burning fat and muscle for energy. This causes weight loss.
  • Fatigue: When cells lack glucose, the body becomes tired. Fatigue can interfere with daily life when a person has type 2 diabetes.
  • Blurred vision: High blood glucose can cause fluid to be pulled from the lenses of the eyes, resulting in swelling, leading to temporarily blurred vision.
  • Infections and sores: It takes longer to recover from infections and sores because blood circulation is poor and there may be other nutritional deficits.

If those signs are found, they should see a doctor. Diabetes may cause a series of serious complications. The earlier a person starts to control their level of glucose, the greater the chance they have of avoiding complications.

Symptoms in children and teens

Type 2 diabetes is more likely to appear after the age of 45 years, but it can affect children and teens who:

  • have excess weight
  • do not do much physical activity
  • have high blood pressure
  • have a family history of type 2 diabetes
  • have an African American, Asian American, Hispanic American, or American Indian background

The following symptoms may occur:

  • weight loss, despite increased appetite and hunger
  • extreme thirst and dry mouth
  • frequent urination and urinary tract infections
  • fatigue
  • blurred vision
  • slow healing of cuts or wounds
  • numbness or tingling in hands and feet
  • itchy skin

When carers note these signs, the child should be brought to see a doctor. Those are also type 1 diabetes signs. Type 1 is less common than adults but more likely to affect children and adolescents. Type 2 diabetes, however, is becoming more common among young people than it was in the past.

Symptoms in older adults

In the United States, at least 25.2 percent of people aged 65 and over have type 2 diabetes. We can experience some or all of the typical Type 2 diabetes symptoms.

They may also come across one or more of the following:

  • flu-like fatigue, which includes feeling lethargic and chronically weak
  • urinary tract infections
  • numbness and tingling in the hands, arms, legs, and feet due to circulation and nerve damage
  • dental problems, including infections of the mouth and red, inflamed gums

Early signs

A cut on the skin
A classic early symptom of diabetes may be a cut that takes a long time to heal.

In the early stages, most people don’t experience symptoms, and they may not have symptoms for many years.

One possible early symptom of type 2 diabetes on certain areas of the body is darkened skin, including:

  • the neck
  • the elbows
  • the knees
  • the knuckles

This is known as acanthosis nigricans.

Other early symptoms include:

  • frequent bladder, kidney, or skin infections
  • cuts that take longer to heal
  • fatigue
  • extreme hunger
  • increased thirst
  • urinary frequency
  • blurred vision

A person may have mild or subtle symptoms for many years, but these can become in time. Further health problems can develop.

Prediabetes and diabetes prevention

A person with 100–125 mg / dl blood sugar levels will get prediabetes diagnosis. It means they have high blood sugar levels but they have no diabetes. At this stage taking action will prevent the development of diabetes.

In 2012, 33.6 percent of people aged 45 years and older had prediabetes, according to a 2016 study published in The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine.

The CDC estimates that there are about 84 million American adults who have prediabetes, but most of them do not know they do.

Complications

Diabetes can cause a number of problems in your health if people don’t treat it properly. Many of these are chronic, or long-term, but they can endanger life. Others need immediate medical attention once it occurs.

Emergency complications

A lady felling dizzy
Feeling dizzy and faint may be a symptom of hypoglycemia.

Complications can arise quickly if blood sugar rises or falls too far.

Hypoglycemia

This is hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, if the blood glucose drops below 70 mg / dl.

This can occur when a person who uses insulin takes more than they need for a given time.

Hypoglycemia can be tested for by a home blood glucose examination.

Understanding the early signs of hypoglycemia is important since it can escalate quickly, leading to seizures and a coma. However it is easy to treat in the early stages.

The hypoglycemic signs include:

  • confusion
  • dizziness
  • feeling faint
  • heart palpitations
  • rapid heartbeat
  • mood changes
  • loss of consciousness
  • sweating
  • clamminess

If symptoms are mild, a person can often resolve low blood sugar levels by consuming:

  • a few pieces of hard candy
  • a cup of orange juice
  • a teaspoon of honey
  • a glucose tablet

The person should then wait 15 minutes to check their blood sugar, and should take another glucose tablet or sweet one if it is still weak.

The person will eat a meal when the levels return to above 70 mg / dl, to regulate their glucose levels.

If for 1 hour or longer they remain low, or if symptoms worsen, somebody should take the person to the emergency room.

Anyone with regular or serious symptoms of hypoglycemia should talk to their doctor, as they may need to change their treatment plan.

Hyperglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

Hyperglycemia will result if the blood sugar levels rise too far. If a person experiences heightened thirst and urination, blood sugar levels should be tested.

It the level is above the target level recommended by their doctor, they are taking appropriate action.

High an individual with hyperglycemia can develop diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) without medication, which occurs when high levels of ketones accumulate in the blood making it too acidic. The person should check their ketone levels, too, for this purpose.

Ketoacidosis can induce:

  • difficulty breathing
  • a fruity smell on the breath
  • a dry mouth
  • nausea and vomiting
  • coma

It can be life-threatening. A person with these signs and symptoms should seek immediate medical attention.

People who regularly experience high blood sugar should speak to their doctor about adjusting their treatment plan.

Long-term complications

Maintaining blood glucose within target thresholds can avoid problems that over time can become life-threatening and disabling.

Some possible complications of diabetes are:

  • heart and blood vessel diseases
  • high blood pressure
  • nerve damage (neuropathy)
  • foot damage
  • eye damage and blindness
  • kidney disease
  • hearing problems
  • skin problems

Effective management of blood glucose levels can reduce the risk of complications

Diagnosis and treatment

Type 2 diabetes can be treated with blood tests that measure blood glucose levels. Many people discover that during a regular screening test they have high blood sugar, but anyone noticing the symptoms should see a doctor.

Therapy aims at maintaining healthy blood glucose levels and avoiding complications. The key ways of doing so are by steps to lifestyle.

These include:

  • following a healthful diet
  • reaching and maintaining a healthy weight and body mass index (BMI)
  • doing physical activity
  • getting enough sleep
  • avoiding or quitting smoking
  • taking medications or insulin as the doctor recommends

Outlook

There is currently no cure for diabetes but by treating their condition correctly, most people with the condition can live a healthy life.

People who keep their weight balanced, follow a healthy diet, and do regular exercise may not need medication. These measures can aid in regulating blood sugar levels.

In the early stages, routine monitoring will alert a person to high blood sugar levels when there is still time to slow, avoid or reverse diabetes progression.

Current guidelines recommend regular screening starting at age 45, or younger if an individual has other risk factors, such as obesity. A health care professional may consult on individual needs.

Q:

If my teenage son is very thirsty and urinating a lot mor than before, is this likely to be type 1 or type 2 diabetes?

A:

A sudden onset of symptoms would most likely suggest type 1 diabetes. However, the incidence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in children and teenagers. While it may be other causes, the seriousness of diabetes requires a physician should be consulted immediately.Deborah Weatherspoon, PhD, RN, CRNA

Answers represent the opinions of our medical experts. All content is strictly informational and should not be considered medical advice.

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Blood / Hematology

Types and normal ranges of kidney function tests

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Kidney function tests are basic procedures that use blood or urine to diagnose kidney abnormalities. A variety of kidney function tests are available to assess various aspects of renal health.

A kidney function test can detect sluggish waste filtering. Another test may detect protein leakage from the kidneys.

In cases where a doctor suspects a kidney disease, routine testing can help all individuals.

According to the National Kidney Foundation, 1 in 3 adults in the US is at risk for kidney disease, and many early cases show no symptoms. It’s important to detect and treat this condition early to avoid permanent damage.

In this article, you’ll learn about kidney function tests and their results.

What is it?

consulting a doctor

Kidney function tests use blood or urine to assess many elements of kidney health.

Doctors frequently request multiple tests to provide a comprehensive picture of kidney health.

The kidneys are vital to the body’s wellbeing. Their major function is to filter waste from the blood and excrete it in the urine.

Kidney disease can hinder the kidneys from filtering waste effectively, causing hazardous symptoms.

Regular testing may help detect disorders like kidney disease early on, halting its disease.

Doctors may also arrange imaging or a biopsy to learn more about the kidney.

Continue reading to learn about kidney function testing.

Urine tests

Pee tests may demand a little sample or all of a person’s urine in 24 hours.

Urinalysis

Urinalysis helps doctors uncover underlying disorders or decide which test to employ next. Urinalysis can discover unwanted particles in urine such as:

  • sugar
  • protein
  • pus
  • blood
  • bacteria

A positive test for one or more of these particles means:

The microalbuminuria or albumin-to-creatine ratio

Both tests require a little urine sample. Both aid in detecting albumin in urine.

Albumin is an important protein in the blood. Not doing your job properly if your kidneys excrete too much albumin.

30 mg/g or less urine albumin is normal. Any higher may indicate renal disease.

As a result, microalbuminuria can detect even minute levels of protein in the urine.

Even if other urine protein tests are negative, people at increased risk of renal disease may need a microalbuminuria test.

Creatine clearance

A creatine clearance test involves both blood and urine. It entails taking a 24-hour urine sample and a blood sample.

Creatine is a naturally occurring waste product in the body from muscular use.

Doctors compare creatine levels in urine to blood levels. This chart compares the amount of waste the kidneys filter out, which may indicate their general health.

Blood tests

An arm blood test requires a doctor or nurse to extract a little amount of blood from the patient. The person may need to fast or take the test early in the morning.

Serum creatine test

Serum creatine levels that are excessively high could indicate that the kidneys aren’t doing their job properly. As part of the creatine clearance test, doctors will also prescribe a serum creatine test.

Serum creatine levels exceeding 1.2 for women and 1.4 for men, according to the National Kidney Foundation, may be an early warning that the kidneys aren’t working properly. As renal disease advances, these figures may grow even higher.

This test can also be used to calculate a person’s glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to confirm a diagnosis or to order additional tests to double-check the results.

The GFR test adjusts the findings of a serum creatine test for a variety of parameters, including age, gender, and race. A GFR of 60 or higher is considered normal. A GFR of 60 or less is indicative of renal disease.

Blood urea nitrogen test

The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test looks for urea nitrogen and other waste products in the blood.

When proteins in food break down, urea nitrogen is produced, and high amounts may indicate that the kidneys are not filtering these waste products adequately.

BUN levels typically range from 7 to 20 milligrammes per deciliter. Higher levels could indicate a kidney-related underlying condition.

However, numerous other factors, such as drugs or antibiotics, might impact BUN levels. A diet high in protein may also have an impact on levels.

To acquire a better picture of how successfully the kidney filters this waste, doctors would often compare these results to the results of a creatine test.

Imaging tests

Imaging scans may aid in the detection of any physical abnormalities to the kidneys, such as injuries or kidney stones.

Ultrasounds

To take photos, ultrasound exams use innocuous sound waves. An ultrasound may be ordered by a doctor to check for changes in the shape or position of the kidneys. An ultrasound may also be requested to screen for tumours or obstructions, such as kidney stones.

CT scans

A CT scan is a procedure that employs a sequence of X-ray images to build a 3D image of the kidneys. It could aid in the detection of any structural alterations or deformations in the kidney.

A dye injection is sometimes required for the scan, which might be problematic for people who have kidney disease.

Biopsies

Doctors may recommend a kidney biopsy in some instances. This is a procedure in which a tiny needle is inserted into the kidney to remove renal tissue. The tissue will be sent to a lab for testing by the doctor.

When doctors need to diagnose a specific disease and determine how well it might react to treatment, they may perform a biopsy. A biopsy may also be used to assess the progression of renal disease.

Results

Multiple positive test findings indicate that there is a problem with the kidneys.

Each of these tests provides doctors with a more complete view of a person’s overall kidney health. The scans can also detect renal disease signs, allowing for the ordering of additional tests.

Doctors will strive to completely identify the condition and design a treatment strategy once they have determined that there is a problem with the kidneys.

Kidney failure can be caused by a variety of underlying diseases. In order to discover the best treatment for each instance, a comprehensive diagnosis is required.

Conclusion

Renal function tests are an important element in diagnosing and treating kidney problems. Even if there are no symptoms, some people may need to be tested on a regular basis.

People at increased risk for kidney problems should get frequent kidney function testing, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney DiseasesTrusted Source. Those with the following people are at a high risk:

Regular renal function testing can help detect kidney abnormalities early on, when the outlook is the best.

People can assist prevent the condition from progressing by sticking to a treatment plan. The best method to evaluate and manage any indicators of kidney damage or underlying issues is to work directly with a doctor.

Sources:

  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507821/
  • https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/know-your-kidney-numbers-two-simple-tests
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/325397
  • https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/kidneytests

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Alzheimer's / Dementia

Uses of vitamin B-12 level test: Normal ranges, and results

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The amount of vitamin B-12 in the blood or urine is measured in a vitamin B-12 level test to determine the body’s overall vitamin B-12 reserves.

Vitamin B-12 is required for a variety of body functions, including neuron function, DNA and red blood cell formation.

Treatment is required if a person’s vitamin B-12 levels fall outside of the usual range. Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause neurological symptoms as well as fatigue, constipation, and weight loss. B-12 levels that are too high could indicate liver disease, diabetes, or another condition.

Continue reading to learn more about B-12 testing and what the results indicate.

Purpose of a vitamin B-12 level test

worried lady

The vitamin B-12 level test determines the amount of vitamin B-12 in your body. Doctors can use the data to see if low vitamin B-12 levels are causing symptoms.

If a person exhibits any of the following symptoms, a doctor may recommend a vitamin B-12 level test:

Vitamin B-12 insufficiency

Vitamin B-12 deficiency is thought to affect up to 15% of people in the United States, according to research. The following are signs and symptoms of a deficiency:

  • fast heartbeat
  • numbness and tingling in the hands and feet
  • poor memory
  • a sore mouth or tongue
  • confusion
  • dementia
  • depression
  • difficulty maintaining balance

Vitamin B-12 deficiency in infants can cause them to underachieve. They may have mobility issues in addition to developmental delays.

Pernicious anaemia

A vitamin B-12 level test may be required for people who have signs of low iron. Pernicious anaemia is caused by a lack of vitamin B-12 absorption, resulting in poor red blood cell causes.

It usually affects the elderly or people who are deficient in intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor is a gastric material that binds to vitamin B-12 and allows it to be absorbed by the body.

The following are signs and symptoms of pernicious anaemia:

  • pale skin
  • weakness
  • weight loss
  • constipation
  • fatigue
  • loss of appetite

High levels of folate in the blood

The level of folic acid in the blood is known as serum folate. High levels of serum folate might disguise the signs and symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency, exacerbating the neurological symptoms.

They can also make you more susceptible to anaemia.

Symptoms of other illnesses

Vitamin B-12 levels that are unusually high can be a symptom of liver disease, diabetes, or certain types of leukaemia. The findings of a vitamin B-12 test may be used by a doctor to help them make a diagnosis.

Risk factors

Vitamin B-12 deficiency is more common in some people than in others, especially those with low stomach acid or other digestive problems. Stomach acid helps the body absorb vitamin B-12 more effectively by separating it from meals.

Low vitamin B-12 levels are more common in the following groups of people than in others:

  • people with conditions that reduce vitamin B-12 absorption, including celiac disease and Crohn’s disease
  • people who have had gastric bypass surgery
  • those who are breast-feeding
  • people who are taking medicines such as chloramphenicol, proton pump inhibitors, or H2 blockers
  • older adults
  • children
  • vegans and vegetarians
  • people with diabetes

How does the B-12 vitamin level test work?

Vitamin B-12 status is normally determined by a blood test, but home urine tests are now available. Vitamin B-12 levels can be checked as part of a routine blood test by a doctor.

Although fasting is not required before a B-12 test, it may be necessary if the doctor is utilising the test to check at other blood components.

It is important that patients inform their doctors about any medications or supplements they are taking, as some may have an impact on the outcome.

Acknowledging the results

The following are possible results:

  • Low. Vitamin B-12 levels below 200 pg/mL are considered low. This indicates that you may have a vitamin B-12 deficiency, pernicious anaemia, or an overactive thyroid. Neurological symptoms are common in people who have low vitamin B-12 levels.
  • High. Anything over 900 pg/mL is considered excessively high vitamin B-12 status. This result could indicate problems with the liver or kidneys, diabetes, or certain types of leukaemia.

Because the ranges of results differ from one laboratory to the next, it’s important to talk to a doctor about the results and what they signify.

To rule out vitamin B-12 deficiency, the doctor may measure levels of methylmalonic acid (MMA) and other chemicals. These lab results aid in the early detection of vitamin B-12 deficiency.

Vitamin B-12 deficiency treatment

Vitamin B-12 injections are frequently required by people who have low amounts of the vitamin. These shots are more successful at boosting vitamin B-12 levels than supplements, especially when people have medical issues that make supplements difficult to absorb.

High doses of vitamin B-12 supplements may help some people improve their B-12 status. Supplements are sold in the form of capsules or liquids in pharmacies, supermarkets, health food stores. It may also be beneficial to consume extra vitamin B-12-rich foods.

Treatment for high vitamin B-12 levels

There is no upper limit on vitamin B-12 consumption because high amounts do not cause problems. Having naturally high levels of vitamin B-12 in the body, on the other hand, could be cause for alarm, since it could indicate a serious underlying condition. Doctors will focus on treating the underlying medical condition rather than the vitamin B-12 levels.

Vitamin B-12  foods.

Eggs are rich in vitamin B-12.
Vitamin B-12 is abundant in eggs.

Although low vitamin B-12 levels are frequently caused by absorption problems and other medical conditions, some people may be deficient because they do not acquire enough vitamin B-12 through their food. This is especially true for vegans and vegetarians who have been vegetarian for a long time.

Vitamin B-12-rich foods include:

  • fortified plant-based dairy alternatives
  • fortified breakfast cereals
  • fortified nutritional yeast
  • fish and seafood
  • meat
  • eggs
  • dairy products

Vitamin supplements can help vegans and strict vegetarians make up for dietary deficiencies. Older persons should seek to achieve their vitamin B-12 needs through fortified meals and vitamin supplements, as supplements are simpler for their bodies to absorb than naturally occurring vitamin B-12.

Vitamin B-12 dietary recommendations

Vitamin B-12 is required in 2.4 micrograms (mcg) per day for adults and adolescents over the age of 14. During pregnancy, this rises to 2.6 mcg, and breast-feeding raises it to 2.8 mcg.

Conclusion

Vitamin B-12 is an essential nutrient that is necessary for good health. The status of a person’s vitamin B-12 is determined by a vitamin B-12 level test. This test may be recommended by a doctor to people who have symptoms of a deficiency or who are at risk of having low vitamin B-12 levels in their bodies.

Vitamin B-12 deficiency can be avoided by eating a well-balanced diet that includes many sources of the vitamin on a daily basis, or by taking supplements. If they have trouble absorbing vitamin B-12 from food, oral supplements or injections can help them avoid symptoms and consequences.

Sources:

  • https://academic.oup.com/qjmed/article/106/6/505/1538806
  • https://labtestsonline.org/tests/methylmalonic-acid
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322286
  • https://academic.oup.com/nutritionreviews/article-abstract/71/2/110/1940320
  • https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB12-HealthProfessional/
  • https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/b-12-deficiency/

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Blood / Hematology

Iron deficiency anemia and aging: What to know

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Due to a lack of iron, iron deficiency anemia is a condition in which the body does not produce enough healthy red blood cells. Nutritional deficits, blood loss, the use of certain drugs, and impaired absorption are all possible causes in older people.

Iron is used by the body to make red blood cells (RBCs), which transport oxygen throughout the body. A person may not be able to manufacture enough healthy RBCs to meet the body’s needs if they do not have enough iron. As a result, iron deficiency anemia can be caused as a result, causing symptoms such as weariness, weakness, and shortness of breath.

A person’s food is usually the source of iron. Iron deficiency anemia is caused by a nutritional deficiency or the body’s inability to utilise iron properly. Due to various contributory factors that might influence how the body receives or uses dietary iron, this condition is frequent among older persons.

The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in older people is discussed in this article, as is how to treat and manage the condition.

When to consult a doctor

Anyone over the age of 50 who is having symptoms that could indicate iron deficiency anemia, such as fatigue and shortness of breath, should seek medical advice.

Individuals who have underlying disorders that can limit iron absorption should talk to their doctor about how to lower their risk of iron insufficiency.

condition.

Causes

older adult

Iron deficiency anemia is rather frequent among the elderly. According to 2018 research, 12–47 percent of older persons will acquire some kind of anemia, depending on the community.

According to other studies, anemia is most common in older people, affecting roughly 17% of the population over the age of 65. Iron deficiency anemia, in particular, is thought to account for around one-third of anemia cases in older persons, according to research.

Despite the fact that some cases of iron deficiency anemia are mild, anemia in older persons can lead to a variety of negative consequences, including extended hospital admissions and even death. As a result, even minor cases of anemia will be diagnosed and treated by doctors.

Iron deficiency anemia can be caused by a variety of underlying reasons, with more than one contributing to a person’s diagnosis. These can include the following:

Dietary intake

If the body does not get enough iron to replenish healthy RBCs, low dietary iron intake may cause symptoms. Anemia may be more common in people who follow certain diets, such as vegans, or who do not consciously consume enough iron-rich foods.

Other vitamin deficiencies

Even with a high-iron diet, a person who is deficient in other vitamins is at risk of developing iron deficiency anemia. B vitamin deficiencies, such as vitamin B12 or vitamin B9, also known as folic acid or folate, are also common and can affect iron absorption.

Malabsorption

Even a high iron intake may not be enough to balance iron levels if the body cannot use iron efficiently, such as owing to a gastrointestinal condition. As a result of health problems that affect iron absorption, iron deficiency anemia can cause as a side effect.

Erythropoietin deficiency

The hormone erythropoietin (EPO) is produced by the kidneys. EPO aids in the formation and repair of red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia can be caused by conditions that alter EPO levels. Kidney diseases and hormone-related disorders are examples of these problems.

Bleeding

Anemia can develop if a person loses enough healthy RBCs as a result of bleeding. As the skin ages and thins, external bleeding is more frequent, making cuts and scratches more likely. It’s also possible that these wounds and scrapes will take longer to heal.

Internal bleeding, such as ulcers or stomach or intestine problems, can lower the quantity of healthy RBCs in the body and cause iron deficiency anemia. Internal bleeding can cause as a result of trauma or injury, resulting in blood loss.

Internal bleeding is a risk with some drugs or combinations of medications, especially when used for a long time. People in medical care who require regular testing may be subjected to a high number of blood draws, which could exacerbate the problem.

In many people, bleeding may be a contributing reason to RBC depletion and anemia. According to a 2018 study, the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia in elderly people is bleeding from drugs and underlying diseases.

Medications

The RBC count can be affected by a variety of drugs. Medications that impact the kidneys or hormones can cause the formation of RBCs by causing chemical imbalances.

Medications that disrupt digestion might make it difficult for the body to metabolize iron and other important vitamins like B vitamins. Chemotherapy medications, for example, can harm the bone marrow, which is crucial for producing healthy RBCs. Some drug combinations may have unknown side effects that affect how the body creates or uses RBCs.

It is recommended that people review the probable side effects of a drug and speak with a doctor about the probability of a drug creating signs of iron deficiency anemia.

H. pylori infection

Some infections might cause the body’s ability to utilise iron. According to a 2019 study, Helicobacter pylori infections are widespread in the elderly, affecting up to 50% of people over the age of 60. Anemia is one of the complications of H. pylori infections.

Chronic diseases

Chronic illnesses can cause a variety of problems in the body, including problems with RBCs and other systems involved in the production or usage of RBCs. Here are a few examples:

  • cancers
  • ulcers
  • liver disease
  • kidney disease
  • conditions in the intestines or stomach

When rendering a diagnosis, doctors will take into account any underlying disorders.

Inflammatory disorders

Chronic inflammation in the body can be caused by a variety of factors. Inflammation can interfere with basic activities like RBC production, depending on the nature and location of the inflammation. Anyone with a chronic inflammatory condition or another issue that causes long-term inflammation should talk to their doctor about their risk.

Symptoms

Anemia symptoms differ from person to person, but here are a few frequent ones:

  • shortness of breath
  • headaches
  • fatigue
  • weakness
  • rapid heartbeat
  • chest pain

Light-skinned people may notice that their complexion becomes paler or slightly yellow.

Diagnosis

Blood tests will be used to determine anemia.

A complete blood count (CBC) test can assist determine the different types of blood cells and other blood components, such as hemoglobin, an oxygen-carrying protein. A low hemoglobin count can imply anemia and a low RBC count.

A packed cell volume (PCV) test may also be used to determine hematocrit levels. The percentage of RBCs in the blood is measured by the hematocrit level. A PCV test can reveal whether a person has too few RBCs, indicating anemia.

Doctors may employ follow-up testing in addition to blood tests to look for other important anemia-related issues. A C-reactive protein test to search for inflammatory indicators or a reticulocyte count to assess bone marrow production may be performed. They may also look for the following things:

  • abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract
  • blood in the urine or stool
  • H. pylori infection
  • sufficient levels of B vitamins
  • kidney function

Treatment

Depending on the underlying cause and degree of anemia, doctors may offer several treatment options. Because various causes may be contributing to the condition, treatment will differ from case to case.

To raise the person’s iron levels, a doctor may prescribe supplemental iron in the form of medications, dietary iron, or intravenous iron.

If anemia is caused by an underlying condition, the doctor will seek condition for it. This may help them uncover other underlying causes of anemia or resolve the anemia.

If a doctor feels a prescription or a combination of medications is causing anemia, they may suggest alternate treatments if they are available. Alternatively, they may offer alternative methods of managing anemia until the person is able to stop using the medicine.

Management and suggestions

A person with iron deficiency anemia must ensure that their diet contains enough iron and other essential minerals.

The following are some suggestions for doing so:

  • consuming more iron-rich meals such as dark leafy greens, meat, and beans
  • Iron absorption can be improved by eating foods high in vitamin C, B9, and B12
  • avoiding foods that may interfere with iron absorption, such as dairy and meals high in phytic acid
  • taking iron supplements with food can help to alleviate the burning sensation in the stomach

Conclusion

Iron deficiency anemia is frequent in elderly people, and it can be caused by a variety of reasons. Blood loss, nutritional deficiencies, medicines, underlying diseases, and malabsorption are all possible causes of iron deficiency anemia in this age range.

Individuals who are having iron deficiency anemia symptoms should consult a doctor for a diagnosis. The doctor should be able to advise you on how to boost your dietary iron intake or address any underlying issues that are preventing you from absorbing iron.

Sources:

  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6745992/
  • https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12879-019-3849-y
  • https://www.hematology.org/education/patients/anemia/iron-deficiency
  • https://irondisorders.org/iron-deficiency-anemia/
  • https://irondisorders.org/elderly/
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/iron-deficiency-anemia-in-elderly
  • https://gut.bmj.com/content/70/11/2030.info
  • https://ashpublications.org/blood/article/131/5/505/104393

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