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Ear, Nose and Throat

What you need to know about Sjogren’s syndrome

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Sjogren’s is a progressive immune-system disorder. It is an autoimmune condition, meaning that the immune system wrongly attacks healthy tissues and cells.

It occurs when saliva glands, tear glands, and other exocrine tissues are invaded by white blood cells, leading to reduced development of tear and saliva. Dryness in the mouth, eyes, skin, nose, upper respiratory tract, and vagina may result.

Some autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic erythematosus lupus, and primary biliary cholangitis, are associated with it.

Primary Sjogren’s develops on its own, although another condition, such as lupus, co-occurs with secondary Sjogren’s. The symptoms are equivalent, and both may be severe.

Sjogren’s is a serious condition, but early treatment may mean that complications are less likely to occur and it is less likely to cause tissue damage. If treated, the disorder may typically be well handled by a person.

Sjogren’s may occur at any age, but most diagnoses are made after 40 years of age. The patient is female in 90% of cases, but it also affects males and may be under-diagnosed.

In the United States, it affects about 0.1 to 4 percent of individuals.

Important facts about Sjogren’s

  • Sjogren’s is an autoimmune disorder that affects moisture-producing glands.
  • The condition affects 0.1 to 4 percent of people in the U.S., and 90 percent of people with Sjogren’s are women.
  • It causes the eyes and mouth to dry out, and can also lead to tooth decay, recurring oral thrush, and a persistent dry cough.
  • Sjogren’s affects multiple systems and can be difficult to diagnosis. However, blood tests, ophthalmological testing, and measuring the salivary flow rate can help identify the condition. A biopsy of the lower lip can be important in the diagnosis, especially if the hallmark autoantibodies SSA (Ro), and SSB (La) are negative, which can occur in up to 30% of biopsy positive cases.
  • Prescribed eye drops, artificial tears, and moisture chamber spectacles can help to relieve dry eyes.
  • Other medications can help to stimulate the flow of saliva. Chewing sugar-free gum can help lubricate the mouth, and numerous saliva substitutes are available to try.

Symptoms

Sjogren’s causes painful and irritating dryness of the eyes
Sjogren’s causes painful and irritating dryness of the eyes as well as other symptoms.

Failure to provide moisture for the eyes and dry mouth, accompanied by joint pain (arthritis/arthralgia), is the most common symptom associated with Sjogren’s.

Vaginal dryness can also be reported by females.

Other symptoms can include:

  • tooth decay, and eventual loss of teeth
  • persistent dry mouth
  • persistent dry cough
  • problems chewing and swallowing
  • hoarse voice
  • difficulty speaking
  • swollen salivary glands
  • recurring oral thrush, a fungal infection in the mouth

The signs and symptoms associated with dry eyes include:

  • a sensation in one or both eyes similar to the irritation caused by foreign material, such as sand or gravel
  • tired-looking and heavy eyes
  • an itchy sensation
  • constant feeling of irritation in the eyes
  • persistent dry eyes
  • discharge of mucus from the eyes
  • photophobia, or sensitivity to light
  • stinging or burning eyes
  • swollen and irritated eyelids
  • blurred vision

Symptoms may be aggravated by smoking, air travel, overhead fans, and air-conditioned or windy conditions.

In certain cases, other areas of the body are attacked by a patient’s immune system, causing the following signs and symptoms:

  • general tiredness
  • brain fog
  • aching muscles
  • inflammation of joints, as well as stiffness and pain
  • swelling in the salivary glands between the jaw and ears
  • peripheral neuropathy, or numbness and occasional pain in the arms or legs
  • small fiber neuropathy, which can be diagnosed by a skin biopsy
  • lung disease (bronchiolitis, interstitial lung disease, cystic lung disease)
  • Raynaud’s phenomenon, in which the hands feel painful, cold and numb
  • vasculitis, where the blood vessels become inflamed

Diet

Unless the doctor recommends one, there is no specific diet for Sjogren’s.

However, alcohol should be avoided. People may also wish to avoid foods, such as spicy or acidic products, that irritate the mouth.

Sugar-free (xylitol) lozenges can help keep the mouth moist.

To make food easier to swallow:

  • use sauces, olive oil, or dressings to lubricate food
  • have a drink alongside your food
  • use a drinking straw to make swallowing easier
  • put cucumber in a sandwich, to add moisture
  • increase fluid intake

Choosing a healthy diet high in fresh fruit and vegetables and low in saturated fats and sugar is the best choice. Some ingredients, such as artificial sweeteners, are suspected to cause an inflammatory reaction. It might be best to stop them.

It may be helpful to maintain a food diary to recognise any particular foods that may cause a reaction or exacerbate symptoms.

Treatment

Eye drops and artificial tears are effective methods of managing dry eyes.
Eye drops and artificial tears are effective methods of managing dry eyes.

The treatment of Sjogren is aimed at lubricating the infected areas and preventing the onset of complications.

Treatment options include:

  • Medications to stimulate saliva flow: These include pilocarpine and cevimeline. They have a short-term impact, limited to a few hours only, so several doses a day are usually required.
  • Artificial saliva: Saliva substitutes and mouth-coating gels can relieve dryness of the mouth. They are available as sprays, pre-treated swabs, and liquids. These can be important at night, as the mouth becomes dryer during sleep.
  • Artificial tears: Artificial tears can help to lubricate the eyes, and are available over-the-counter (OTC). Prescription options are available that reduce the need for artificial tears, such as cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion and hydroxypropyl cellulose pellets.
  • Prescription eye drops: These include cyclosporine and lifitegrast.
  • Moisture chamber spectacles: These are special glasses that keep out irritants and retain moisture.
  • Prescription expectorants and throat medications: In cases of respiratory dryness, drugs such as those used to stimulate saliva flow, as well as linseed extract, sorbitol, xylitol, or malic acid, can moisturize the area.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): Anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin, naproxen, and ibuprofen can provide relief for people with Sjogren’s who are experiencing joint pain.
  • Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs): In cases where the joint pain is accompanied by fatigue and rashes, DMARDs may relieve symptoms. Examples include hydroxychloroquine or methotrexate. If Sjogren’s seems to be affecting the muscles, nerves, lungs, or kidneys, stronger DMARDs, corticosteroids, or rituximab may be prescribed.
  • Antifungal medication: If oral yeast infections are occurring, medication may be prescribed to combat the fungus.
  • Vaginal lubricants: For vaginal dryness, water-based vaginal lubricants can provide a solution, especially during sexual intercourse.
  • Punctual occlusion: When all conservative treatment options have been exhausted, this surgical option seals the tear ducts with small plugs to reduce the drainage of tears from the eye. This keeps the eye moist for longer. Temporary silicone plugs are likely to be used until the procedure is confirmed successful.
  • Autologous eye serum: In severe cases of eye dryness, eye drops can be made from the person’s blood serum.

Here are some easy ways to keep the mouth lubricated.

  • consuming more liquids.
  • rinsing the mouth regularly to prevent infection and soothe the area
  • maintaining excellent oral and dental hygiene
  • topical fluoride gels or varnish
  • quitting smoking, as smoke irritates the mouth and speeds up the evaporation of saliva
  • chewing sugar-free gum, which stimulates the production of saliva
  • applying coconut oil to the dry areas, as it is both moisturizing and anti-microbial

Diagnosis

It can also be difficult to diagnose, since Sjogren’s signs and symptoms are similar to certain other health conditions. Different health practitioners may be seen by the patient, perhaps a dentist for dry mouth and tooth decay, a vaginal dryness gynecologist, and an ophthalmologist for dry eyes, a breathlessness and persistent cough pulmonologist.

Some drugs can also cause symptoms that are similar to Sjogren’s.

The conditions that will be used in a clinical trial for a definitive diagnosis include:

  • the need to apply eye drops containing tears more than 3 times a day
  • persistent dry eyes and mouth for over 3 months
  • evidence of dry eye in ophthalmological test results
  • measuring salivary flow rates
  • SSA or SSB autoantibodies in blood
  • a lip biopsy showing focal lymphocytic inflammation

Tests

Sjogren’s presents in different ways in different people. Some more tests may be ordered by a doctor, including:

Blood tests: Sjogren’s allows special antibodies to be found in the blood. Because only about 60 to 70 percent of people with Sjogren’s have these antibodies, a negative outcome does not mean that the disease can be ruled out. This also creates confusion during the initial diagnosis.

Ophthalmological tests: The Rose Bengal, Lissamine green, and Schirmer eye tests can be conducted by an ophthalmologist. In order to expose dry areas of the eye, dyes and blotting paper are used.

Salivary flow rate: over 5 minutes, the physician calculates the weight of the saliva produced in a cup. This can mean Sjogren’s, if insufficient saliva is made.

Sialogram: In the parotid glands, a dye is injected. To assess how much saliva flows into the patient’s mouth, an X-ray is then taken. Increasingly, this practice is used less.

Salivary scintigraphy: To measure the activity of salivary glands, a radioactive isotope is injected and monitored by imaging.

X-ray or CT-scan of the chest: This measures the presence of inflammation that can be caused by Sjogren’s in the lungs.

Nerve fiber stain skin biopsy: This decides the presence of small fiber neuropathy (SFN).

Urine testing: The urine is sampled and analyzed to determine whether it has damaged the kidneys.

Rash

Purpura, a type of vasculitis
Purpura, a type of vasculitis, may occur.

People with Sjogren’s, especially after spending time in the sun, may be more prone to a rash.

Problems with the skin that occur with the condition can appear as:

  • xerosis, or dry, rough skin
  • small “blood spots” or purpura on the lower legs due to vasculitis, or inflammation of the blood vessels
  • vasculitic skin lesions that may appear as weals, lumps, blisters, or ulcers
  • red, ring-shaped lesions with a pale area in the middle, known as annular erythema

It can help avoid dry skin by using a good moisturizer. The doctor can prescribe drugs to suppress the immune system, such as cyclophosphamide, if vasculitis occurs.

Complications

Sjogren’s comes with serious complications if left untreated, including:

  • an increased risk of lymphoma and multiple myeloma
  • oral yeast infections
  • dental cavities
  • vision problems
  • inflammation leading to bronchitispneumonia, and other lung problems
  • kidney function problems
  • autoimmune hepatitis or cirrhosis in the liver
  • giving birth to a baby with heart problems or lupus
  • peripheral neuropathy
  • interstitial cystitis of the bladder

It is important to seek treatment for Sjogren’s as early as possible to prevent these.

Causes

Sjogren’s is caused by white blood cells.
Sjogren’s is caused by white blood cells mistakenly attacking moisture-producing glands.

Sjogren’s causes remain largely unidentified.

Studies have shown that the disease can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, but that the underlying cause is mostly genetic and environmental. Also involved in the onset of Sjogren’s is the nervous system and the endocrine, or hormone-producing, system.

An environmental factor, such as infection with hepatitis C or the Epstein-Barr virus, can change the immune system and cause immune problems later on.

As the majority of people who develop Sjogren’s are female, one theory is that a significant role is played by estrogen, a female hormone. However this is still not understood.

The most common time for a diagnosis to be made of Sjogren’s is menopause. Some studies theorize that Sjogren’s is covered by estrogen, and dropping hormone levels can alter immune function and cause the condition.

For Sjogren, there’s no cure. An individual with the condition can however, maintain a good quality of life by successfully managing the dryness of the affected regions and treating any affected organs.

A variety of clinical research projects are currently in progress focused on discovering new treatments for Sjogren’s.

Ear, Nose and Throat

Symptoms, treatment, and causes of ear infections

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Infections in the middle ear can be caused by viruses or bacteria. These frequently cause in pain, inflammation, and fluid accumulation.

Before they become three years old, almost 75% of youngsters will have had at least one ear infection. The most common reason for a child’s visit to the doctor is an ear infection.

Glue ear, secretory otitis media, middle ear infection, and serous otitis media are all terms for ear infections.

Infections of the ear are widely understood, and their frequent recurrence necessitates ongoing investigation. This article discusses the symptoms and causes of ear infections, as well as the treatment choices and diagnostic methods available.

What is it?

ear infections

A bacterial or viral infection of the middle ear is known as an ear infection. Inflammation and fluid buildup in the ear’s interior cavities are caused by this infection.

The middle ear is a space behind the eardrum that is filled with air. It has vibrating bones that translate sound from outside the ear into messages that the brain can understand.

Ear infections hurt because the swelling and accumulation of extra fluid puts pressure on the eardrum.

An ear infection can be acute or chronic. Chronic ear infections might harm the middle ear permanently.

Causes

An ear infection is frequently preceded by a cold, flu, or allergic reaction. These increase mucus in the sinuses, causing the eustachian tubes to discharge fluid slowly. The nasal passages, throat, and eustachian tubes will all be inflamed during the initial illness.

The role of eustachian tubes

The eustachian tubes run from the middle ear to the throat’s rear. These tubes’ ends open and reopen to control air pressure in the middle ear, restock air, and drain natural secretions.

The eustachian tubes can become blocked due to a respiratory infection or allergies, resulting in an accumulation of fluid in the middle ear. If this fluid becomes bacterially contaminated, infection may result.

Young children’s eustachian tubes are smaller and more horizontal than those of older children and adults. This implies that fluid is more likely to pool in the tubes instead of draining away, raising the risk of ear infection.

The role of adenoids

Adenoids are tissue pads found in the back of the nasal cavity. They respond to bacteria and viruses in the air and help the immune system function. The adenoids, on the other hand, can sometimes trap bacteria. The eustachian tubes and middle ear may get infected and inflamed as a result of this.

The adenoids are adjacent to the eustachian tube entrances and can cause the tubes to close if they expand. The adenoids in children are larger and more active than those in adults. Children are more likely to get ear infections as a result of these factors.

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms in adults are simple. Adults with ear infections suffer from ear pain and pressure, as well as ear fluid and hearing loss. Children are exposed to a broader spectrum of symptoms. These are some of them:

  • ear pain, especially when lying down
  • difficulty sleeping
  • difficulty hearing
  • fever
  • lack of appetite
  • headache
  • tugging or pulling at the ear
  • crying more than normal
  • loss of balance

Types

In general, there are three types of ear infections.

Acute otitis media (AOM)

The most common and least dangerous type of ear infection is AOM. The fluid beneath the eardrum gets infected and bloated, and the middle ear becomes infected and swollen. Fever is another possibility.

Otitis media with effusion (OME)

There may be some fluid behind the eardrum after an ear infection has cleared. Although a person with OME may not show symptoms, a doctor will be able to detect any lingering fluid.

Chronic otitis media with effusion (COME)

COME refers to fluid returning to the middle ear on a regular basis, whether or not an infection is present. This reduces your ability to fight other infections and has a detrimental influence on your hearing.

Diagnosis

Ear infection testing is a simple procedure, and a diagnosis can often be determined solely on the basis of symptoms.

To examine for fluid behind the eardrum, the doctor will usually use an otoscope, which is a light-attached tool.

A pneumatic otoscope is sometimes used by a doctor to check for infection. This device uses a puff of air to check for retained fluid in the ear. The eardrum will move less than normal if there is any fluid behind it.

If the doctor is unsure, he or she may perform further tests to confirm a middle ear infection.

Tympanometry

The doctor employs a device that shuts up the ear canal and changes the pressure inside it. The eardrum movement is measured by the instrument. This allows the doctor to determine the middle ear pressure.

Acoustic reflectometry

The eardrum is bouncing sound against the eardrum in this technique. The amount of sound that bounces back shows the level of fluid buildup. The bulk of sound is absorbed by a healthy ear, whereas an infected ear reflects more soundwaves.

Tympanocentesis

A clinician may employ tympanocentesis if an ear infection has not responded well to treatment. A small hole is made in the eardrum and a small amount of fluid is drained from the inner ear during this treatment. The infection’s cause can then be determined using this fluid.

Treatments

Antibiotic treatment is required for infants under the age of six months to help prevent the spread of infection. Amoxicillin is frequently used as an antibiotic.

Unless the kid shows signs of a severe infection, doctors usually recommend monitoring the child without antibiotics for children aged 6 months to 2 years.

Ear infections usually go away on their own, and the only prescription required is pain relief. Antibiotics are only used in circumstances that are more serious or last longer.

The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) advises patients to be on the lookout for:

  • children aged 6 to 23 months who have experienced mild inner ear pain in one ear for less than 48 hours and a temperature of less than 102.2° Fahrenheit (39° Celsius)
  • children aged 24 months and over with mild inner ear pain in one or both ears for less than 48 hours and a temperature of less than 102.2°F

Antibiotics are rarely recommended for children above the age of two. Antibiotic resistance develops as a result of overuse. Serious infections may become more difficult to treat as a result of this.

For persistent infections, the AAFP recommends acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or eardrops as pain relievers. These are useful for reducing fever and pain.

A warm compress, such as a towel, can help to relieve the pain in the affected ear.

If you have recurrent ear infections for several months or a year, your doctor may recommend a myringotomy. A surgeon creates a small cut in the eardrum to allow the build-up of fluid to be released.

To help air out the middle ear and prevent future fluid buildup, a very small myringotomy tube is implanted. These tubes are typically left in place for 6 to 12 months before falling out naturally rather than requiring manual removal.

Prevention

  • Ear infections are very frequent, particularly among children. This is linked to a developing immune system and variations in ear architecture. There is no surefire way to avoid infection, however there are a few things you can do to lower your chances:
  • Ear infections are less common in children who have been vaccinated. Inquire with your doctor about immunizations for meningitis, pneumococcal disease, and the flu.
  • Wash your hands, as well as your child’s, frequently. This can help your child avoid having colds and flu by preventing bacteria from spreading to them.
  • Second-hand smoking should never be exposed to a child. Ear infections are more common in infants who spend time with people who smoke.
  • If at all possible, breastfeed infants. This aids in the improvement of their resistance.
  • Feeding a newborn from a bottle while sitting up reduces the risk of milk going into the middle ear. When a baby is lying down, do not allow them to sip on a bottle.
  • Allow your child to play with ill children as little as possible, and limit their exposure to group care or big groups of children.
  • Antibiotics should only be used when needed. Ear infections are more common in children who have had an ear infection in the last three months, especially if antibiotics were used to treat it.

Ear infections are a common occurrence in most children’s lives. They can be unpleasant and debilitating, but if appropriately handled, they pose very few long-term issues.

Sources:

  • http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001480.pub4/abstract
  • http://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1001/p435.html
  • http://cmr.asm.org/content/16/2/230.full
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/167409
  • http://www.aafp.org/patient-care/clinical-recommendations/all/otitis-media.html
  • https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/50th-anniversary/pdfs/fs_smoking_youth_508.pdf
  • https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/211068
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25156728

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Dermatology

Causes, symptoms, treatment of psoriasis in the ears

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Psoriasis is a skin condition caused by an autoimmune disease. In some parts of the body, such as the ears, a thick layer of skin cells can form.

It usually affects the elbows, knees, legs, back, and scalp, although it can also affect more sensitive body parts.

Psoriasis is the most common autoimmune condition in the United States, and it comes in a variety of degrees of severity.

This article discusses the causes of psoriasis in the ears as well as treatment alternatives.

What is psoriasis?

psoriasism in ear

Psoriasis is caused by an overactive immune system, which causes the fast development of extra skin cells. Experts aren’t sure whatcauses causing it.

It takes roughly 28 days for healthy skin cells to form. The body eliminates old skin cells during this time to make place for new ones.

In people with psoriasis, the body produces new skin cells every 3 to 4 days, leaving little time for old cells to slough.

This results in the accumulation of old and new cells on the affected areas, resulting in thick, red or silvery scales. These scales are often itchy, crack, and bleed, and they can be uncomfortable.

Researchers are still trying to figure out why psoriasis arises in certain parts of the body, including why some people get it in their ears while others don’t. They do know, however, that it cannot be passed from person to person.

According to a report published in the journal American Family Physician, psoriasis is not contagious. Scratching or touching does not cause psoriasis or transfer it to other parts of the body.

Psoriasis around the ears

People with psoriasis in their ears are extremely uncommon. However, if this occurs, an individual’s emotional and physical well-being may be jeopardised.

Psoriasis can cause the skin rough and scaly. Self-consciousness may be felt by people who have symptoms on their face and ears.

Because the skin on the face is frequently more delicate than that on the elbows, knees, and scalp, some treatments may be excessively harsh for this area. As a result, ear psoriasis might be more difficult to cure.

A blockage can occur if scales and wax build up inside the ear. Itching, pain, and hearing loss may cause from this obstruction.

Scales should be kept out of the ear canal to avoid hearing loss and discomfort.

Psoriasis might worsen over time for certain people. This can happen when something sparks a flare, but it’s often unknown why some people’s psoriasis spreads or worsens. New parts of the body, such as the ears, can be affected at any time.

There is no link between psoriasis in the ears and cleanliness, contact, or other things.

Anyone with psoriasis in their ears should see a doctor to find out which psoriasis treatments are safe to use in their ears.

Treatment

Although there is no cure for psoriasis, it is generally managed with treatments.

People who have psoriasis in their ears may need constant medical attention to keep flares under control and avoid problems like hearing loss.

Some psoriasis drugs should not be used in the ears. Certain topical lotions and ointments, for example, may irritate the fragile eardrum. People should inquire about drugs that are safe for the ear canal with their doctor.

Among the treatment options available are:

  • Eardrops containing liquid steroids.
  • In addition, liquid steroids may be used in conjunction with another psoriasis treatment, such as a vitamin D cream.
  • Shampoos with antifungal properties to help clean the ear and kill fungus.
  • Medications that help the immune system work more efficiently.
  • A few drops of heated olive oil to moisturise and remove wax inside the ears and keep them clean

If psoriasis in the ear causes discomfort or interferes with hearing, a specialist can safely and effectively remove the scales and wax.

It is critical not to attempt to remove the scales by inserting things into the ears.

Pushing the debris deeper into the ear can cause in a blockage, eardrum damage, or skin injury.

A doctor may give a systemic drug if the symptoms are mild to severe. Biologics, a relatively new class of medications, can treat the underlying causes of psoriasis.

Causes

The causes of psoriasis differ from individual to person. Certain factors can briefly aggravate psoriasis before it returns to normal for some people.

Others see their scales and other symptoms get worse over time.

In any case, psoriasis people should strive to avoid triggers wherever feasible. Those who have psoriasis in their ears may notice that a flare affects their hearing, which can be extremely aggravating and frustrating.

The following are some of the most common psoriasis triggers:

  • Stress: While it may not always be feasible to avoid the causes of stress, being able to manage it can help prevent flare-ups. Relaxation, exercise, deep breathing, and meditation may all be beneficial.
  • Medications: Certain medications, such as those for high blood pressure, heart disease, arthritis, mental health disorders, and malaria, might aggravate psoriasis. People with psoriasis should work with their doctors to discover treatments that do not exacerbate their condition.
  • Cuts, scrapes, sunburn, and other skin injuries: Any type of skin trauma might cause in a new case of psoriasis in the affected area.
  • Certain illnesses: When an infection strikes, the immune system goes into overdrive. This can also cause psoriasis flare-ups. Strep throat, ear infections, tonsillitis, and even regular colds can all cause flare-ups.

Avoiding triggers, whether on the ears, face, or other parts of the body, is an important component of controlling this condition.

Hearing loss and psoriasis

Even if psoriasis does not damage the skin in and around the ears, a person may nevertheless experience hearing loss.

People with psoriasis are more prone to acquire abrupt deafness, according to a study published in the American Journal of Clinical Dermatology.

This type of hearing loss might happen in a matter of minutes or over the course of a few days. People over the age of 50 are more likely to be affected by it.

The cause of sudden deafness in psoriasis is unknown, however it could be linked to the immune system harming part of the inner ear. Within 2–3 weeks, almost half of those who have abrupt deafness regain some or all of their hearing.

Doctors may advise that people with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis have regular hearing tests to ensure that any abnormalities are detected and treated early.

Living with psoriasis in the ears

Many people suffer from psoriasis, which can be emotionally and physically draining, but with the help of a doctor, they can generally manage the condition.

Finding an effective treatment, whether the flares occur in the ears or elsewhere, is critical to reducing symptoms and flares.

Hearing tests and ear examinations should be done on a regular basis for people who have psoriasis in their ears so that any difficulties can be addressed as soon as feasible.

Because everyone with psoriasis reacts to drugs differently, finding the proper treatment may take some time. Some people’s psoriasis medicine stops working over time, necessitating the use of a different treatment.

People with psoriasis should be able to live full, active lives once they find a suitable treatment.

Conclusion

Psoriasis is a painful, long-term skin condition that can affect the inside and outside of the ear.

It is more difficult to treat than psoriasis elsewhere on the body when it does this. Hearing loss can occur as a result of the condition, both temporary and permanent. Although a complete treatment is not yet attainable, people can control their symptoms with condition and live a normal life.

To avoid serious flare-ups, get regular hearing tests and consultations.

Sources:

  • https://www.psoriasis.org/about-psoriasis/causes
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4797675/
  • https://www.jaad.org/article/S0190-9622(18)33001-9/fulltext
  • https://www.psoriasis.org/about-psoriasis/specific-locations/face
  • https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/scaly-skin/psoriasis
  • http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/psoriasis/default.asp
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/314768
  • http://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0301/p715.html
  • https://www.psoriasis.org/content/statistics
  • https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/sudden-deafness
  • http://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/psoriatic-arthritis/what-is-psoriatic-arthritis.php
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25687690

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Complementary Medicine / Alternative Medicine

9 powerful earache home treatments

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Earaches are often dismissed as a small annoyance, but they can be really painful. Some home cures can help while you wait for medical attention or antibiotics to take effect.

Ear pain can be excruciating, making it difficult to sleep, eat, or do much else other than think about it. An earache is particularly tough for many children to live with.

People with significant ear pain should always consult a doctor, especially if it is their first time. However, there are several home treatments that can be used to relieve less severe earaches or to reduce pain.

This article looks at nine excellent home remedies for people who are suffering from ear pain.

Causes of ear pain

ear pain

The most prevalent cause of ear pain is ear infections. Inflammation and pressure building in the ear when it becomes infected can cause excruciating pain.

Because infections from other parts of the body can impact the ear, people with ear infections frequently experience other symptoms such as sinus pressure or a sore throat. An ear infection can also be treated as a separate condition. The majority of ear infections are caused by bacteria rather than viruses.

An ear infection can only be diagnosed by a doctor. Antibiotics should not be taken without a prescription, nor should symptoms be mistaken for an ear infection.

Earaches, on the other hand, are not usually caused by an ear infection. Ear pain can be caused by a variety of factors.

These are some of them:

  • Referred pain: Infections or inflammation elsewhere in the body could cause this. A toothache, for example, might cause agonising pain in the ear.
  • Chronic conditions: TMJ (temporomandibular joint) disorder is one of them.
    Infections of the skin: If they’re in or near your ear.
  • Allergic reactions: These could come from a variety of sources, including soap, shampoo, and jewellery.
  • Water: If it becomes stuck in the ear, it might cause pain.
  • Pressure: Changes in altitude might have an impact on ear pressure. This normally goes away on its own, with a popping sound.

Ear infections can spread to the jaw and other parts of the body if not addressed. They can also cause the ear and result in dangerously high fevers.

People should see a doctor if they have symptoms of an ear condition that do not go away on their own after a day or two. People should seek medical help right once if the pain is severe, accompanied by a high fever, or includes hearing loss.

9 earache home treatments

If an earache isn’t too bad, or if a person is waiting for medical treatment to work, they might want to try these home remedies to reduce the pain.

Here are nine great home remedies for people who are suffering from ear pain:

1. OTC (over-the-counter) drugs

NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications) can temporarily relieve earache pain. People who are suffering from ear pain should attempt the following remedies:

It’s important to remember that giving aspirin to newborns and young children is dangerous. This is due to the risk of Reye’s syndrome, a potentially fatal condition.

Before giving over-the-counter medications to a kid under the age of two, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advises parents to consult a doctor.

In newborns and young children, these medications can have substantial negative effects. It’s also worth noting that the recommended dosage for children is frequently lower than the recommended dosage for adults.

2. Heat

Heat from an electric heating pad or a hot pack can help to relieve ear inflammation and pain.

For 20 minutes, place a heat pad in the ear. People should use the heated pad to massage their neck and throat for the best benefits.

The heating pad should not be too hot to bear. Never fall asleep with a heating pad on your body, and never let a child use a hot pack without adult supervision.

3. Cold

An earache can be relieved with the use of a cold pack.

Wrap ice in paper towels or use a cold pack that has been frozen and then covered with a light cloth. For 20 minutes, apply this to the ear and the area immediately beneath the ear.

The cold should not be painful, and parents should not apply ice to their children’s skin.

Heat, rather than cold, provides relief for some people. Others find that alternating heat and cold packs (20 minutes hot, 20 minutes cold) provides the most effective pain relief.

4. Ear drops

Fluid and earwax can cause pressure in the ear, which can be relieved using ear drops.

Before using ear drops on a child, people should read the recommendations carefully and consult a doctor.

People should only use ear drops for a few days because they are not a substitute for prescription ear drops or antibiotics. People should see a doctor if their symptoms reoccur.

It’s important to note that ear drops should not be used on a youngster who has tubes in his or her ears or whose eardrum has ruptured.

5. Massage

Ear pain that radiates from the jaw or teeth, or that causes a tension headache, can be relieved with gentle massage.

The tender area, as well as any surrounding muscles, can be massaged. Massage the muscles of the jaw and neck, for example, if the area behind the ear hurts.

Massage may also aid in the relief of ear infection pain.

  • Apply downward pressure starting just behind the ears and moving down the neck.
  • Work your way forward to the front of the ears while continuing to apply downward pressure.

This form of massage may aid in the drainage of extra fluid from the ears, as well as preventing the pain from worsening.

6. Garlic

Garlic has long been used as a pain reliever in folk medicine. It may have antibacterial characteristics that can help fight infection, according to some research.

It should not be used as a substitute for antibiotics prescribed by a doctor. Instead, consider include garlic in your antibiotic regimen to hasten relief.

Try eating a garlic clove every day to prevent ear infections.

Garlic ear drops may also help to relieve pain and prevent infection from worsening. Cook two or three cloves till brown in two teaspoons mustard or sesame seed oil, then strain. After that, put a drop or two in each ear.

7. Onions

Onions, like garlic, can help fight infection and relieve pain. Onions, like garlic, are not a substitute for medical care.

Microwave an onion for a minute or two to soften it. After that, filter the liquid and put a few drops in each ear. Allowing the liquid to leak out of the ear after lying down for 10 minutes is a good idea. As needed, repeat the process.

8. Sucking

Sucking can assist relieve pressure in the Eustachian tubes by reducing pressure in the tubes.

Allowing and encouraging nursing babies to nurse as frequently as possible may make them feel better. Hard candy or cough drops can be sucked by both adults and children.

9. Breast milk

Antimicrobial characteristics are found in breast milk. According to certain studies, a mother’s breast milk alters depending on the bacteria that a newborn is exposed to.

This suggests that in babies, breast milk is the most effective. Adults, on the other hand, may benefit from breast milk, according to some authorities. To gain the maximum benefits from breast milk, infants and children should continue to nurse.

Topical administration of breast milk to nursing babies, children, and adults may also be beneficial. Breast milk is unlikely to cause any major negative effects, even if it doesn’t.

People can try putting a few drops of breast milk in each ear and repeating the procedure as needed.

Sources:

  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10594976
  • http://www.webmd.com/cold-and-flu/ear-infection/tc/ear-infections-home-treatment
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4232055/
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/318057
  • https://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm263989.htm
  • http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/09/21/earache-home-remedies.aspx
  • http://www.reyessyndrome.org/aspirin.html

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